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The Indiana Quarterly 
Magazine of History 



Volume I— 1905 



George S. Cottman 
Indianapolis Indiana 
Editor and Poblishbr 



i. 



I ' 



The Indiana Quarterly 
Magazine of History 



Volume I— 1905 



George S. Cottman 
Indianapolis Indiana 
Editor and Publisher 



i. 



, - .•• 



-^*-^^ H. Mu^ 



The Indiana Magazine of History 

VOL. I First Quarter, 1905 no. i 



Our Reasons for Being. 

BY way of introducing this magazine and justifying its existence 
we cannot, perhaps, do better than repeat, in substance, what 
was said in a Prospectus recently issued by us. 

That the historical material of Indiana has never been ade- 
quately preserved and rendered accessible is a fact patent to all who 
t w I 1 ^f ^*ve occasion to deal with such material. The dere- 
Miy noglMl 01 liction of the State itself in the earlier days in caring 
imueDiarj ^^^^ ^^^ .^ oflScial documents exemplifies a neglect 
™**™ that has been general* By way of illustration, on the 

old statute books stand laws that require the preservation in the 
State Library of a number of copies of the general and local laws, 
and of the Senate, House and Documentary Journals; that require 
the careful indexing of the Documentary Journals; that require the 
alphabetical arrangement and binding into volumes of bills, peti- 
tions and other l^slative papers. No efforts seem to have been 
>V made until later years to obey any of these statutory requirements, 

and so far as the culpable neglect has been rectified it was by the 
collections and clerical efforts of recent librarians. Even with these 
"^ efforts complete sets of our State documents have not been secured, 

^ and much other matter of value has passed away beyond recovery. 

^ Much material not within the jurisdiction of the State has also 

^ passed away and is daily passing. Old men who have had a part in 

^ the history of the commonwealth die, and with them is going the 

PMmtPmmti ^"^^ ^^^^^K remnant of first-hand knowledge of the 
mm\ mifm pj^^g^ ^f yf^ ^^^ j^^^^ 1,^^. ^j^^y j^^^ papers, jour- 

m 148808. jjjQg j^j various documents of interest, and these, 

descending to indifferent heirs, become irretrievably lost. To gather 
from surviving pioneers their testimonies, and to save from oblivion 
documents still accessible is a thing to be desired. 

An interest in these things in this State sufficient to support a 
magazine of local history is only a matter of time. Such interest 
is not a sporadic one but a natural growth. Already something like 
a score of States are represented by as many periodical historical 



->> 



t. 



194944 



2 The Indiana Magazine of History 

kw^ktmin In Publications, a number of them quarterly magazines, 
f aTiMfc ^^voted to the preservation of local material. Some 
wresi ID Uiner ^^ these, such as Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minne- 
"*^''*' sota, are younger States than ours with, perhaps, less 

history to record. Most of the publications mentioned have back of 
them the Historical Societies of their several States. We, unfortu- 
nately can look to no central organization for such support, but 
local societies are springing up in a number of counties, and if these 
will evince an interest proportionate to the service we can render 
them they can go far toward making our publication a success. 

To the members of these societies and to others who think an 
interest in our past worth promoting as of value to the present, 
then, we make an appeal. We have launched the magazine at a 
venture and at some sacrifice in the faith that if we can make a 
worthy showing the support will be forthcoming. It is not our dis- 
position to resort to any foisting or booming method. We assume 
that the class we desire and hope to reach will take our eflfort ex- 
actly at its worth, and that if every page we present to them is full 
of matter that justifies itself no better advertisement will be needed. 
For the first year, iif need be, we are willing to make no account of 
managerial and editorial labors if the actual cost of publishing, dis- 
tributing and associated expenses are covered. 

This, of course, is experimental and is by no means the limit of 
our hope. If our success justifies it we shall certainly expand our 
scheme. One feature much to be desired, but prohibited in the 
start by cost, is the reproduction of old maps and cuts of interest, 
many of which exist but are lost to all but the delver. 

The publication will be strictly what it purports to be at the 
start — a magazine devoted to the preservation and collating of 
-. . . matter that is of real value to the historical student, 
tuineier lia There will be no space given to advertising **write- 
PnhT /' ^pSi'* and no' cheap padding. Of matter within its 

ruDlie&UOB. legitimate field there is an abundance, and outside of 
this field it will ipake no bid for popular favor. 

Its intended scope (subject to extension, as may seem advis- 
able) is — 

1 . The seeking out and publishing of hitherto unprinted docu- 
ments that have an historical value. 

2. The re-printing of valuable and interesting matter that is 
buried away and practically lost in old newspaper files. Of this 



Our Reasons for Being 3 

there is much that is wholly forgotten* aiul» owing to the absence 
of any guide, to be found only after long and patient research. 

3. The conducting of a department of bibliography of historical 
material now scattered through periodicals and local histories, 
and of an indexing system that shall comprehend all important offir 
dal publications besides other matter of interest. We believe that 
this will at once commend itself to all who have had occasion to 
search out obscure information. 

4. The binding together into a co-operative system (and this 
is one of the important and hopeful objects) the various local his- 
torical societies in the State, as well as the encouraging and pro- 
moting of other such societies. The needful thing in Indiana 
to-4ay, in this direction, is the historical ''atmosphere/' that shall 
stimulate work all along the line and inspire the student in his- 
tory with a sense of the usefulness of such study. This once 
existing there is no reason why much should not be accomplished, 
and it is to those who have already started societies and otherwise 
manifested an interest that we must look for the creation of such 
an atmosphere by the uniting of their efforts. 

5. The publication of original studies in Indiana history by 
careful and trustworthy students. Some of the best history work 
being done at present is intensive, dealing with special aspects 
and of limited compass, but, by a corresponding thoroughness, 
particularly illustrative of great principles. Of work of this charac- 
ter we can secure enough to add a desirable feature to our plan. 

6. The promoting of history work, particularly State and local 
history, among teachers and in the schools. On this point we wish 
to be distinctly understood. The habit of * 'working** the schools 
as a lucrative field with many and various private enterprises is an 
evil conspicuous, we presume, to most school officials, and obvious 
to us. We have no intention of attempting to persuade teachers 
and trustees as to their needs — they themselves should know their 
needs better than we do — ^but this we have in mind: the interest in 
home history is making way in the schools; in the development of 
this interest and the directing of it to the most useful ends help and 
co-operation not available hitherto will surely be a need. Such help 
and co-operation we are ready to extend to the best of our ability. 

To sum up, we feel quite satisfied that we can carry out 
acceptably and well our proposed venture if our friends encourage 
it, and we hope to receive this encouragement. 



John Brown Dillon 

The Father of Indiana History 

TT is eminently fitting that we shcmld begin this magazine with a 
-^sketch of the man who not only ranks as Indiana's first and best 
historian, but whose ideals, methods, character and accomplishment 
we deem worthy to keep continually in mind as a model to follow 
in historical work. 

John B. Dillon may fairly be called ' 'the father of Indiana his* 
tory," for he was the first to enter that field with any seriousness of 
purpose, and his contributions exceed in value any that have come 
after. His real merit is best appreciated by those who seek historic 
truth and accuracy — ^who want facts authenticated by the evidences 
of thorough, conscientious research, and who like the same told in 
simple, direct language, with no sacrifices for the sake of a popular 
style. The sense of his perfect honesty and trustworthiness contin- 
ually grows upon one that has occasion to use him much, and the 
student of the period and locality with which be deals inevitably 
comes to use him as the most satisfactory authority. No higher 
compliment than this can be paid to a historian. Bancroft, Park' 
man, Prescott, Motley were not more devoted to their chosen course 
than Dillon, nor brought to their tasks riper qualifications, and had 
he wrought in the broader field his name might have ranked with 
theirs in the world's estimation. He had certain noble ideas, severe 
and simple, as to the office of the historian, and no artist was truer 
to his art than he to this ideal. They were not ideas that catered 
in any sense to that popular taste that demands the picturesque 
whatever may be the fate of truth. It is quite safe to say that he 
would not, if he had been able, have heralded his works with a blast 
of trumpets; and that, perhaps, is why even his own friends, as has 
been affirmed, did not read his books and why he died in poverty. 

Mr. Dillon, as a man, was modest to shyness, and so little dis- 
posed to talk about himself, even to his nearest friends, that some- 
thing like a mystery seems to hang over his life. According to the 
R' ill F I ^^^* authority he was bom at Wellsburg, West Vir- 

17 ?w .k &^^^* ^^ ^^^ y^^^ iSoS, He learned the printer's 
Lire IDd Wort ^^^^^ ^j^^^ ^ j^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ t^ Cincinnati, where he 

rcanained ten years, working at the case. During this period he 
brought himself into notice as a poet by verses contributed to 



John B. Dillon 5 

Flint's Western Review, the Western Souvenir, the Cincinnati 
Gazette and other western periodicals; but this disposition evidently 
wore oflF with his youth. A few of these poems, among them **The 
Burial of the Beautiful," have been preserved in Coggeshall's col- 
lection of western poets. In 1834 he migrated to Logansport, Ind. 
Here he studied law and was admitted to the bar, but law was not 
to his taste, and he never practiced. 

About this time he seems to have taken up with his historical 
studies and to be lajdng plans for his future ''History of Indiana." 
His first work was issued in 1843 and was called ''Historical Notes 
of the Discovery and Settlement of the Territory Northwest of the 
Ohio." This was introductory to and contained much of the ma- 
terial for a riper and more ambitious volume which, in 1859, ap- 
peared under the title of "A History of Indiana." from its earliest 
exploration to the close of the Territorial government in 18 16; to 
which was added a general view of the progress of public affidrs in 
the State from 1816 to 1856. It is this work on which Dillon's fame 
chiefly rests. The fruit of the next twenty years was a small vol- 
ume entitled "Notes on Historical Bvidencein Reference to Adverse 
Theories of the Origin and Nature of the Government of the United 
States," and a thick 8-vo. on the "Oddities of Colonial I^egislation." 
These four volumes, together with a few addresses* and a little 
miscellaneous writing, represent more than forty years of research. 

Pew historians escape the charge of occasional mistakes, and 
Mr. Dillon, doubtless, was not an exception to the rule; but, as we 
have before said, a sense of his trustworthiness grows upon the 
student, and the seeker after authentic information learns to regard 
him as the most satisfactory authority on early Indiana affairs. It 
is not easy to define the quality that begets confidence in a histor- 
ian — ^it is, indeed, somewhat akin to the mystery of personality. 
Suffice to say in this connection that Dillon's work throughout 
bears the internal evidence of immense industry, unflagging perse- 
verance and an ever-present purpose to find and state the truth. Of 
his industry and its breadth of scope, too, we have other evidence. 
In the preface to his "Historical Notes" he refers to "many official 
documents, * * * a very great number of printed authorities, and 
many thousand pages of old manuscript records and letters:" and 

♦One of lhc»e addresses. •'The National Decline of the Miami Indians," was delivered 
before the Indiana Historical Society in 1848, and is published in its collection. 



6 The Indiana Magazine of History 

in the preface to his History he speaks of ''historical researches 

which for a period of about twenty years have been perseveringly 

extended over a very large field/* and adds this paragraph: 

**Por the privilege of examining valuable and interesting private coUec- 
tiona of manuscripts and other documents relating to the early dvil and 
military aflfairs of Indiana, my public thanks are due to Hon. John Scott Har- 
rison, of Ohio; Hon. William G. Armstrong, of Clark County, Indiana; the 
fiunily of Capt. Robert Buntin, of Indiana; Elihu Stout, esq., of Knox county, 
Indiana; the family of Gen. Hyacinth LasseUe, of Indiana; and the family of 
Gen. John Tipton, of Indiana. For the use of various important manuscripts 
and other valuable documents, and for many interesting verbal statements con- 
cerning the public afiGedrs of Indiana, my acknowledgements have been ten- 
dered to General Marston G. Clark, Major Ambrose Whitlock, Mr» Joseph 
Barron, Prof. Bliss, Dr. Ezra Ferris, Hon. Wm. Polke, Gen. Walter Wilson, 
Hon. John Law, Mr. Pierre Laplante, Hon. Williamson Dunn, Dr. Azra Lee, 
Gen. Robert Hanna, Samuel Morrison, esq., Mr. Zebulon Collings, Hon. Isaac 
Naylor, Major Henry Restine, Hon. Dennis Pennington, Col. Abel C. Pepper, 
Hon. William Hendricks, Henry Hurst, esq., Col. John Vawter, Col. William 
Conner, Hon. Stephen C. Stevens, Hon. John Ewing, Samuel Merrill, esq., 
Hon. John Dumont, John Dowling, esq., Hon. Albert S. White, Calvin Fletch- 
er, esq., Hon. Oliver H. Smith, Hon. John H. Thompson, Major Alexander P. 
Morrison, Dr. James S. Athon, Hon. Isaac Blackford, Samuel Judah, esq., 
Hon. Abner T. Ellis, Lawrence M. Vance, esq., Hon. Wm. J. Brown, Col- 
Williamt Reybum, and many other gentlemen who have, at different periods, 
manifested a friendly interest in the progress of my historical researches in 
the west. In the course of an examination of various old French manuscripts 
relating to the early affairs of the country lying northwest of the river Ohio, I 
have, at different times, received essential assistance from Rev. A. M. A. Mar- 
tin, Dr. Luke l^unsell, James W. Ryland, esq., and Col. John B. Duret." 

To one familiar with the names of early Indiana notables this 
quotation is of interest as showing that Dillon was widely in touch 
with the men who were active in the history' of the young common- 
wealth, and it appears that he diligently improved his opportunities. 
In this respect he had the advantage over all historians of a later 
day, for not only did there exist for him, as the pioneer, the wealth 
of a virgin 'field, but the venerable men then nearing their ends in- 
timately knew the beginnings of the Territory and State.* Even 

♦In the preface to the Historical Notes he says: "A list of the persons from whom I have 
received rare and valuable manitscripts, and aid and encouragement in the midst of perplex* 
ing difficulties, shall be published in the form of an appendix at the close of the second vol- 
ume of this work.** In his subsequent History no such appendix exists, and the paragraph 
above quoted evidently takes its place. In the preface of the first book he mentions Rev. 
Mr. Martin, of Vinccnnes; J. W. Ryland, Esq., of Cincinnati; J. B. Durct, Esq.. of Logans- 
port, and Dr. Munsell. of Indianapolis, as having rendered assistance in the examination 
and translation of French documents. In this preface, also, he gives an extended list of 
works consulted. 



John B. Dillon 7 

the mass of the "manuscript records and letters" alluded to, which 
might have been preserved for future students, seems to have passed 
away, and in view of this loss we are doubly indebted to Dillon, who 
ferreted them out and made such good use of them. General John 
Cobum's sketch of Dillon,* which is the best published source of 
information, states that when the latter was secretaigr of the State 
Historical Society he prepared and issued many circulars to people 
in various counties asking questions bearing upon all the prominent 
facts in the history of diflFerent important localities. Answers were 
received and filed away, and a large amount of data preserved for 
future use, but this, Mr. Cobum tells us, **has been stolen or des- 
troyed; no trace of it remains.*' According to this writer Dillon 
had supervision of the historical material contained in the large 
State and county atlas of Indiana, published by Baskin, Forster & 
Co., in 1876. 

Mr. Dillon manifestly lacked either the disposition or the tact to 
adapt himself to the work that promised most. The writing of the 
**History of Indiana Territory" would easily and naturally, one 
|vii , pL would think, open the way to a history of the State, 

jJUon Sinaracler especially as that field was entirely new ground. If 
Uiner iemces ^^ ^^^ ^ directed his energies he would, doubtless, 
PathetMJ Eod ^^^^ ^^pp^^ ^ ^^^1 ^^^ much-felt need far more ade- 
quately than any who have since attempted it. Of the two volumes 
he produced instead, the ** Notes on Historical Evidence," and 
* 'Oddities of Colonial Legislation," it might be said that he could 
hardly have chosen subjects less inviting to the popular taste. On 
the other hand they are conceded to have a distinctive value. The 
first- mentioned is searching and fundamental in its aim, and touches 
the origin and nature of the United States government, and the 
relations of State to Federal authority. Concerning the **Oddities" 
it will suffice to again draw upon Mr. Cobum, who describes it as a 
work **so fiill of information and so unique in character, bearing 
such indubitable evidences of authenticated and conscientious re- 
search that it is without a parallel in American literature, and will 
be the perpetual text-book upon this subject. Here may be found 
rare specimens of the vain, ridiculous and laughable eflForts of the 
legislators to patch up the ills of society, as quack doctor's medi- 
cines are invented, put on the market and rejected." This book 

•Published in the collection of the Indiana Historical Society. 



8 The Indiana Magazine of History 

was his last work, being, indeed, unfinished at the time of his death. 
It would seem that he found a purchaser for his manuscript before 
its completion, for it is said that he received for it some three hun- 
dred dollars — and this was his pecuniary' return for years of labor ! 

Mr. Dillon was one of the many in the world's history who have 
not prospered according to their deserts. He clove to his work with 
that unflagging passion which should distinguish the true worker 
in the exercise of his natural talent, but his books brought him 
little remuneration. Unworldly, simple-minded and idealistic, with 
little regard for self, he was illy qualified to contend for the world's 
rewards. A few stanch friends, who were drawn to him by his 
ability and worth and beauty of character, exercised over him a 
sort of paternal care, and through their efforts he was appointed to 
various public offices which for thirty years afforded him a living- 
From 1845 to 1851 he was State Librarian, then assistant Secretary 
of State and Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, and after that 
an appointee to a clerkship in the Department of the Interior at 
Washington City, where he lived twelve years. The last four years 
of his life he spent in Indianapolis, poor almost to the verge of 
want, his friends afterward suspected, although, with characteristic 
reserve, he kept that fact to himself. There are many who remem- 
ber the retired, gentle old man with the never-absent side-glasses 
concealing his eyes. Being unmarried and entirely alone as re- 
garded blood ties, he occupied a poorly-ftimished room by himself 
in the top of the old Johnson block, where the State Life building 
now stands. Here he died on the 27th of February, 1879. Not 
until his effects were examined was it known that he was so poor. 
His very books had gone one by one to the second-hand store, like 
household treasures to the pawn-shop, and his friends agree in be- 
lieving that the fear of want hastened his end. 

Forty years of honest, consdentious devotion; four books that 
people would not buy, and death in a lonely garret face to face with 
grim poverty because he wrought for the love of truth and not for 
dollars — this is the life-story of John B. Dillon. He is buried in 
Crown Hill, just west of the soldiers* graves, and the friends who 
were kind to him in life have erected a fitting monument to his 
memory. That he lies beside the heroic dead is well, for he, too, 
gave his life to a cause and did bis country a service. 

o. s. c. 



DOCUMENTARY 

The Journal of John Tipton 

Commissioner to locate Site for State Capital — 1820 

[John Tipton, pioneer Indian fighter, soldier, legislator and United States 
Senator, was a striking example of a certain t3rpe that has impressed itself 
npon the early history of the western country of America. It is the pioneer 
type— the uncnltnred, unlettered man, the product of a rude society, who, by 
strong natural gifts has come to the fore and asserted himself with distinction 
among the leaders of the land. Tipton, bom of pioneer stock on the Tennesee 
frontier, came to Harrison County, Indiana, in 1807, when 21 years old, and is 
said to have soon taken rank as a leader of the law and order forces in his 
neighborhood. Along with a local military company he joined General Harri- 
son in the campaign against the Prophet's town in 181 1, and in the famous 
battle of Tippecanoe acquitted himself notably. That he rose by gradual pro- 
motion, after this campaign, to the office of brigadier general is evidence of 
his military capacity. With the admission of Indiana as a State and the crea- 
tion of State and local offices he was elected sheriff of Harrison County, and 
served as such until i8i9, when he was chosen to r e pre sen t his district in the 
legislature; and as representative he was re-elected in 182 1. When, in 1820, 
commissioners were appointed to select a site for the permanent capital of the 
State, he was considered a proper man for this important task; he was also 
appointed a commissioner to act ¥dth an Illinois r epr e s entative in fixing the 
dividing line between the two States; and in 1823 President Monroe made him 
general agent for the Miami and Pottowattomie Indians within our borders. 
In [831 he was elected by the legislature to fill out the unexpired term of U. S. 
Senator James Noble, and in 1833 he was re-elected for the full senatorial term* 
He died in Logansport, April 5, 1839, aged 53 years. 

Not the least interesting of Tipton's performances are the journals left by 
him. which throw a light on his character, revealing his precise and methodical 
habit and his keen attention to practical matters. Two of these journals are 
of particular value. These are, the journal of the Tippecanoe campaign and 
the one here published. Each is the most circumstantial account in existence 
of the events chronicled. Of the commissioners* work in locating the capital, 
there is practically no other document existent, the legislative reports being 
exceedingly meager. The original manuscripts, once owned by John B. Dillon* 
were found among his effects at his death, and are now in possession of Mr. 
John H. Holliday, of Indianapolis. They were publbhed by him in the In- 
dianapolis News, in 1879, the one here printed in the issue of April 17, and 
the Tippecanoe account on May 5. Otherwise they have been inaccessible to 
the public. For best sketch of Tipton see W. W. Woollen's Biographical 
and Historical Sketches of Early Indiana.] 

THE JOURNAL. 

''on Wednesday the 17 of may 1820 I set out from Corydon in 
Company with Gov'r Jennings I had been appointed by the last 



lo The Indiana Magazine of History 

legislature one of Ae comnuaaioiiers to odect & locate a site for the 
permanent seat of government of the state of Ind'a (we took with 
OS Bill a Black Buoy) haveing laid in plenty of Baker (bacon?) 
cofiy &c and provided a tent we stopt at P Bells two hours then set 
out and at 7 came to Mr Winemans (?) on Blue river, stopt for 
the K't (night) 

"thursday the i8th 

''some frost set out early and set out at sunrise at >^ p 9 stopt 
at Salem had breckfiast paid $1.00 B &c and Bo't some powder 
paper &c paid 2.12)^ Set out at 1 1 crost muscakituck paid 25 
cts and stopt at Col Durhams in Vallonia who was also a Commis- 
sioner . here we found Gen'l Bartholomew one of the commissioners 
Genl J. Carr & Cap't Dueson of charlestown who was going out 
to look at the country I cleaned out my gun after dinner we went 
to shooting 

•'Friday 19 we set out early stopt at Brown town had Breck- 
{bsX paid 50 cents set out at >^ p 9 at one stopt at Cap't J. 
Shields after Dinner we set (out) Cap't Shield went with us this 
evening crost the river at the lower rapids after traveling about 
7 miles through good land encamped and stretched our tent near a 
pond this is the first time I have stretched or ^ slept in a tent 
since 1814. 

"Saturday the 20 

Cap*t Shields left us and returned home we set out before sun- 
rise and at 45 p 6 came to John Reddick who lives on S 19 T 8 N 
of R 6 W* fine land fed paid ^2% set out at 8 at 5 p 12 came 
to the upper Rappids of Drift at the plaice where we made Bark 
Cannoes to carry a wounded man down to vallonia on the 20th of 
June 18 1 3 Stopt let our horses graze set out at i and 15 p 3 
came to John Berrjrj* who lives onSsTioNofRsE good land 
good water and timber 

*ObTiottsIy a mistake. Range 6 east ia meant. 

tjohn Berry, whoae cabin stood at the month of Sugar Creek, in Johnson County, is de> 
serring of notice as the man who cut a "trace** into the heart of the wilderness which was 
the route of ingress for many of the first settlers of Indianapolis and contiguous territory, 
Berry*s Trace, as it was called, began at Napoleon, Ripley County, ran north-westward to 
Plat Rock and Blue River, thence northward beyond Berry's house, it would seem, for we are 
told of its crossing the "Whetxel Trace** near the site of Greenwood. Nineveh Berry, a well- 
known citisen of Anderson,>was a son of John Berry, and for him, it is said, Nincveb Creek, 
in Johnson County was named. See Nowland*s Early Reminiscences^ pp. 13, 14. 



Tipton^ s Journal xi 

"Sunday 21 set out at >^ p 4 at 5 passed a comer of S 36 T 
1 1 N of R 4 B . passed a plaice where Bartholomew and myself had 
encamped in June 181 3 missed our way traveled east then turned 
Back at 8 stopt on a mudy Branch Boiled our cofiy set out at 9 
at >^ p 9 I killed a deer the first I have killed since 1814 at 10 
came on the traice at creek found tree where I had wrote my name 
and dated the 19th June 1813 we traveled fast and at 7 encamped 
on a small creek having traveled about 45 miles 

Monday^ 22d 

''a fine clier morning we set out at sunrise at >^ p 6 crost Call 
creek at a ripple stopt to B (bathe?) shave put on clean Clothes 
&c this creek runs for between 30 & fcMty miles perrellel with 
White river and about 6 or 8 miles from It in this creek we saw 
plenty of fine fish set out at 9 and passed a comer of S 32 & 33 in 
T 17 N of R 4 E at 15 p 1 1 came to the lower Delaware Town* 
crost the river went up the n w side and at one came to the house 
of William Connerf the plaice appointed for the meeting of the com- 
missioners he lives on a Prairie of about 250 acres of the White R 
Bottom a number of Indian Huts near his house on our arrival 
we found G Hunt of Wayne County John Conner of Fayett Stephen 
Ludlow of Dearborn John Gilliland of Switzerland & Thos Enuni^ 
son (Emerson) of Knox waiting for us Wm Prince .and P Rapp 
not being up we waited untill late in the evening We then met 
and were sworn according to law and adjourned until tomorrow 
evening 

"Tuesday 23d went to shooting after B (breakfast?) we met 
appointed a committee to Draft rule and adjourned untill 12 met 
at 12 P Rapp appeared and was sworn We appointed G Hunt 
chairman and B J Blythe clerk and adjourned untill tomorrow to 
meet at the mouth of Pall creek Bartholomew Durham Con (Con- 
ner?) Dueson and myself * * I paid $1.87 j4 & $1,00 for mocke- 
sons set out stopt at the lower town for the Kt 

** Wednesday the 24th a dark 'morning at 9 Oov'r Jennings 
with the other comrs came on us set out for the mouth of fall 

*See article in this nnmber on Indlmn towni in BCmrion County. 



tWiUiam Conner was an Indian trader who eatabUahed himaelf on White River 
four milea aonth of the trite of NoMeaville early in the century. He waa a brother of John 
Conner, one of the oommlaaionera, who waa the founder of Conneravllle. Theae brothera, 
paxticnlarly William, were of great aenrice to the government in HadeaUngi with the In- 
dians of thia region, and they merit fuller biographies than have ever been written of th< 



12 The Indiana Magazine 6/ History 

creek the town we are now in is high Dry rich Bottoms very large 
one of the most beautifhl on the river but Timber scarce we crost 
the river }i mile bdow to the S B side ♦ * this Town after trav- 
eling some distance along the Traice that led to the moUth of foil 
creek Bartholomew myself and some * * tnmed off at 20 p 1 1 to 
see the river at 12 came on the river at i stopt ott a bluff near 
200 feet high the air cool and pleasant here we took iMnner and 
set out at 45 p I at 15 p 2 crost fall creek then rode through a very 
rich piece of land the large timber all Dead we are told it was 
killed some years since by worms* the under growth at this time 
mostly prickly ash and very thick which makes it very difficult for 
us to ride through at >^ p 3 got to Mcormicks who lives on the 
river quarter of a mile below the mouth of fall creekf Last Kt I 
staid in an Indian Town saw some Drunk Indians this morning 
eat at the Table of a Frenchman who has long lived with the In- 
dians and lives like them he furnished his table for us with eggs 
&c altered times since 181 3 when I was last here hunting the In- 
dians with whom we now eat drink and sleep they have now sold 
their land for a trifle and prepardng to leave the country where 
they have laid their fathers and relatives, in which we are now 
hunting a site for the seat of Govrt of our State The Bank of the 
river on which Mcormick lives is from 25 to 30 feet above the water 
at this time the country Back is high Dry and good soil but the 
timber is scarce Oovr Jennings Bartholomew Durham Con and 
myself went down the river i mile to camp 

"Thursday 25 

"at 5^ p 2 Bartholomew Durham & myself went fishing caught 
plenty of fine large fish returned the morning cloudy some rain 

• 

*1rhiji total destruction of early forest areas by * Vonns** is not without interest to the 
student of arboricultnre. In the first da3rs of Indianapolis some aoo acres within the do' 
nation known as the **caterpillar deadening** was cleared of hrush, fenced in and tilled as 
a common field. See Ro11oway*s Indianapolis^ p. 9. From Tipton's location at the time of 
makinir his note this deadeninir was probably the one he saw. A little further on he speaks 
<i^ another deadening:, mentioning that it was of sugar trees. 

tThe McCormick settlement, at the mouth of Fall Creek, was one of three sites that the 
commi sst o n e i y seem to have had in mind beforehand. According to Nowland it consisted of 
"four or five fiimilies. vis: Hardings, Wilson, Pogue and McCormicks, all of whom had come 
that spring. Albert Wilson, a son of John Wilson, has told the editor that his fiither, in 
company with the McCormicks and George Pogue, came from Connersrilte, following an 
Indian trail that led from the Whitewater to a White River ford at the mouth of Pall Creek. 
These settlers, as well as those at the **B1nflBi*' were, of course, **squatter8,** as the country 
had not yet been opened for settlement. 



Tipton^ s Journal rj 

Bartholomew and me went out to look at the land the comrs came 
down we set out for the Blu£Bs Distance Down the river about 15 
miles the Qovr started (?) here at McCormicks at >^2 p 1 1 after 
traveling some distance on a small traice at 45 p 12 came to the 
river in a wide bottom that is inundated Staid i hour set out 
very hard rain passed very bad swamp one horse crippled some 
of my coleags say the times is very hard came to the traice the 
rain fell in Torronts at >^ p 4 Bartholomew Durham Carr Dueson 
& me stopt in some Indian camps after getting fire kindled and 
our clothes dry we had a pleasant kt the land here high Dry and 
rich Immediately (?) on the River in T 14 N of R 3 E went to Rest 

Friday 24 

**the morning clier cool pleasant my horse with two more miss- 
ing I wrote some letters home while I was riting Col D found our 
horses the commissioners that had went to the Bluff last kt re- 
turned B D and myself went down to see the BluflEs* they waited 
here for our return we found the Bluff inT i3NofR2EinSi3 
the Bluff is about 150 feet above the river but verry uneven the 
water good Genl Carr [and] Capt Dueson started home and left us 
out of this Bluff issues a number of fine springs one of which some 
distance back from the river has near 20 feet fall Back of this 
Bluff runs a beautiful creek they front on the river near i mile 
if they were level on top it would be the most beautiful site for a 
town that I ever have seen Saw the R line between R 2 & 3 E 
and the carries(?) of S 12 & 13 in T 13 N of R 2 E we then re- 
turned to our camp and set out to examine the n w side of the river 
crost in an overflowed bottom at 2 came to a plaice where the 
river turns to the west making a very short Bend runs hard against 
the w shore and seems to be a very difficult pass for boats of burthen 
at this plaice the growth is all young timber some remains of oald 
cabbins I am told there was once an Indian village here * * Wm 
Lander who lives i mile back from the river told me that an Indian 
said the French once lived here and that the Indian went to school 
to a Frenchman in this plaice but they left it about the time of 

^At the blnflb of White River, in Morgan County, where Waverly now stands, was a set- 
tlement founded by Jacob Whetxel. one of the brothers famous in the annals of Indian war- 
fare. Whetsel cut a trace from the Whitewater to this point, and was followed and Joined 
here by several other families. See NowUnd^s Early Reminiactmcss; also, an article in the 
IndianapoHs News^ Sept. 3, 1897. 



14 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Hardin's Campain which [was] about 33 years ago* the country con- 
tinues high and good from some distance back from the river Mr 
Lander (?) has planted some com here the timber very scarce here 
that is fit for building &c after viewing this plaice we set out and 
traveled up the river the land rolling at 3 crost a Branch at 4 
came to a beautiful clier pond or lake about 60 yards wide seeming 
nearly from n to sf the water clier the Bottom gravley a plenty of 
fish we drank some and continued on our course at 45 p 5 crest 
Eagle creekj a beautiful creek sufficient to turn a mill at 6 our co 
(company?) became uneasy and at (?) we crost the river to the s e 
ade and at 7 arrived at the mouth of Fall creek found Govt Jen- 
nings had went up to conners 

'•Saturday 27th 

**a fine clier morning very cool before breckfast we walked 
out to look at the Bottom had breckfast &c Durham paid $2.25 
at 9 we crost to the n w side we crost at the mouth of Fall creek 
the n w side below the mouth of the creek is low and overflows 
above is some high land at 45 p 11 came to the river Boiled our 
coffy after some time spent on the n w we crost to the s e side 
the comrs then met and agreed to select and locate the site Town- 
ship 15 north of R 3 E which Township was not divided into sec- 
tions but Judge Wm B Loughlin of Brookville in whose district the 
Township lies having been instructed by the Surveyor General to 
to giv« every facillity in his power to the comrs in the completion 
of their duty we agreed and hired a man to carry a letter to his 
camp for which we gave him $2.00 Bartholomew Col Durham & 
Jonathan Woodberry a friend of mine from Hardinsburg with whom 
I have just went i mile down the river and encamped for the Kt 
Some of the comrs came to our camp we had a pleasant evening 

''Sunday 28 a cool clier day* we met at 6 Judge Loughlin 
came on and stated that it would take 10 days to progress so far 
with the surveys as to enable us to progress with our business on 
motion the comrs then adjourned to meet again on next Monday 
week at 45 p 1 1 we set out for Wm Conners J Conner and G 
Hunt two of the comrs went home the rest to Wm Conners we 

*See article on Indian towns. 

tProbabljr tlic bayon locally known aa Lannigan*a Lake, near aoutb line of Marion Co< 

tM>#r— Bagle and Pall creeks had receiTed their names at ttria early date. 



Indian TatiriM in Marian County 1 5 

traveled about 3 miles and crost fiaU creek the land being levH and 
rich from the river to this plaice the most of the timber for aome 
distance from the riv^ having been sugar tree has been killed abt 
2 years since by the worms and is now thickly set with prickly sish 
near the creek the timber better after we crost the creek, we trav- 
eled about 8 miles between the river and creek ' the la&d equally 
good timber mostly Sugar Buckeye Hackberry Cherry Walnut &g 
every quarter section is worth twice the Govert price we erost to 
the n w side below the lower (Indian) town Recrost at Conners 
Prairie found the men playing favourite game which they eall 
mockuson which is played with a buUit and 4 mockusons* then 
went to view the ground on which Bartholomew and me had in- 
camped in June 17th 1813" 

{.Concluded next numSer). 



Indian Towns in Marion County 

'TpHE reference in the Tipton Journal to two Indian towns on 
A White River between Conner's tradmg post and the blufe, one 
in existence at that time and the other a tradition, is a contribution 
to an uncertain subject. The existence of a Delaware town in the 
north part of Marion County, near where Allisonville now stands, 
is recognized by Ignatius Brown and Berry Sulgrove in their his- 
tories, and the former tells of an old white woman who remained 
there after the tribe had left. This woman had been captured when 
a child, had reared a half-breed family, and her foi^otten story seems 
to have been very like that of the more famous Frances Slocum. 
Very little information is to be had about this town, and it is treated, 
rather, as a tradition at the time of the first white occupancy. Tip- 
ton's statement, however, establishes that it was there in 1820. 
The town that once stood where the river crosses the south line 
of the county was still more a thing of vague report. Prof. Ryland 
T. Brown, in the Indiana Geological Report for 1882 (see p. 97) 
affirms, though without giving his authority, that it was the village 
of a Delaware chief named Big Fire, a friend to the whites; that it 
wtte destroyed by the Madison Rangers, in 18 12, in revenge fbr the 

*Se« article on the gmmc of Mo(;c«flin, in this number. 



1 6 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Pigeon Roost massacre, and that Governor Harrison had no little 
trouble in pacifying the chief. Incidentally it may be surmised 
that Tipton, who was, presumably, familiar with the local military 
operations of that period, and who had himself campaigned here in 
1813, as evidenced by his journal, would have know of the Madison 
Rangers affair; and William Landers* testimony added to this pretty 
well negatives Prof. Brown's assertion. 

In the Indianapolis News for May 4, 1899, appeared an article 
gleaned from C. T. Dollarhide, of Indianapolis, which recounted 
the tradition of the neighborhood in question as handed down b5'^ 
the narrator's grandfather, John Dollarhide, and other early settlers. 
Taken in connection with Tipton's information, and by its internal 
evidence of traditionary genuineness, it would seem to have more 
authenticity than any other statement upon the subject, and so 
much of the interview as has a documentary value we here repeat. 

Sax's Mr, Dollarhide: "My grandfather, John Dollarhide, settled 
near the meeting point of Johnson, Morgan and Marion counties in 
the year 1 819 or 1820. His reason for settling there was that he 
found a considerable area of land from which the great forest trees 
had been removed. This had again been covered by bushes and 
Hmall timber such as the settlers called second growth. That clear- 
ing, my grandfather said, had been made by Indians, and that 
ground had evidently been cultivated by them. My father said that 
after heavy showers he and his brothers had picked up Indian orna- 
ments of silver, such as ^ere worn on the breasts of braves (a kind 
kS hnxK'h'^ and other trinkets. WTien my father was a b-^y this 
place was called *the battle ground \ and is so called by s^rne old 
\>e\>ple today. Tradition said th^t <onie timeear'.y in this cectiir>, 
t>r At the cU^se of the last centurv, a party of Kentuckians had 
c\m^e to this Indian settlement and murdered the inhabitants. 
It was said that there was at this place ^the land. I believe, now 
l^eKw^s, in part» t\> the estate of the late Eli Stone"^ a Catholic 
misMi\n iM* s^>me kind. prv>bab!y a Jesuit mission: but whether the 
Jesuits ii\f TV there when the massacre t^x^k place is not a part of the 
tTHditi\>n, 

''In ^S7^ 1 became Acquainted with Jutige Franklin Hardin, 
>*h\^ s^fttle^l m Johnsk^ County aK^ut iS>x \Mien he heard my 
names IXxlUihide, he remarked that I must have cvme tvcnt the 



The Game of Moccasin 17 

'battle-ground/ and I found that he had known my grandfather in 
Kentucky. The Judge said that a relative of his, a Major Hardin, 
of Kentucky, had told him of an expedition that was led against 
this Indian village; that there was then, or had been, a French 
mission there, and that the Indians had been massacred in regular 
Kentucky fashion. The Judge said, I believe, that his relative had 
told him of this massacre in Kentucky before he removed to Indiana, 
and that he (the Judge) had no doubt that the 'battle-ground' was 
the identical spot of which the Major had told him. The Major, it 
was said, had taken part in this raid, which the Judge thought took 
place about the year 1795.* 

*'In 1863, while making the Indianapolis & Waverly gravel 
road, the workmen, digging into a gravel bank, threw out a number 
of human bones. It is not too curious to connect these bones with 
that massacre. * * My father told me that he had found a piece 
of stone-work there — an arch, I believe — ^and that he was certain 
that this piece, which was skilfully cut, could only have been fash- 
ioned by a white man, and that it may have formed some part of 
the French mission building.**! 



The Games of Moccasin and Bullet 

The following, MTitten by the late Robert B. Duncan, a well- 
known pioneer of Marion County, throws further light on the game 
of **mockuson'* spoken of by Tipton (see journal, p. 15). 

* 'Bullet, as it was termed, was a gambling game considerably 
used in its day; so much so as to cause the enactment [of a law] 
making it a finable offense to play it. It was borrowed from the 

^**Oii the a6th of Augtunt, 1789. about two hundred mounted voluoteeri, under the oom> 
mand of Colonel John Hardin, marched from the Falls of the Ohio to attack some of the 
Indian towns on the Wabash. This expedition returned to the Palls on the aBth of Septem- 
ber, without the loss of a man— having killed idx Indians, plundered and burnt one deserted 
village, and destroyed a considerable quantity of corn.** — Dilton, p. 220. 

fSince the above was put in type the editor finds the question of this Indian town dis- 
cussed at length by D. D. Banta, in the larger history of Johnson County, pp. 283-286. Judge 
Banta's conclusion would seem to be in line with Mr. Dollarhide*s version. For further 
information touching the white captive of the upper town see The tVestem Censor (Indi- 
anapolis public library). June ti, rSa.v 



1 8 The Indiana M^azku of History 

» 

Delftware Indijans,^ whawere great experts in playing it, and were 
inveterate •gamblers. I well recollect frequently seeing them . {lay- 
ing the game, which was then called '^moccasin/' and was played 
in this wise: 

**The professioQal gambler would spread upon a smooth, level 

:gras6 plat a large, well-dressed deer. skin,, upon which he would 

place in a semi-circular form, within convenient reach of the player, 

a halfrdozen newly-made moccasins. The game consisted in the 

use of a large-sized bullet held in his hands and shown to those 

looking cm and desiring, to take part in the game,, and then, in a 

hurried and very dextrous manner, placing his Jiand under each 

.moccasin, leaving the bullet under one of them. Betting; was then 

made as to which one of the moccasins the bullet was mder. As 

the manner of shuffling the hands under each moccasin was done 

so rapidly and skilfully that it was impossible for the by^standers 

to see. under which the bullet was left, it will thus be seen that the 

.chances were largely in .favor of the gambler. 

*/Thefew whites inclined in this direction learned this game from 
the Indians, and after the removal of the latter from, the country 
kept up the game, using private rooms and covered tables in place 
of grass plat and buckskin; and for want of moccasins, using caps, 
and changing the name from ''moccasin" to ''bullet." this game 
continued to be played to such an extent as to cause the legislature 
to enact a law making it a finable ofiense. This law, with the in- 
troduction of the more secret and convenient means of gambling 
still'inuse, soon caused the game of bullet to become one of the 
lost arts.f 

^The cmme was alto a favorite one with the Miamis and Pottowattomiea. 
' fQtt^tyH-lmtht **ahell'*'^me of the present day a annriving form of "moocaain?" 



•*>.. 




Gleaned from the Pioneers 

[Under this he«dtii|^ we wtU aim to present, from iMoe t» .iBsaernnHinift- 
cences gathered at firBt-hand from aurviving pioneers,. and wiitten im $, popolar 
vein. While the Indian story, immediately below, does not faiii precisely 
within this scope, it seems as good a place as any to insert {€~^Ed,'] 

An* Indiak Story 

ALONG the Wabash and Mississinewa livers, iBc^iortltem 
Indiana, where the red man^uid his. traditional lore am not. yet 
quite f(»^otten, there lingers many a fugitive story.whidk has^^wver 
found the publicity of print. Those who kadw them; an: yearly 
becoming scarcer, but an industrious collector mightstiU* glean: an 
interesting harvest. Here is a sample which we ^ have picked. ' up 
from Gabriel Godfroy, a son of Francis Godfroy, who was the i last 
war-chief of the Miami Indians. • Gabriel. Godfroyy the aiost Rotable 
Indian, now to be found in Indiana, lives a few mile&east of'th^ tity 
of Peru, on a small remnant of the ample lands once reserved to 
his father.* With the true primitive instinct he treasurer the un- 
written history of his people as it has been handed down from sire 
to son, and this story , toid in/a quaint style that must be largely 
lost in the writing, is only one of .many. The narmtive ia^grue- 
some, but reflects the Indian life* and spirit^ and: has the'^-ethnic 
value — ^the value of the folk-s(ory. 

Once a young Miami brave took to wife a daughter of the *Wea 
tribe, further down the Wabash,, and because of her left his vown 
people to go and live amoi\g the strangers. While the Mianu > was 
still a stranger a marauding band of Kickapoos ^ugkt and', sealped 
a.Weawoman, and the cr^^. arose for vengeance^ A' council -was 
held, and when the braves sat in circle the head man of ^ the village 
passed around with a war club, offering it to each in turn. If one 
took the club it signified that he accepted the leadership of a war 
party to pursue the enemy; but that not only meant danger— itc also 
meant disgrace to the leader if the expedition £Euled. ^One hf^ one 
the braves let the club pass.. Ere it reached the Miami he tbdtlght 
much. To accept it was to risk 4nuch, but to let it pass was to show 
fear, and he had his reputation to establish among his new friends; 
so when it came to him he took it and became chief of the war ]>arty , 
pledged to avenge the wrongs done his people. 

*8iiice writlBir the above we andcratmd that GabrieT han to«t even this remnaiiL 



20 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Then the armed braves started out on the trail. Ere long tbey 
came to the rude picture of a buck cut on the bark of a tree. This 
was the totem sign of the leader of their foes, and the carving was 
an act of bravado. When they saw the sign the Weas paused and 
spoke discouragingly to each other. They knew the Buck. His 
boldness and his craft were notorious, and often before they had 
sought vengeance for his deeds, but to no avail. To pursue him 
now was of no use, they said, and they would have turned back; 
but their Miami leader said no — they must follow and pit cunning 
against cunning. So they followed for many miles, the trail grow- 
ing hotter, till at length they came in sight of their enemies' smoke. 
Then they went warily as wild beasts creeping upon their prey, and 
when they had drawn near two of them, disguised as wolves, crept 
closer yet and found the Kickapoos lolling beside their fire, the 
leader being distinguished by a buck tattooed upon his thigh. 
When the two Weas returned to their companions a council was 
held. They outnumbered their foes, and it was decided that the 
party should creep up and, if possible, kill all but the Buck — him 
they would take alive and be revenged for all the trouble he had 
caused them. They managed well, and the Kickapoos were shot 
down before they could oflFer fight, but when they came to lay hands 
upon the Buck he was so strong that he threw them aside like chil- 
dren till one Wea, older and more experienced than the others, 
struck him across the muscles of his arms with a war-club, when 
his hands fell powerless. So they took and bound him. When the 
Buck saw that no further resistance could avail he bade his captors 
bum him then and there and save themselves trouble, for he would 
not go with them to be sport for their village. This was not what 
they wished, for their greatest glory would be to return to their 
people leading their prisoner in triumph to be sacrificed before them 
all. No cruel forcing that they could devise, however, would make 
him go. He taunted them, defying them to bum him there, until 
at length they bound him to a tree and piled the fagots about him. 
When the fire began to bum he asike<l for a pipe to smoke. It was 
given him, and as the flames Hcketl ttlxmt his flesh he calmly smok- 
ed until, the life slowly driven out, the pi|>e dn^pped from his mouth 
and he hung limp in his Ixmds. So he frustratetl his enemies at the 
last, but they retumeil in triumph, having ridded themselves of the 
Buck, and the young Miami had won glory for himself. 



Gleaned from the Pioneers 2 1 

But glory, among the red men as among the white, is sometimes 
harder to maintain than it is to gain. In course of time another 
hostile band committed depredation upon the Weas, and again the 
Miami, who had succeeded so well before, led a party in pursuit. 
The trail they followed led across a little swampy place, and from 
the end of a log the fugitives had passed over the soft ground, each 
leaping in the tracks of the first one. When the leader of the Weas 
came to the end of the log he too leapt into the first foot-print made 
by their enemies, and he found himself out- witted by their cunning; 
for in this first track they had skilfully sunken an arrow with the 
barb pointing upward and concealed just beneath the surface. On 
this he came with all his weight and ran his foot through and 
through, so that his party had to carry him back home humiliated 
with failure. 



Early Days at DePauw 

ONE of the sprightliest '*recollectionists'* in Indianapolis is the 
venerable John W. Ray, Hoosier octogenarian, who during 
his long life has been in the thick of things, and whose memory is 
good. Some sixty years ago Mr. Ray entered the walls of DePauw 
College, or, as it was then called, Asburj' University, to equip him- 
self for the battle of life, and what he has to say about it will per- 
haps be of interest to DePauw folks, and some others as well. 

**In those days,*/ says Mr. Ray, **the boy who had his way paid 
and his path made easy and pleasant was the exception. The large 
proportion of them were of the pioneer type — poor boys, many of 
them from the farm, who had to live at the minimum cost and work 
at a maximum pressure. Their clothes were generally home-spun, 
and fashioned by the loving hands of self-sacrificing mothers. Un- 
der-clothes were regarded as effeminate, and were rarely worn, and 
such superfluities of toilet as are now worn for the sake of adorn- 
ment were but little in evidence. 

**When I went there, in the early '40s three of us rented a room 
for two dollars per month that was sumptuously furnished with a 
stove and two or three chairs, an old bedstead and a straw tick, 
which latter we were privileged to replenish at the straw-pile when 
we wished. Here we cooked, ate, studied and slept. Our board 



22 The Indiana Magazine of History 

bills averaged about one dollar per w^k, and the fare gave us. abun- 
dant strength to fight our way through Greek, Latin, mathematics 
and the applied sciences. 

When James Harlan from Parke County can^e there with ^ 
worldly effects done up in a beggarly bundle no one seemed willing 
to trust him for his board, so he went to the president and offered 
to do janitor work in the college for the use of a vacant room in the 
building. The room was granted him and he managed to live there 
and board himself, and in the end was one of those who have hon- 
ored old Asbury. When he graduated he had not even a coat to 
don, and in lieu thereof wore a calico dressing gown supplemented 
by a pair of old slippers on his feet. About that time the Iowa 
University was established, and soon after a cotpmittee from that 
State came to Asbury in search of a good man for their president. 
Harlan was recommended to them; he was sent for, and within 
thirty days after his graduation in the dressing-gown he was in- 
stalled as the new president of the new college. He became a 
prominent citizen of his adopted State. In* the winter of *45-'46 
the Iowa legislature established a Department of Public Instruction, 
and Harlan, although he was a Whig and the legislature was Dem* 
ocratic, was chosen as superintendent. Subsequently he was hon- 
ored with other offices, among them that of the U. S. senatorship. 
He was Secretary of the Interior in President Lincoln's cabinet, and 
also judge in the Court of Claims. James Harlan was a cousin of 
Judge Harlan, of the Supreme Court Bench. He was the best de- 
bater, the best logician and the best judge of men I ever knew. He 
never wrote his speeches, but filled himself full of his subject and 
out of that falness spoke with eloquence and spontaneity. 

*'And by the way, do you know that Indiana has furnished 
more citizens and more Methodists to Iowa than to any other State 
in the west ?. 

**One of the brightest students of old Asbury, and one who, I 
feel sure, would have made his mark had he been spared, bore the 
odd name of Greenberry Short. Short came as a homeless wan- 
derer to the office of Judge Samuel Hough, of Lafayette, and solic- 
ited a job as office boy. Hough employed him, and before long 
noticed that the lad spent all his leisure time dipping into the law 
books. Becoming interested in him he encouraged him to enter 
Asbury, rendering him such assistance as lay in his power. While 



Ginned from tbe ^Pionetrs 23 

tb^e he made bis may by doing janitor service and such work as 
off^ed itself. He carried tff the honors of his class, and after 
graduation returned to study law in Judge Hough's office. But the 
confinement proved fatal to him. He fell a victim to hasty con- 
sumption and was cut off in the flower of his promise. I remem- 
ber that we celebrated, or attempted to celebrate, Greenberry's 
twenty-first birth-day in a way HI our own. His face was pecu- 
liarly soft and smooth, and taking our cue from that, we seized him 
and bore him in triumph to a private room where one of the boys 
was ready with a big basin and soap, a painter's brush and a huge 
pruning knife. His face and head was plentifully lathered prepara- 
tory to his maiden shave, but before the pruning knife could be sip- 
plied the victim made a break for liberty and escaped down street, 
lather and all.- 

"Daniel W. Voorhees was in the class just before mine. Voor- 
hees was good in belle lettres, rhetoric and history, but in mathe- 
matics, logic, languages, or in fact anything that took hard work, 
he fell short. He wa3 no such man as Harlan. Voorhees' acquire- 
ments were on the surface, Harlans' in the depths. 

"I Inay add that in those da3rs there was no football, no baseball 
and no college yells. Bo3rs who were hungry enough for knowl- 
edge to work their way to it by hands as well as by brains had less 
need of those gentle diversions. We did, however, play townball 
and cricket somewhat. We were also sturdy ramblers, and as to 
our gymnasium it was, practically, all of Putnam County." 



"Uncle Joe** Brown Talks 

ONE of the "walking encyclopedias" of information toudiing 
things historic is "Uncle Joe" Brown, who, although bent with 
the weight of many years and patiently expectant of the Summons, 
still holds his desk in the County Clerk*s office, at Indianapolis, 
where he does diligent daily service in the rounding out of a hviisf 
life. A well-directed question suffices to start Uncle Joe^ and he 
will reel you off a medley whidi turns this way or that as one 
theme suggests another. 



24 The Indiana Magazine of History 

We were nosing among the old records of the Marion County 
Commissioners* office, and finding sundry allusions to the office of 
**fence viewer'* we went to Mr. Brown to learn what a fence- viewer 
might be. He told us all about it. In early days, it seems, when 
there were large unclaimed tracts and much stock had the range of 
the country, there was considerable trouble with animals breaking 
into growing crops, what with breachy **critters** and poor fences. 
This caused no end of wrangling — so much so, indeed, that a law 
was passed defining a **legal fence,'* or one that in law should be 
considered a sufficient guard. Along with this went a functionary 
whose business it was to judge whether a man's fence was up to the 
legal standard when his neighbor's hungry hordes visited his suc- 
culent com. This was the **fence- viewer." As the country came 
to have less waste land and the liberties of the omnivorous cow and 
elm-peeler were restricted the services of the viewer fell into desue- 
tude and he passed into forgotten history. In importance and dig- 
nity the office ranked along with that of road supervisor. 

Something in this reminded Uncle Joe of a story of ex- Presi- 
dent Tyler. After John Tyler retired from the presidential office 
his neighbors of the other party, as a sort of a practical joke, and 
also, perhaps, to show their opinion of his capacity, got together 
and elected him road-master; but they wote not they were casting a 
boomerang. John accepted the office. The Virginia law gave this 
functionary almost unlimited power in calling out citizens for road 
service, and the distinguished road-master made the most of his 
privileges. For about three months that year, in season and out of 
season, he worked his constituency on the public highways till they 
wished they hadn't done it. Tyler stood the **joke" better than 
they did. and the traveling public got the benefit. 

**Did you know," queried Mr. Brown, **that JeflFerson, Madison 
and Monroe were all justices of the peace after serving as President 
of the United States?. They were, and they thought the humbler 
office worthy of them — which shows a more democratic spirit than 
we find to-day. Besides, JeflFerson and Monroe left the presidential 
chair poor, and the justice's fees were not to be sneezed at in those 
simple days. I don't know about Madison's circumstances — proba- 
bly Dolly looked after them with her characteristic vim. 

**I remember Dolly Madison. When I was a clerk in the United 
States Senate she used frequently to visit that body and sit as a 



Gleaned from the Pioneers 25 

guest of honor beside the Vice-president. They were wont to show 
h^r every mark of respect. Whenever she appeared business would 
be suspended for the moment and she would be gallantly escorted to 
her seat, usually by the venerable John Quincy Adams. She was 
a fat old woman of seventy then, and he eighty-eight, and as they 
marched up the aisle with stately gravity they were a pair to be 
remembered. 

John Quincy Adams — ^ah, there was a Nestor for you! He has 
been frequently spoken of as *the Old Man Eloquent,' but that does 
not fitly characterize him. He had a squeaky voice, was not pre- 
possessing as a speaker, and his power lay not so much in oratory 
as in learning. He seemed to have read everything, ancient and 
modem, and to have remembered everything. No one ever asked 
him about anything but he could make it the theme for an off-hand 
dissertation full of erudition. Withal, he knew how to use his 
learning with trip-hammer effect. On one occasion Henry A. Wise, 
of Virginia, eloquently and scathingly arraigned the abolitionists 
for the mischief they were fomenting. Wise was a genuine orator, 
and when he was done the abolitionists and their cause looked a 
sorry spectacle. Then Adams arose to reply, and he took an hour 
at the task. At the end of that hour Wise was simply annihilated, 
and his argument, from first to last, torn to tatters. Mere oratory 
and super-heated feeling stood no show at all against countless facts 
and sound logic. Wise himself, in response, said, with as much 
grace as possible, that Mr. Adams might advocate any proposition 
whatsoever and he, for one, would not again venture to enter the 
lists against him. I remember one little thing that illustrated 
Adams' Yankee caution. It was the custom of the Senate pages 
to secure autographs of the notables, which, no doubt, they dis- 
posed of to their own profit. I noticed repeatedly that Mr. Adams, 
when he honored these requests, had a habit of signing his name at 
the top of the sheet or slip, leaving very little margin alxjve. Curi- 
ous to know why he did this I once asked him about it, and in reply 
he squeaked: *I do that so no one can write a note over my name.* 
I was sitting near Mr. Adams and was one of those who carried him 
out of the Senate chamber when he was stricken down. He col- 
lapsed in his seat as if shot, but rallied enough to gasp: *And this 
is the last of earth!' And so passed u great man. 



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CONTRIBUTIONS 

The Laws of Indiana as Affected by the 

Present Constitution 



By W. W. Thornton 

Autkor of Thornton* s Revised StatuUs, The Gov't of the State of Indiana, etc. 



THE first Constitution of the State of Indiana was completed 
and adopted June 29, 18 16, and the State was admitted to the 
Union the nth of the following December. The second Constitu- 
tion was completed February 10, 185 1, and went into force the ist 
day of the following November. 

The Constitution of 1 85 1 was not secured without a struggle 
which extended over many years. The Constitution of 1816 pro- 
. . , . p vided that every twelfth year the question of calling a 
AJIieccaeBl rro- convention to revise or amend it should be submitted 
YISIOBS 01 m ^^ ^1j^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^jj^ general election, held for the elec- 
^ecofid tons I D ^^^^ ^^ Governor. The first twelfth year came in 1 828, 
when only ten counties reported, 8,909 votes being cast on the sub- 
ject. Of the§e, 3,329 were in favor of ^nd 5,580 against calling a 
conventioi^. At the election in 1840 only 38 counties reported, and 
41,823 votes were cast, 7,489 for and 34,334 against a convention. 

This provision of the Constitution requiring a vote every twelfth 
year was regarded as only directory, and not to prohibit a vote on 
m ,-, the question of revising at any election held to elect a 

I WCJUD-YWr governor. Under this interpretation of that provision 

rroYiso, inler- ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ j^ ^g^^. ^^^^ ^^^^ 62,018. with 33, 

pmauOD 01 j^^ favoring, and 28,843 against. While a majority 
of all votes cast on the question was in favor of the convention yet 
the Constitution required that the number should be a majority of 
all votes cast at the election; and as 126,123 were cast for the 
gubernatorial candidates the number voting in favor of the conven- 
tion was not a majority of all votes cast at the election. In 1849 
the question was a fourth time submitted, the result being a vote of 
81,500 in favor of the convention to 57,418 against it — a majority of 
6,612 votes over all votes cast at the election for all the candidates 
for any one office. 

The causes that prompted the calling of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1850 are reflected in its provisions, and have left their 



28 The Indiana Magazine of History 

imprint on all subsequent legislation. The territorial laws were 
|, g ^j . often very crude, and not infrequently is this also true 
u^L IW^ of those adopted under the constitution of 1816. In 
■Jjj^^^**" 1824, 1832, 1838 and 1843 general revisions of these 
^^* State laws took place. That of 1824 was almost 

wholly the work of Benjamin Parke, and was a marked improve- 
ment over the laws that preceded it, but the revisions of 1832 and 
1838 were largely re-prints of laws already enacted, while that of 
1843 was so radical in form and introduced so many changes as to 
be quite unsatisfactory. 

The first legislature after the adoption of the constitution of 
1 85 1 revised the entire body of our laws. That instrument required 

g, I ^ , the appointment of commissioners to revise, simplify 

. ^~ yy and abridge the rules, practice, pleadings and forms 
J* ^I^j^ ^f ^^ court, and to provide for abolishing distinct forms 
llisUluH ^£ action then in force, that justice might be adminis- 
tered in a uniform mode of pleading and the distinction between law 
and equity preserved.* The constitution made it the imperative 
duty of the legislature to bring about these changes through the 
agency of a commission. It also authorized it to empower the com- 
missioo to revise the entire body of our statute laws, but this the 
legislature reserved to itself. 

One of the most noticeable di£Rerences in the l^slation before 
and after the adoption of the new constitution is the manner in 

^ j_ ^ which statutes are amended. Under the old consdtu- 

y*~ y*. _ tion they were frequently changed or amended by 
INrr Uf nrw pp^viding that a certain word or words in a certain 
liiSailUil Yixi^ of a certain section in a certain act should be 

strii^en out and certain other ^vrds inserteii. This is the method 
5iti" punmed by Conjnvss, The practice creates great confusion, 
and it is nv^t al\ra\*5 an easy task to determine the effect of statutes 
After the amendment is made. Under otir present method the 
amended sectivMi mtist be definitely reternxi in the amending act, 
and then the section as aniomUHi set out in tull Formerly, under 
wec*si^Mis of the Supreme Cottrt, it was necess;ir\' to set out in fall 
the old section, anv? then iT\ tuM the s^x^tivm^ as amended, but a later 
interpretation of the c^^nstitutu^n bv that cvnirt i^ermits the omis- 






The Laws of Indiana 29 

sion of the old section, thus simplif3ring the process. 

Another noticeable change is that the laws with very few excep- 
tions are of a uniform and general application throughout the 
«^,.. . 1 .. State. Prior to 1851 our statute books were loaded 
^ m? r ? ^^^ ^^^ special legislation. Every city was incor- 
nnder m lOlrt. pirated by a law particularly its own, and there was 
no general law for their incorporation until after that date. Towns 
were incorporated in the same way. A stranger entering a town or 
city was chargeable with notice of the laws of the place, and was 
bound to obey them, and yet he could not know what they were 
until he had examined the charter of the city or town. It was 
nothing uncommon to vacate a street or even an alley by special act 
of the legislature. Prior to 1851 a temperance wave had swept over 
the State, taking a stronger hold on the people in one locality than 
in another. The result was a great patchwork of statutes relating 
to the subject. In some counties prohibitory laws were in force, 
while in others a license was required. Even in the same county 
these differences prevailed, some of the townships being **dry" 
while others were **wet". 

There was no uniformity in the schools, the laws being as va- 
rious with reference to the subject of public education as those 
I t aT IT • concerning the sale of intoxicating liquors. The pub- 
IMI 01 UIU- |£^ schools were poor — ^far below the standard prevail- 
lorillj jjjg, today. Practice and pleading in our court are 

now uniform, but before 1851 such was not the case. In a county 
in particular instances a certain practice had to be observed; in an 
adjoining one, another, and in a third still another. Even the prac- 
tice in several townships of the same county before justices of the 
peace was not uniform, and a special law for the election of a justice 
of the peace in a particular township was not uncommon. Nor 
were the laws of taxation uniform. One county could levy a cer- 
tain tax while another could not levy it; and this difierence often 
extended to townships of the same county, or to cities and towns. 

There is also a vast body of legislation, of a date prior to 1851, 
that is called "private'' legislation, because it is of a private and 
P^ I , . not a public character. Prior to 1847 each corporation 
r il fSl ^^ incorporated by an act of the legislature pertain- 

r «t??' ^°^ ^^ ^^ ^^"^* ^^^ ^^^ '^charter". At the session 

lOlHllliUII ^f 1846-7 the first law of a general character for the 



30 Tbi Indiana Magazine of 

inooiporatioa of vohmtaiy associations was enacted, but it was Um- 
ited in its scope. Academies, seminaries, coll€;ges, private schools, 
UtsarieSy railroads^ manufadnring and trading companies of all 
kinds» planing miUs^ saw mills, and even brass bands were iaoorpcH 
nUed by private acts of the Ic^^islatore. This practice beeanie a 
great burden to that body. Thns at the five sessions prior to that 
of 1843-4 ^^ number of octavo pages of the private laws were res- 
pectively i3o, 301, 365, 431 and 636; while those of the general 
laws were re^xctively only 122, 92, 135, 164 and 125. Within the 
eight years prior to 1846 more than four hundred private acts of in- 
corporation were enacted. 

Under the old constitution the l^;islature could grant divorces, 
and 83 were granted* 40 of them at the session of 1845-6. Under 
the pres^it constitution none can be granted by this method. Un- 
der the present constitution each statute can embrace only one sub- 
ject, and the subject-matter must be embraced within the title. 
There was no sudi requirement under the old constitution. The 
object of this provision is to prevent undesirable legislation slipping 
through, and to give all legislation as much publicity as is conven- 
iently possible. 

Another reason for a new constitution was the resentment in the 
• . n breasts of many toward the State Bank and its branch^ 

fc ''^ f??^ es, and the monopcdy it held in banking matteo in 
wr ICf UDBSL ^j^^ State. It had become a very lucrative source of 
income to its stock-holders, who were mostly influential Whigs, 
and the Democrats dreaded their influence in State affiiirs. Many 
of the latter, therefore, favored a revision of our banking laws so 
as to overthrow the bank. Still another reason, growing out of 
the disastrous State internal improvement legislation, was to adopt 
measure to prevent the lending of the State's fonds or credit to 
private enterprises. 

These were some of the features in our laws that brought about 
the calling of the convention of 1850. Others were the election of 
the judiciary and all State and county officers by popular vote; 
biennial instead of annual sessions of the legislature, and the elec- 
tion of members of the general assembly from single dstricts. The 
year 1850 was also the end of two decades of constitutional con- 
struction and revision in many of the SUtes of the Union. That 



The Laws </ Indiana 31 

Mftvantot ii ^^ ^^^ ^ decided kiflueiice in bringing about the call 
Mmp SMfiH ^^^ ^ convention. In 1830 Vlrgiaia bad adopled 

constitution; in 1831^ Delaware; in 1832, Misifa 
iu J^8j5t JKichigan (although not admitted until )iS^)i in 18^ 
Arkansas; in 1838, Pennsylvania a^d Flwda (although the totter 
was not admitted until 1845); in 1842, Rhode Island; in 1844, Njew 
Jersey; in 1845, Louisiana and Texas; in 1JB46, Jowa and New York; 
in 1848, Illinois and Wisconsin; in 1849, California; in X850, Ken- 
tucky and Michigan. In Maryland and Ohio the subject had been 
so much under discussion that in ^851 both these States adopted 
new constitutions. 

IMI^vfttMlfir ^^^ ^^^ enacted at tbe£rst session of the l^slature 
Bm. iw^auu ^^ ^^ adoption of the present constitution were a 

deaded improvement over previous statutes. Of 
€X>urse there were radical changes required by the new fundamental 
law» but even where no changes were sp required many were made. 
There were many improvements vq^n the draft of the statute^ for 
the legislators had the old statutes before them^ and it was an easy 
thing to improve upon them. . The general body of the law was 
made more certain, and in many instances not so complex. 
m J- - - The crown of the work of legal r^ormation was the 
e^iA^oSm ^^ codes— th^ dvil and Jthe criminal. These were 
vrmnu vwcs ^^^^ work of the Commissionecs of Revision^ and well 
they did their work. New York, in 1,846, had adapted a code of 
civil procedure — the £rst in this country — ^which served as 9 model 
for our revisers, as well as a model for many other States since the 
adoption of our code. David Dudley Field, in many respects her 
greatest lawyer, had written her code* and the impress of bis genins 
has been felt in many of the States of the Federal Union. The In- 
diana codes — especially the dvil code— «re models of legal wnHH^. 
The commissioners that revised them in 188 1 made few changiv sad 
added little to tbent« but whajt they did was aa improveoueat. The 
uew codes introduced great and radical changes in the practice of 
the law, sweeping away a brood of fictions and technicalities that 
rendered the practice uncertain, cumbersome and unnecessarily 
prolix. Strange as it may be» the reformation of our practice in 
the courts waS' brought about largely by the laity, and against the 
opposition of a majority of the memib^rs of the )<Qg^ profession. 



3 2 Tbi Indiana Magazine of History 

A ^ »^. The statntes of our State are not as well written as 
if Stititui^ those of some of the older States, nor as well as those 

of the United States, but there is a marked improve- 
ment in them in this respect over our early statutes. The Commis- 
sioners of Revision in 1881 presented to the legislature drafts of 
many statutes that failed to pass that body, which would not cmly 
have introduced many reforms into our legislation but greatly im- 
proved existing statutory law. Many of our statutes should be 
re-written and simplified. This is especially true of the school law, 
which is a mere hodge-podge of statutes enacted during the last 
thirty-seven years, often so obscure that no man can tell what the 
law is upon a particular question. In the writing of statutes one 
of the cardinal principles to be kept in view is that a statute with 
which the people en masse have to deal should be not only dear in 
its language, but explicit and minute in detail. Statutes that 
courts deal chiefly with may be more general in terms and omit de- 
tails in many instances, the courts having the power to supply the 
latter often when necessary to carry out their provisions. Such a 
statute will not do, however, where the people en masse deal in mi- 
nute particulars directly with its provisions. The dvil and criminal 
codes are written in general terms, but the tax and Australian bal- 
lot laws are written in great detail, the language used in them bdng 
explidt and dear. They are models of statutory writing. The 
laws on taxation and elections are not only a great advancement 
over the laws of the past on those subjects, but are much better and 
more clearly written than those of the past. 

Beginning with 1888 the volume of our legislation has annually 
been very large as compared with that of the previotis years. Many 
I ' t Hm statutes are now in force on subjects where prior to 

^FJ'Tr 1 85 1 none existed. This is due to the change in th^ 

Jr^? ff. condition of the country and the advance in dviliza- 

vHUllHI ^^jjj^ There have arisen new conditions, new methods 
of doing business, new opportunities to commit crimes, and these 
had to be met. Necessity in old countries requires the statutes to 
be more numerous, more minute in detail, and usually more com- 
plicated than in new countries, and for this reason a new revision of 
our statute laws can be but a matter of time; though to undertake 
to secure such revision now would be a Herculean task. 



The State Library— Its Character and Aims 



By W. E. Henry, State Librarian 



^ I^HE history of the State Library at its beginning and for many 

^ years after is a rather sorry story of a perfunctory institution 

n. i . 1 that existed, not in response to a real demand, but 

because the legislature had said it should. It was es- 
tablished in 1825 as a department of the oflSce of Secretary of State, 
for the purpose of furnishing information for the oflScers of the 
State when at the capital — or, as the law read: for **the members 
of the Legislature, the secretaries and clerks of each House thereof, 
the oflScers of the several branches of the executive department of 
the State government, the judge of the United States District 
Court, the United States District Attorney, the judges of the Su- 
preme Court of this State, and the judges of the Circuit Courts 
when they or any of them may be at the seat of government.** 
Subsequent statutes gradually broadened the scope of the library 
and extended its privileges. In 1841 it became a separate institu- 
tion and was removed from the Secretary's oflSce. 

The State Library was for many years a political oflSce. It was 
understood to belong to the party in power, and the party majority 
in the legislature always elected to the oflBce of librarian a man of 
the right political faith. It was at once a reward for party service 
and an earnest of party support. Men who are put into oflSce for 
these reasons are not put in for special fitness, and whatever fitness 
there might be is largely accidental. The party-chosen State libra- 
rians were, presumably, not an exception to this rule; and the quali- 
fications they possessed stood small show of useful development, 
what with uncertain tenure of oflSce and miserly allowance of funds. 
The latter handicap of itself would have eflFectually prevented 
the usefulness of the library however capable the librarians, and as 
a matter of fact the library had practically no growth for the first 
fifty years of its existence. At the end of that time the collective 
wisdom had got so far away from the idea of the library as a politi- 
cal adjunct as to elect women to the oflSce, and it should be noted 
that these, so far as can be judged from the evidence at hand, seem 
to have been the first incumbents to have the welfare and future of 
the library at heart. Sarah A. Oren (1873-5), appealed for a larger 



34 ^bt Indiana Magazine of History 

appropriation and affirmed that "the great State of Indiana calls 
loudly for a well-filled reference library." Maggie F. Peelle (1879- 
'81) did a good work by starting the collection of books by Indiana 
writers, and it was by her advice that the library of the late Daniel 
Hough was purchased; and equal credit must be given to others. 

In 1889 Mr. J. P. Dunn became librarian and, through some 
seemingly miraculous influence, succeeded in securing a most 
liberal appropriation. After two years, however, this ftmd was re- 
duced and remained wholly inadequate until two years ago, when 
the people of the State and the legislature began to see the desira- 
bility of more liberal treatment. In consequence, the library now 
has a much better outlook than at any time in its past, 
n- *• f ir 1° 1^95 ^ l^w was enacted removing the library from 
''^ •'»•»• partisan politics, and its management was placed in 
pamsaB UDnry ^^ hands of a non-partisan board — ^the State Board of 

™ Education. It was not to be managed as part of the 

school system, but was so placed because this board was thought to 
be as clear of partisan bias as any body of persons in the State, and 
at the same time it possessed a special degree of fitness because the 
majority of its members were men of the highest educational quali- 
fication. This board represents all parts of the State, and no person 
on it secures his place by virtue of political or religious affiliations. 
It is a board the membership of which can not change rapidly, and 
which, through political powers, cannot reward friends or punish 

_ • 

enemies. The policy of this non- partisan and ex officio board has 
been from the first, and is, that no person shall enter the service of 
the library who has not special qualifications for the work. 

« > o, The State I^ibrary has now* a collection of nearly forty 

™^ •" OWpi thousand volumes consisting largely of historical ma- 
*^"~y terial. This is composed of sources rather than sec- 

ondary matter, being made up chiefly of State government publica- 
tions, the publications of the United States government, and a very 
considerable collection of local records in the way of town, county 
and State histories, the printed archives from various States, and 
the histories of particular movements, institutions, sects and specific 
organizations working toward some specific ends. It should be 
added that the files of Indiana newpapers, particularly of the ear- 
lier years, are, I believe, ftiller and more valuable than exists 
elsewhere. 



The State Library 35 

o. . . jy „ State and United States publications are received by 
oim ina U. a. deposit and exchange, demanding no expenditure of 



, I • J money, so that all our purchases are in the lines of 
WW Aeqund history, economics and sociology, and, as before said, 
mostly in source material. The library especially seeks those pub- 
lications which are either too bulky or too expensive to be owned 
and preserved by private or small public libraries. This makes it 
largely a reference library for historical purposes; yet it is now rap- 
idly becoming more than is implied in * 'reference'* or * 'historical.** 
y fliAjl f nj ^y ^^^ provisions of a law enacted by the last legisla- 
1 r Raa? ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Ubrary can now lend any but rare 
ealltlD; Boots ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ responsible citizen of the State if the 

borrower is willing to pay transportation charges. By this plan it 
is enabled to supplement the local library and to reach a consider- 
able number who do not have access to any local library. I hope to 
see the time when the State at public expense may place the book, 
not merely in the post or express oflS6e, but in the hands of the 
reader. Any argument that will justify the State in buying the 
book for the reader will equally justify delivering that book to him, 
whether he be far or near. 

n^. . I .. The State lyibrary makes ever>' possible effort to secure 
oNeiU UtUill ^j2 printed material that shall in any way throw light 
tOUOetlOB ^p^jj ^jjg history or present condition of Indiana. 

We purchase, so far as possible, every book or pamphlet ever writ- 
ten by an Indiana author, upon any subject; or by any author, of 
any time or place, upon any subject relating to the State's life. 
„ ,, .. When we have more ftmds I hope to see this institu- 

tion become a general reference library in all depart- 
ments of science and literature, so that almost any rational demand 
of the citizens of the State, within these lines, may be supplied; 
and I hope to- see the State ready to bear all expense to put the 
book into the hand of the reader in whatever part of the State he 
may be. A larger fund, however, is necessary to these conditions, 
and in the securing of such fund all citizens can have a voice. To 
every citizen a great and really useful institution of this character 
should be a matter of interest and pride. By such interest and 
pride you can materially help the library to grow and branch out 
into new fields of usefulness. We bespeak your co-operation. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 

Works on Indiana History 

[The following does not aim to be a complete list of works treating of or 
tributary to the history of Indiana. Such a bibliography would include a 
large amount of material of an indirect or local character that does not come 
within the scope of the present purpose, which is to present a brief account of 
such works as may be of use to the casual student having occasion for inquiry 
along these lines. We have also, by way of guidance to the uninformed, indi- 
cated what we conceive to be the respective values of the works considered. ] 



p 



RIOR to the work of John B. Dillon, whose Historical Notes 
was published in 1843, there was, practically, no written history 
I . n njii of Indiana, either as a State, as an American Terri- 
JOIU) a ImlOD xjQ^xy, or as a French possession — excepting, of course, 
the documents from which the orderly history was subsequently 
constructed. Dillon entered a virgin field with the prodigious labor 
of a pioneer before him, and, single-handed, as it were, worked his 
chosen part of this field so industriously and well that he still re- 
mains a leading authority upon the period covered by him. His 
first book, Historical Notes of the Discovery and Settlement of the 
Territory Northwest of the OhiOy was merged in the History of In- 
dianay which appeared in 1859. The title has been somewhat mis- 
leading to many unacquainted with the work, as it is almost wholly 
devoted to the early French occupancy and the Territorial period, 
the narrative proper ending with the admission of the State in 18 16. 
To this is added, however, **a general view of the progress of pub- 
lic affairs*' up to 1856. In the twenty pages devoted to this is 
condensed an amount of information that in the hands of a more 
verbose writer might have made a small volume. Not the least 
valuable part of Mr. Dillon's book are the appendices of Indian 
treaties and other documents. 

I p |. In our opinion the little volume by J. P. Dunn: Indi- 

. UUUD ^^^^ ^ Redemption from Slavery (1896), is, next to 

Dillon's book, the most notable contribution to Indiana's historical 
records. Like Dillon's work it is not a history of the State, but is, 
rather, a study of a particular phase of our earlier history — our 
relations to slavery. Incidentally the entire French and Territorial 
periods are dealt with, and the subject throughout added to by 
original research. Thorough as an investigator, taking full advan- 
tage of the researches of other students, and with a keen and search- 



Works on Indiana History 37 

ing reasoning faculty, Mr. Dunn reveals the genius of the genuine 
historian, and has the ability, none too common, to write history 
attractively without imperilling his authenticity. His work as a 
reference book stands the test of long and frequent usage. 

W R Ent I'flk ^^ Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River 
™ Ohio and the Life of George Rogers Clark, two large 

volumes by William H. English (1896), is an exhaustive study of 
one chapter in our earlier history. The full scope of Mr. English's 
plan was to write a voluminous history of the State, and this work 
that saw the light was but introductory to the larger scheme. Of 
the particular events with which he deals the two volumes named 
are the most thorough study extant, and as such have a value pro- 
portioned to the importance of those events. For years Mr. Eng- 
Ush was a collectcM* of rare and valuable material, and a considera- 
ble amount of this appears in the ''Conquest of the Northwest.'* 

ISaaJpUIi ATiHU "^ illustrated history of Indiana issued in 1875 under 
WOineil < lltUe ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ DeWitt C. Goodrich and Prof. Charles 

R. Tuttle, and which, in an enlarged form, re-appeared in 1879 
sponsored by Wm. S. Haymond, was then the only book in the field 
aiming to present the later history of the State, and so, perhaps, its 
existence was justified. It is chiefly distinguished by an over- 
burdened title-page advertising the phenomenal scope of the work. 
It has long since been relegated to the upper shelves where it rests 
in an oblivion quite comprehensible to any one who seeks it for 
historical enlightenment. 

W n Q«**k ^ ^^ ''complete" works, The History of the State of 

Indiana from the Earliest Explorations by the French 
to the Present Time, by William Henry Smith (1897), is ^^^ xxiosX, 
ambitious and the fullest. The writer unquestionably possesses a 
wide and varied fund of information; his subject-matter, made more 
attractive, perhaps, by arrangement into numerous topics that fairly 
well cover the State's story, is set forth in an easy, readable style, 
and it will doubtless hold its place as a popular history. To the 
more particular student, who is indisposed and who ought not to be 
asked to take things implicitly on faith, the book is less satisfactory. 
Mr. Smith tells us a surprising number of new things, but, unfortu- 
nately, does not at any time see fit to cite authorities. The possible 
suspicion that he prefers a flowing and readable narrative to strict 



$8 Tbi Indiana Magazine of History 

accuracy he has taken no pains to avoid, and for that reasob, if for 
no other, he will hardly be regarded as a reliable authority. 

If HmJ ' k '^^^ Popular History of Indiana^ a compilation by 
MH. noiuieil ygrions authors, but bearing the name of Mrs. T. A. 
Hendricks as sponsor, covers the whole period of our history up to 
1891, the date of publication. It may be regarded as a young peo- 
ples' history, and was the first published attempt in that line. For 
a work of its character it was a creditable product, and served its 
purpose for a time, but is about forgotten now. 

J .. o p ... The Young People's History of Indiana^ by Mrs. Julia 
JUll \ UttUm g cooklin (1899), fills admirably the need it aims to 
subserve. Within the compass of 375 pages it tells the story of the 
State's development in the style of one who knows the juvenile 
mind and has the literary skill to appeal to it. The work is con- 
scientiously done and, on the whole, is accurate, the few mistakes 
in it, so far as we have found, being of minor importance. For use 
in the school room it is the best book published so far, and as a con- 
venient reference book it is well worth a place on the library shelf. 

If Hi I Stories of Indiana, by Maurice Thompson, and Young 

W S fflSik ^^''^^ Indiana, by W. H. Glascock, are juvenile 
W1MC06I boQj^g designed to awaken in the youthful mind an 
interest in our history. The elements that best lend themselves to 
attractive narrative are chosen, and these are presented with literary 
ability, making a very desirable addition to our historical literature. 

W W W tL Biographical and Historical Sketches of Early Indiana, 
Jl. Jl. WOOllei ijy wilUam We^ey Woollen (1883), while chiefly 
biographical in character is yet an important contribution to the 
history of the State. It deals with personages closely identified 
with the State's life, many of whom, important as were their ser- 
vices, have no other biographer. Mr. Woollen, personally familiar 
for many years with men and affairs in Indiana, devoted long and 
arduous labor to collecting the material for this book, which is, and 
will always remain the source of information touching many notable 
Indianians whose names have all but dropped from public memory. 

p. .. n ,. The Government of the People of the State of Indiana, 

m\ BO? I i^y ^ ^ Rawles (1897), and The Government of the 
State of Indiana, by W. W. Thornton, are two small volu^ 
dealing with the civil development and the governmental machr 



fFarks en Indiana HUtory 39 

of the State. They are pioneer works in their line, snd, if we err 
not in reading the signs, point the way to a field where much work 
of a high quality and important character is going to be done. We 
refer to historical work with a distinctively sociological bearing. 
Such work, indeed, is already appearing, and there have recently 
been published two notable theses by college men which show the 
trend of historical thought in the universities. The tborotigh- 
going scholar, with wide knowledge of historical sources of the 
subject in hand, and who begrudges no pains in the attempt to 
search out and master complex data, is revealed by both these pro- 
ductions, and they sbotild certainly take rank among our really 
valuable historical material. 

mm. I |> 1 The first of these, in date of publication, is 7^ Wa- 
HMn J. DMM ^^^ jy^^ ^^^ ^.^ f^ Developmmt of the Old 
Northwest, by Elbert Jay Benton, Fellow in History in the Johns 
Hopkins University, published by that university eaiiy last year. 
In substance it is a study of the development of the W^»sh valley 
(and aocompan)ring influences) through the medium of the Wabash 
river, the Wabash & Erie canal, and, finally, of the railroads. He 
traces the effects of transportation facilities upon industries and 
commerce, upon agriculture, upon the distributi<m of population 
and urban growth. In developing his theme he probes deeper into 
the State's great internal improvement experiment than any other 
writer has yet done, asi& when that chapter of our history comes to 
be adequately treated Mr. Benton's pages will be of consideraUe 
help. Finally, this writer invests his subject not only with interest 
but with positive charm; and not the least mission of such literature 
is to pnHDOte the taste for history in its sociological aspect. 



40 Tbi Indiana Magazine of History 

and complex, but Professor Rawles' investigation of these goes fsit 
toward proving the thesis he maintains, i. e., that centralization is 
really a factor in progress. Aside from his argument and his con- 
clusions his hook, purely as a collection of historical facts, is no 
small addition to our records. Bducation, Charities and Corrections, 
the State and public Health, Taxation and the exercise of Police 
powers are successively considered in their historical developments, 
and in each branch of inquiry a valuable fund of information set 
forth; while in the generalization and grouping of these facts to 
show their direction and sociological significance, the author has 
doubly justified his labors. It is hoped that this is but a precursor 
of much more work of the same character. 

u* n n 1* In our reference above to the work of college men ii| 
n. r. ltal!lllDg j„^^^ j^jg^^^ ^^ overlooked a thesis which ante- 
dated the two just noticed by several years. This is The State 
Bank of Indiana, by William F. Harding, published by the Uni- 
versity of Chicago in The Journal of Political Economy for Decem- 
ber, 1895. This paper of 36 octavo pages, with an appendix of 
about equal length, is a careful and instructive study of the State's 
financial affairs during the life of the old State Bank, or from 1834 
to 1857. To say that it is a careful study of this important subject 
is to say that it is a real acquisition to our historical literature, and 
as such is every way worthy to rank along with the work of Mr. 
Benton and Mr. Rawles. If published by itself instead of being 
merely a feature in a periodical it would, probably, come to the 
notice of more people and be surer of a place in the library. 

n, I n , J TTie Institutional Influence of the German Element of 
rrCO J. Dartel ^^^ population in Richmond, Indiana, by Fred J. Bar- 
tel, was published within the last year as the second paper of «the 
Wayne County Historical Society. This is but a pamphlet of 27 
small pages, but is decidedly noteworthy as representing a kind of 
work which, it seems to us, might easily be promoted through the 
higher schools, and which, if so promoted, would certainly result in 
great gain. Mr. Bartel has attempted nothing very ambitious or 
complex — he has simply performed a modest task well. Stud3ring 
at first hand the material lying about him, and chiefly, we judge, 
by personal interviews, he has taken up one element of the popula-* 
tion of his city and carefully traced its history, its influences and its 



IV arks on Indiana History 41 

character as an integral part of the community. Mr. Bartd has 
done good pioneer work, and when the ideas of history study now 
obtaining in our colleges have shifted to another view-point, stu- 
dents from these institutions will rescue from their respective home 
localities data which, taken collectively, will be invaluable. 

n n I L^ « Tk€ New Harmony CammuniHes, by George B. Lock- 
WO.B.IiOClWO«« ^^j^ ^YiW^ ^ y^^ devoted to a locality, has yet a 

much wider interest. The romantic story of the New Harmony 
social experiment with the galaxy of remarkable personages it drew 
together is unique in our annals. Puller information touching it 
has long been in demand, and Mr. Lockwood, after long application, 
has recently published an extensive study that is brimful of interest. 

I|. u As intimated at the beginning of this list there are 

MSeeiiaoeOflS xmny works that touch the history of the State in one 
way or another, which hardly come under our present caption. 
Several of these, however, in addition to those noticed above, may 
be casually mentioned. Early Indiana Trials and Sketches, by 
Oliver H. Smith, U. S. senator and one of the State's leading law- 
yers in the earlier period, is an oft-quoted volume of reminiscences 
which gives many graphic glimpses of the political and legal life 
of his day, as well as pen portraits of contemporary notables. Re- 
collections of the Early Settlement 0/ the Wabash Valley, by Sanford 
C. Cox, is another, exceedingly readable, collection of reminis- 
cences that reach back to the early twenties. The New Purchase, 
by Ba3rnard R. Hall, represents things in and about Bloomington 
seventy-five years ago. Because of the fictitious and fanciful names 
given to places and persons, which make it largely unintelligible 
without a key, it is now but little read, and few, perhaps, know that 
as a circumstantial and vivid account of the life, surroundings and 
customs of our pioneer population, few other books compare y^th it. 
Indiana Miscellany, by W. C. Smith, contains considerable interest- 
ing matter of a reminiscent and anecdotal character. The His- 
tory of Education in Indiana, by Richard G. Boone, is the fullest 
study of that subject yet published. The Hoosiers, by Meredith 
Nicholsons, while primarily a literary study, yet deals with the 
historical forces that have made for literature within the State. 
The Indiana Historical Soc. Collection, a number of papers of excep- 
tional value, at present is two large volumes with a third in press. 



List of Indiana Newspapers 

On Fil« in the Indiana State Library at this date 

A$H€rican Nan-Cot^ormist, weekly, Inditiipolii. Jan. i, ^ ^ 
Sept. '98. 

Americ^m Tridtme, w. Indimapolis. '97 to date. 

Andenon Weekfy Dimocrat^ June 16 '93 to Dec 28, *94. 

AAgola Herald, w. June 7 *9il to Dec j6, '94; Jan. *97 to Dec. '98. 

Auburn Courier, w. July 13 '93 to Dec ay '94; Jan. i '97 to date. 

Auburn Despatch, w. May ^98 to date. 

Bloomfield Democrat, w. Jan. '88 to Dec. '94. 

Bloomfield News, w. Jan. '93 to Dec. '94; Jan. '97 to date. 

Bloomington Courier, w. Jan. 'oa to date. 

Bloomington I\>st, w. Nov. 6 '35 to Sept. 8 *4i. 

Bloomington World, w. June 15 *93 to Dec 37 '94. 

Blufflon Banner, w. June 14 '93 to '94; Jan. i *97 to date. 

Boone Coumfy Fioneer, w. Lebanon, Aug. 35 '55 to Jtdy 5 ^56. 

BrookvUle American, w. *oo to dale. 

Brookville Democrat, w. Jan. '97 to date. 

i'ambridge Reveille, w. Jan 13, *43 to Dec. 28 '50. 

Catholic Columbian Record, ludianapolis, w. '93, '94; *97 to date. 

Chcilefton THbune, w. '01 to date. 

Columboa Herald, w. June '93 to Dec. '94; Jan. to Oct '97. 

Columboa Republican, w. *88 to '94: Jan. '97 to date. 

i^aily EiYning: Mirror, Indianapolia, Not. 25 *68 to Dec 31 '69. 

I^mviUe Weekly .-Idx^tiser, July 18 '48 to Feb. 18 '51. 

Daviess County Democrat, w. Washington, June 24 '93 to I>ec 29 '94; 

Jan« '97 to date. 
IXf^rbom Independent, w. Lawrencebuig, Jan. 4 to Dec 19 '72. 
Delphi Dimes, w. June 16 "93 (o Dec. 28 '94. 
IVm^M-ratic WW^/r, FrankUn. '89, *9a. 
/Vmnh^vA w. Spencer. *q4. 

.* V«N^Yi4/t,^ A\x','^'«^» w. Lfawrenceburg. *72, 

4 V«ii^^vw/*« Nm^jtiV^ w. ReoMelaer, June '93 to Dec '94. 

IVnver /"^i.^^wa w> Jan, \^t to tUie. 

Ku^h^ .\>* .V w. \x^ 10 \l*te. 

K>'an«x\llc i***»tr», \l*il\, ri. 

K>*tt*\tlV %'*r«MA d J«l\ U* l^Ws **» 

K^)ntt\Hint .\«-«rs. w Un g- to Max a^\ \\*, 

,->•*<*,■*> ^•wf V*xJ*^»«*^5f/,"*»tK»*\ m. Vittoc^nvica. Vol i, Dec 14*21 

V\xrt VWxtw' *»a..:y^rA >i^^ '^» tv^ Nh, ^"^ "^^ 

.^'^•Ju/* » ^•^rm .*\*«»vN>%ii. '« A^tH>*u Vt K* '^ )*•- V to daBe, 

K^»t;\« , X-^^ini^^^^ ^ ^^ H> ^. >*• >i* tv"^ %l*tr 



Ntwspapirs in StaU Ldhrury 43 

Goshen Democrat, w. June '93 to Dec '94; Jan. '97 to date. 

Greencaatle Star-Preis, w. June 17 '9510 Dec 29 '94; Jan. '97 to date. 

Greenfield Herald, w. June 29 '93 to Dec 27 '94; Jan. *97 to 'oo. 

Hancock Democrat, w. Greenfield, June 8, »93 to Dec. 27 '94. 

Hartfoid City Telegram, w. Jan, '97 to date. 

Hobart Gazette, w. Jan. '97 to date. 

Hoosier Dewtoctat, -w. Cliarleatawn, Jan. '99 to date. 

Howard Cbumty Tribune, w. Kokomo. 'eS; »7o. 

Huntington News, w. '93, '94; >97, »98. 

ImUpemdemt IVess, w. Lawrenceburg, Oct rS, '50 to Aug. 22. '51. 
[This paper, «o iar as we can learn, was the first avowedly inde- 
pendent newspaper ai the State, and is the legitimate forerunner 
of our modem journals of that class. It was ezceptionallj well 
edited, and is one of the most interesting sheets on file in the 
SUte Ubrary.— i54/.] 

Indiana American, w. Brookville, Dec 29 '43 to '50; Dec 2, '52 to 
Dec. 2, *54; March 2 '55 to Oct. 23 '57; Sept. 10 »^ to Dec. 26 '60; 
Aug. 17 »7o to Dec. 30 71. 

Became Brookville American. 

Indiana Centinel, w. Vincennes. Vol. 3, May 22 * 19 to Sept. 8 '21. 
Very rare. 

Indiana Christian Advocate, w. Indiaaap*s, May 6 '86 to Aug. 11 "SS. 

Indiana Democrat, w. Indianapolis, Aug. 14 *30 to Aug. 6 *3i. 

Became the Sentinel. 

Indiana Farmer, w. Indianapolis, Jan. '40 to Feb. '41; Apnl 's^ to 
March '59; '89 to '94; '97 to date. 

Indiana Joumat of Commetve, w. Indianapolis, '70, '71. 

Indiana Radical, w. Richmond, '70. 

Indiana Repndlican, Madison. Vol. 5. Aug. 9 '21. 

Indiana Statesman, w. IndianapoHs, Sept. 3 *5i to Aug. 25 *52. 

Indiana Statts-Zietung, w. Fort Wayne, Jan. to June '72. 

Indiana Telegraph, w. Connersrille, March 16 '48 to Dec. 28 '48. 

Indiana True Democrat, w. Centreville, Feb. 6 '50 to Sept. 4 '62. 

Indianapolis Commercial, d. *68 to '71. 

Indianapolis Evening Gazette, d. *64; Nov. 18 *65 to June 3 *66; July 
4 *66 to Dec. 28 *66. 




to date. 

Indianapolis News, d. Dec. '69 to date, except: Jan. '76 to June '76; 
July *77 to Dec '77; Jan. '78 to June '78. 

Indianapolis Press, d. Dec 13 '99 to April 16 *oi. 

Indianapolis Sentinel, semi-w. and d. Semi* weekly from July *4i. 
Daily, complete to date except: April 28 '51 to March '52; May '54 
to June '56; Jan. '61; Nov. '65 to June »68; Juae '75; J«ly W 
to Dec. *88. 



44 Tht Indiana Magazint of History 

IndiAnapolk Times, w. July 15 '81 to Mmrcfa *8a; July to Sept. *83; 
'83 to Aug. 9 '86. 

Jasper Weekly Courier^ June '93 to Dec '94; Jan. '97 to date. 

Kewanno Herald, w. Feb. '97 to *oo. 

Kokomo Journal, w. '70. 

Kokomo Weekly Dispatch, June 8 '93 to Dec. 29 '94; Jan. '97 to '00, 

Lafayette Courier, d. Jan. i, '47 to Dec 2 '48; '50. 

l^f^ytltXit Journal, d. and w. Daily, April to Dec. '58; Feb. 15 '59 to 

*6o. Weekly, Jan. ^50 to Dec. *5i; June 10 to Dec. 30 '70; May 31 

to Nov. 29, *72; *93 to '94. 

Lake Co, News, w. Hammond, June 8 '93 to Dec. 27 '94; '97 to date. 

Lake County Record, w. Hammond, May 20 '93 to '94. 

Laporte Argus, w. June 3 '93 to Dec. 27 '94; *97 to dace. 

Lawrenceburg Register, w. '71; '88 to '94; Jan. '97 to '99. 

Lebanon Patriot, w, '97 to *oi. 

Ligonier Banner, w. June 8 '93 to Dec. 27. '94; '97 to date. 

Linton Call, w. *oo. 

Logansport Journal, w. *oi. 

Logansport Pharos, w. Feb. 2 '48 to Feb. 28 '53; Aug 29 '55 to July 
f6 '56; July 13 '59 to May 30 '60; •66 to *68; '70 to *72; June 14 '93 
to Dec. 26 *94; Jan. '97 to '99. 

Logansport Repot ter, w. Jan. '97 to date. 

Madison Tribune, d. and w. Daily, April 7 '51 to Jan. 21 '52. Week- 
ly, April 12 *5i to March 23 *53. 

Madison Courier, d. and w. Jan. 7 '52 to April 5 '54; '61, 62; '66; '68; 
•70; '88 to '94. 

Marshall Republican, w. Pl3rmouth, *oi to date. 

Miami County Sentinel, w. Peru, '91 to '94; '97 to date. 

Michigan City Dispatch, w. June 8 '93 to Dec. 27 '94; Jan. to Oct. '97. 

Mishawaka Democrat, June '97 to Dec. '98. 

Morgan County Gazette, w. Martinsville, '92.10 '94. 

New Albany Commercial, d. April 4 '65 to Nov. 27 '66. 

New Albany Daily Tribune, Sept. 22 '52 to Sept. 21, '59; March 22 
to Dec. 31 '60. 

New Albany Democrat, w. July '47 to Aug. '49. 

New Albany Ledger, d. and w. Daily, '52, '53; '58 to '6a Weekly, 
Sept. 27 '47 to Aug. 30 '54; Dec. 20 '54 to Aug. 26 '57. Odd num- 
bers, Aug. 29 '55 to July 16 '56. 

New Albany Ledger Standard, d. '72. 

New Harmony Gazette, w. Oct i '25 to Oct. 22 '28. Vols, i, 2 and 3. 

North Judson News, w. '97 to date. 

Parker News, w. July 7 '93 to Dec. 28 '94. 

People, The, w. Indianapolis, '71, 72. 

People's Friend, w. Covington, Jan. 2 '47 to Nov. 30 '50. 

jPerrysville Record, w. Jan. '97 to date. 

Peru Republican, w. June 16 '93 to Dec. 28 '94. 

IMymouth Democrat, w. June 15 '93 to Dec. '94; Jan. to Oct. '97. 

Plymouth Republican, w. May '97 to '00. 



Newspapers in State Library 45 

JhiUiaU Beacon, w. Lawxencebntg, Oct 6 '38 to Oct 19 '39^ 

Prairie Chieftain, w. MonticcUo, Sept. 17 '50 to Sept *54' 

Pnblic Press, New Albany, '9a to '94; '97 to date. 

J^UasJki County Democrat, w. Winamac, June '95 to Dec. '94- 

Recorder, w. Indianapolis, Jan. '99 to date. 

Referendum, w. Shoals, Aog. 8 '95 to Aog. 10 '99. 

Republican, Corydon, '97 to date. 

Richmond PaUladium, w. Feb. 2 '47 to Dec. *5o; '89 to '94. 

RipUy Journal, w. Osflrood, June '93 to Dec. '94; June '97 to date. 

Rockville Republican, w. Jan. '97 to date. 

St. Joseph Valley Register, w. South Bend, Jan. 7 to Dec. 38 •48- 

Salem Democrat, w. '90 to '94; '97 to date. 

Saturday Evening Mirror, Indianapolis, Feb. 29 *68 to Dec 26 *68; 

April 30 *7o to Dec. 31 '71. 
Silent Moosier, w. Indianapolis, Jan. 7 '92 to Dec. '94; '97 to date. 
Spencer Democrat, -w. '92, '93. 
^rU of *f6, w. Indianapolis, Feb. 26 to Nov. 28 '40. 
Spottvogel, w, Indianapolis, '69: '71, '73. 
^arke County Democrat, w. Knox, June '93 to Dec. '94. 
State Sentinel, w. Indianapolis, Jan. '02 to date. 

Taglicher Telegraph, Indianapolis, '67 to '73. 

Tell City I^ews, w. ^93, '94; '97 to date. 

Terre Haute Daily Express, Aug. 25 to Oct 3 '51; '5^- 

Terre Haute Daily Journal^ Aug. '71 to '72. 

Terre Haute Daily Union, *57. 

Union, The. w. Indianapolis, Oct '77 to date. 

Versailles Republican, w. June '97 to date. 

Vincennes Gagette, June 15, '33 to May 30. '35; J*n- » •4»-I>cc- a^ 'So. 

IVabash Atlas, w. Lafayette, Aug. 24 '48 to July 27 '30. 

JVabash Courier, w. Terre Haute, Jan. i '48 to July 5 '5^. 

mtbash Express, w. Terre Haute. Dec. 23 '46 to Dec. 15 '47- 

Washington County Democrat, w. Salem, Jan. '99 to June 28 '09. 
From Jan. to May called Salem Searchlight. 

Waterloo IWss, w. Jan. '97 to date. 

Weekly Journal, Lafayette, Jan. '97 to date. 

Western Register and Terre Haute Advertiser, w. July 21 '23 to 
Aug. 13 '23. 

Western Sun, w. Vincennes. Vol. i. No. i, July 11 '07 to Feb. 4 '32; 
Jan. 25 '34 to Dec. 23 '43; March 6 »47 to Oct. 6 '49; '88 to ^94; '97 
to date. Earlier numbers exceedingly rare and valuable. 

WhiU Cdunty Democrat, w. MonticeUo, June '93 to Dec. '94. 

WhiU River Standard, w. Bedford, Dec 21 '54 to Dec '20 '55. 

Winamac Democrat, w. June '93 to Dec '94. 

Winchester Journal, w. Jan. 7 to Dec 28 '70. 

t^orld, w. IndUnapolis, '92 to '94; '97 to date. 

Worthington Times, w. and se»i-w. Weekly, '92 to 94. Semi- 
weekly, '99 to date. 

Barly Wayne Co. papers not yel catalogued. Isaac Julian collectkm- 



Pertinent Comment 

By the Editor 



On the Teaching of History 

THB course of history study prescribed for the elementary 
schools of Indiana, published by the Department of Public 
Instruction in the State Manual for 1904-5, should, along with the 
other contents of that booklet, be of interest, not only to teachers 
but to parents. It was prepared by a committee from the History 
section of the State Teachers* Association — Prof. C3rrus W. Hodgin, 
Prof. S. B. Harding, Prof. N. C. Heironimus, Supt. Adelaide S. 
Baylor and Supt. George H. Tapy. A brief outline here of their 
plan is in place. 

The First Year is to be devoted almost wholly to object lessons, 
to story and to familiar things, beginning with a study of local sur- 
roundings, both social and geographical. Indian and pioneer relics 
may be brought to the school room and their interest enhanced by 
narratives of Indian and pioneer life. In the study of local geogra« 
phy the pupil's attention is to be guided to the fact that hills, for* 
ests, rivers, etc., offer advantages, and originally induced people to 
live in their locality. PoM, clothing and ways of living of both 
the Indians and white men are to be studied, and the latter part of 
this year is to be given to stories of notable American pioneers. 

The Second Year begins with an introduction to other famous 
Americans, from George Washington to Francis Key; then takes 
up Norse life in story form, and Norse legends and beliefs. In 
this transition across the sea foreign children in the school, if there 
be such, are to be utilized in bringing out the idea of foreign lands 
and other peoples. The larger part of the second year is to be given 
to this. The Third Year compasses a similar study of Hebrew 
and Greek life and heroes,' and of the Greek m3rths. The Fourth 
Year takes up Rome, and this year the course follows more closely 
the sequence of events, though still by the story method. The 
Fifth Year injects, in a measure, philosophy into the study, and 
deals mainly with historical personages as determined by environ- 
ment and as, in turn, afiecting events; the period being that of the 
great maratime activity in Buropean history between 1453 and 1618, 
the French and Revolutionary wars in America, and the middle 
period of United States history. The Sixth Year is devoted en- 
tirely to England. The Seventh and Eighth Years are given to 



Periimnt Comment 47 

the United States. For each year a list of books is given to be 
used as supplementary to the course, besides the suggestions as to 
the utilizing of relics and familiar objects, and the whole plan, evi- 
dently, contemplates emancipation from the time-honored, cut-and- 
dried text-book that has been the detestation of many a pupil. 

Introductory to the course as thus arranged by the teachers' 
committee is a disquisition setting forth a theory of history and 
stating what should be the view-point and aims of the teacher of 
this subject in the elementary schools. "History," it is said, '*is 
the growing life of humanity. * * The subject of history, then, 
is the human race and its development, and the purpose of teaching 
it should be to lead the child to a broad view of the historic move- 
ment, so that he may see many ages, many civilizations, many 
stages of the growth, and to be able to compare and contrast one 
with another, and thus get a picture of all the struggles and tri- 
umphs of men in elevating humanity." History, it is said, is es- 
sentially the history of institutions; the institutions of society ''do 
not exist for themselves; they are only means to an end. That end 
is the freedom of man." Finally, biography is but subsidiary to 
history, and in teaching it the teacher should bear in mind that the 
object is "not that the child may learn about isolated individual 
men but to see movements of society through the lives of these men. ' ' 



Now, the nature and uses of history, its importance in the sum 
total of one's education, from which end it shall be approached as a 
study, the psychology of its acquiring, etc., are all mooted ques- 
tions. Eminent scholars have discussed them searchingly. Emi- 
nent scholars, like doctors, have also disagreed, and it follows that 
any course prescribed must be, in a measure, experimental, and any 
theory should be propounded tentatively — certainly not as a finality, 
even in a system of positive instruction such as teachers and pupils 
are supposed to be subjected to. Both course and theory should 
expect rigid examination. 

What we shall have to say about the present Indiana course will 
be commendatory rather than critical. It seems to us to have been 
the outcome of both thought and experience, and recognizes at 
once the difficulties of creating an intelligent attitude toward history 
and the natural avenues to the juvenile mind. Its successful appli- 
cation, however, depends much upon a preparation more thorough 



4^ The Indiana Magazine of History 

than can reasonably be expected of teachers who have to deal with 
a multitude of things, and until the branch has its special teachers 
as certain branches now have in the larger centers, the plan of the 
course will be hampered. The authors of this course evidently 
subscribe to the belief that the true educational method in his- 
tory is from the known to the unknown, from the familiar to the 
remote. Just how far this idea is adopted by the public school 
S3rstems of the country we do not know, but there has been and is 
opposition to it. The argumedt, in brief, is that the small seg- 
ment of the near and familiar is so related to antecedents that 
these antecedents must be traced before anything like an ade- 
quate conception can be had of more immediate conditions. The 
State is not comprehensible until led up to by a preparatory knowl- 
edge of the nation; United States history is meaningless unless 
plained by its forerunners, English and ancient history, 
argument, like some others that are time-honored, does not seem to 
be conclusive. By the same parity of reasoning the antecedent 
histories insisted upon are meaningless unless viewed in the light 
of more remote antecedents, and that involves us in hopelessness, 
because beyond all recorded history lies the unrecorded ages where 
are buried the real roots of things that are. The truth seems to 
be that there is no logical starting-point for historical study. The 
utmost we can do is to fix upon a unit (whether it be a single State 
or all the records of the nations) that, in a manner, stands complete 
and which, within limits, explains its own nature, as all things do 
by the syntheses they present. We may choose an immensely large 
and complex unit, and feel our way, very much in the dark and but 
dimly knowing what we are after, from the outer margin inward, 
or we may take a unit that comes somewhat within the comprehen* 
sion, and which has the very important advantage of engaging the 
interest at the start, and, as the conception of it enlarges by study, 
reach out farther and farther into the great sphere of causes and 
relations, with the lamp of ever increasing enlightenment guiding 
the way. To us it seems that the latter is by fiar the more hopeful 
method. We venture the belief that in a long and completed course 
the pupil by this method will gain quite as broad a comprehension 
of history and its meanings as by the attempt to lay the broad foun- 
dation at the start; while in the many instances where but limited 
time is given to the subject, he will, in the first instance, be enlight- 



Pertinent Cnnment 49 

ened just so far as he goes, while in the other case he will, perhaps, 
have gained tmt a fragment of a "fonndation," which will be of 
as much use as foundations usually are without a super-structure. 
However, this is but our theory, and maybe we are quite wrong. 



With the theory of history above quoted from the Manual we 
dissent, and we dissent the more decidedly because it is presented, 
not as a discussable opinion, but as authoritative statement from 
which, supposedly, teachers are to take their view-point and to 
teach accordingly. A theory which aims to have so wide an influ- 
ence as this, and which is helped on its way by authority, aside 
from its intrinsic merit, certainly ought to stand close scrutiny. We 
do not think that this one does. In its definitions of history and 
the aims of historical study much, it seems to us, is left out of the 
survey. History is not alone the "growing life of humanity;" it is 
everything of importance that has ever been recorded in the exper- 
ience of man; and the aim of its study is not alone to appreciate 
the grand spectacle of historic movements but to learn whatever of 
importance has happened within the experience of man. Among 
those happenings has been decadence as well as growth — ^the power 
within ourselves that made for wrong as well as the power not our- 
selves that makes for righteousness, and to take cognizance of the 
diseases engendered by man in the body politic is, it may be held, 
of quite as much importance as contemplating the more pleasing 
manifestations. To interpret history wholly in terms of grand pro- 
gressive laws, however desirable an exercise that may seem to be 
for the school room, reminds one of Emerson's Providence dressed 
up *'in a clean shirt and white neckcloth," whereas Providence in 
history has, to quote the sage again, '*a wild, rough, incalculable 
road to its end," and sometimes is far from lovely. The contempla- 
tion of the historic processes is something other than cultural in the 
literary or esthetic sense. The very center of interest, we take it, 
is the place of man as a determining agent, and particularly as a 
corrective force in the great march of events. To ignore this is 
much as if a physician should make a study of anatomy and physi- 
ological functions in their ideal forms and pay no attention to the 
science of conserving and restoring health. The decline and fall of 
the Roman Empire and the causes thereof have in them lessons 



50 The Indiana Magazine of History 

among the most important of all history, and on the theory that 
man is a determining factor in his own fortunes it sorely behooves 
him to know such lessons well. 

Again, histcny is but the history of institutions, says the Man- 
ual in substance. Institutions "do not exist for themselves; they 
are only means to an end. That end b the freedom of man.'* 
Hence the study of history is a study of the freeing of man. That, 
we fear, is more transcental than true- -it sounds better than it is. 
To say that an institution is but a means to an end (impliedly an 
extraneous means) is analagous to the assumption, so fi^uently 
made, that work is but a means to an end — which is, the enjoyment 
of the fruits of work. And yet those who have no work but have 
a super-abtmdance of the fiiiits of work, as the idle rich, are among 
the most discontented of people. We would submit as a truer 
proposition that work, performance, the bringing to pass, the creat- 
ing of new forms, is for its own sake a requirement of human exis- 
tence, and that institutions, which are necessary forms taken by 
work, represent a natural activity so incorporated with man's wel- 
fare that to say they are merely means, or in any sense extraneous, 
is meaningless. Then as to man's freedom — ^to what extent is 
that true? The mastery of man, collectively, over nature — * 'free- 
ing himself fixmi the limitations of time and space," as it is put, is 
but a small arc in the fall circle of freedom. With increasing obli- 
gations that come with advancing civilization the individual is shorn 
of much of the freedom that goes with the more primitive life — the 
rights of others necessarily become more binding. If, on the one 
hand, there is an advance toward political freedom, on the other 
there is a corresponding movement not only toward social restric- 
tions but in the direction of industrial slavery. Out of the power 
of capital issue systems wherein the bread -earner, as never before, 
is held like a beast in a tread-mill. Out of the power of labor or- 
ganizations issue demands, as never before, that seem to strike at 
the very roots of our ideas of freedom. In the face of all this, to 
say that the study of history is a study of the freeing of man is 
somewhat incomprehensible. 

Finally, exception may be taken to the Manual's theory of biog- 
raphy and the assertion that the great personage is chiefly of inter- 
est as he is the center of a historical movement and an instrument 



Pertinent Comment 51 

to elucidate that movement by. If there are streams or aggr^ates 
of force there are also units of force, and it is quite permissible to 
hold that to the unit for its own sake attaches a very keen interest. 
Where man is the unit this is particularly true, for personality and 
its mysteries — the possibility of the individual, always has been and 
always will be, in its own right, of supreme human interest. This 
fact remains true however much the individual is carried along by 
the general stream, and in our daily life, wherever we come into 
touch with a really strong personality, we realize it. Had Wash- 
ington or Lincoln been stricken out of their respective periods the 
movements in which they have figured would have gone on — ^his- 
tory would still have been made, but it would have been changed 
more than we can realize. In studying these men biographically 
the influences they exerted, the qualities they revealed, the native 
power residing within them that welled up under the stress of cir- 
cumstances, is the very center of interest, and the attempt to trans- 
fer that interest to something, however large, outside of them, is, 
it seems to us, to wholly misapprehend the real character of biog- 
raphy as distinguished from history proper. It is Carlyle, we 
believe, who somewhere speaks of man as "the most interesting 
little fellow on the planet," and Carlyle is not yet quite out of 
court, though some of us at the present day like to lose ourselves 
in the immensity of the universal. 



An Old-Time Pleasantry 

He: 

How comes it, this delightful westher, 
That U and I can't dine together ? 

Ske: 

My worthy friend, it cannot 
U cannot come till after T. 



LITERARY 

The Secession of 

A Story 

TH£ "Secession of Dixie'* may be taken as story or as history-^ 
just as you choose about that. On this point I will merely say 
I have read some history that was further from fact — and in that I 
commit myself to nothing. 

'*Dixie/' indeed, is no m3rth. Prom the well- tilled fields now 
occup3dng its site you may see the smoke of Indianapolis, and even, 
when that smoke permits, discern the great Soldiers' Monument 
which so majestically commemorates the Union that Dixie wanted 
to draw out of. I can remember when those fields (just a quarter- 
section in extent) were covered by a wilderness so dense that one 
who entered there was glad to avail himself of narrow winding 
paths that threaded the place, Indian trail fashion. These paths led 
to little log cabins here and there, surrounded by as many scant 
cleared spaces devoted in a rude way to garden truck, and occupied 
by uncouth, half-clad people. 

This groimd, so runs the tradition, had at an early day beoi 
entered by one John Pogue, a Virginian, who, for some reason, let 
it remain in its primitive condition while the country around was 
improved. Then when the Rebellion broke out he hied himself 
elsewhere; his land was promptly coniSscated as the property of an 
enemy, and once more it became government territory. Then came 
the squatters — the poor folk who are looking for land to live on 
without money and without price. A Mr. Jabez Baughman took 
the initiative, and others promptly followed; the government was 
too much occupied with weightier affairs, just then, to care much 
about it, and ere long a score or so of families had established them- 
selves here in as many little openings, making a small community, 
quite cut off from the rest of the world. Quite cut off, I say, be- 
cause something other than mere walls of woodland isolated them. 
They were, without exception. Southerners, of the kind known as 
"poor white trash" — victims of the vicious labor S3rstem of the 
South, haters of "niggers," and yet with a warm, unreasoning loy- 
alty for their native States that had done so little for them and their 
kind. Alienated from their neighbors thus by sentiment it is no 
wonder, then, that when so excellent an opportunity offered they 
should segregate into a neighborhood of their own, and it was be- 



Story '"The Secession of Dixie 53 

cause of the character of this settlement and the former "secesh*' 
owner that the place came to be known as "Dixie". And by this 
opportunity the squatters found themselves very happily situated, 
for while the '^butternuts'* hereabout as a rule had to sing small and 
carry their sentiments up the sleeve, these could congregate and 
express themselves as often and freely as they chose with none to 
make afraid. Stray newspapers carried in like bones into a den to 
be feasted on at leisure, passed from hand to hand and so kept 
them apprised of the doings of the outside world. When, in the 
course of time, the fierce war tide lashed to and fro like the swing 
of an angry sea, and the rebellious murmurings of disaffected 
Northerners grew more pronounced, Dixie plucked up hope and be- 
gan to dream of a day when the chivalry from the southland would 
swe^ the country like a besom. Then suddenly, borne on the 
wings of excited rumor, came the report that the dashing John 
Morgan and his gallant battalions were actually bound hither like 
gay-hearted knights on a holiday jaunt. The secret order of the 
Sons of Liberty* rumor further hinted, would burst its chrysalis and 
come forth boldly to the light; the order of things would be all 
changed. There was excitement in the air. The whole State set 
to buzzing like a vast hornet's nest, there was a swift gathering of 
the clans, and on all sides was the busy notes of preparation for 
conflict. Something was going to happen. 

And now one day Mr. Jabez Baughman * 'issued a call" for all 
Dixieites to convene at his cabin that evening to discuss questions 
of moment. Of the resultant meeting no minutes were preserved; 
you will find no mention of it in the Adjutant-General's reports, 
nor elsewhere, and the only authority I can claim for it is the oral 
account of Mr. Andrew Jackson Strickler, a * 'member of the con- 
vention," who afterward became reconstructed and reconciled to the 
Government. As faithfully as I can quote him here he is, Tenne- 
see dialect and all: 

"It was," said Mr. Strickler, "in July of '63. I disremember 
adzactly the date, but it was after the hayin' was done an' the 
wheat harvest about over. We heerd tell o' John Morgan crossin' 
the river an' headin' our way, an' was consid'ble intrusted like, an' 
so w'en Jabe Baughman's boys went eroun' the settlement tellin' 
all the men folks their pap wanted us to meet at their 'house late 
that night, we jest natchally fell in with it, kase we knowed from 



54 The Indiana Magazine of History 

the sly way it 'as done thar was somepin* up. None of us was to 
come till after ordinary bed-time, an' none of us was to carry *ary 
light, an' that putt ginger in it, y' see. Well, w'en night fell the 
the weather got ugly, and I mind way about ten o'clock, as I felt 
my way through the thickets, how everlastin' black it was, an* how 
the wind rasseled the trees erbout, roarin' like a hongry lion seekin' 
who he may devour. It made me feel kind *o creepy, kase it 'peared 
like the elerments an' man an' everthing was erbout to do somepin' — 
kinder like the bottom was goin' to drap out *o things, y'understand. 

**Well, the fellers come steerin' into Jabes' one by one, an' by 
'leven o' the clock ever' man in Dixie was thar. Jabe's young' uns 
an' womem folks hed been sent out in the stable to sleep, an' so 
ever' thing was clear fer business, but we all set eround talkin' hogs 
fer a spell, kase we felt a mite unsartin; but byme-by Baughman, 
says he: 'Gen'l'men, I call this yere meetin* to order.* Then my 
oldest boy, whose name was Andy, too, and who'd been to two or 
three public meetin's before an* felt kind o* biggoty over it, he hol- 
lers out: *I second the motion.* Then young Jerry Stimson says: 
*I move that Mr. Baughman take the cheer,* an* my boy seconded 
that, too, an* it was so ordered. Then Baughman riz an' said he 
hadn't hardly expected that honor (w'ich was a lie), but sence they 
had putt it on him he'd try to discharge his duties to the meetin'. 

** After that we made young Stimson secatary, seein' he was 
somepin' of a scholard, an' then Jabe he made us a speech sayin' as 
how we'd orto stick by the grand old South, w'at was even now 
sendin' her conquerin' hosts to our doors, an' how we'uns should be 
ready to receive her to our buzzums. It wa'nt all quite clear to 
me, an' I ast how we was goin' to take her to our buzzums. *W'y, 
give her our moral s'port,' says Jabe. *How'll we give our moral 
s'port, says I,* an' then says Jabe, slow an* solemn like: 'GenTmen,* 
says he, *w»en our sister States found it was time fer 'em to be up 
an* adoin' — w'en they found the Union wa'nt the place fer 'em, w»at 
did they do?.' Here Jabe belt his fire, an' ever'thing was stock-still 
fer a spell, w'ile the wind howled outside. It 'peared like no one 
hadn't the grit to tackle the question, an' Jabe had to do it hisself. 
*Gen'rmen,' says he, air we men enough to run risks for our kentry? 
W'en John Morgan's histed the flag of the grand ol' Confedercy 
over the Injeany State House who's goin' to come to their reward, 
them as belt back skeert, or them as give him their moral s'port?. 



Story— The Secession of Dixie 55 

At this my boy Andy, who was gittin' all het up like with the 
idee o* doin' somepin\ hellers out: *Mr. Cheerman, I move 'at we 
air all men, an' 'at we ain't afeerd to give the South our moral 
s'port.' Then Jabe grabbed the cow by the tail an' w'ipped her up. 
*Do I understand the gen'l'man to mean,' says he, that we'd orto 
do w'at our sister States hev done, an' draw out o' this yere Union, 
an* ef so, will he putt a movement to that eflfeck before the house?. 

**I make a move then,' says Andy agen, as bold as Davy Crock- 
ett, *that we don't w'ip the devil eround the stump no more, but that 
we git out o' the Union an' we git out a-flyin.' I was right proud 
o' the boy, not kase I thought he had a dum bit o' sense, but kase 
he went at it with his coat off like a man bound to make his mark. 
That got all of us spunky like, an' nigh ever one in the house sec- 
onded the move. Then says Jabe: 'Gen'l'men, the question is be- 
fore you, whether we will lend the Southern Confeder'cy our moral 
s'port an' foller our sister States out'n the Union. All in favor of 
this yere motion signify the same by sayin' aye'. *Aye!' says ever 
livin' soul with a whoop, fer by that time we shore was all runnin* 
in a flock. *A11 contrary wise say no,' says Jabe, an' we all waited 
quiet fer a minute, kase that 'as the proper way, y' know, w'en all 
of a suddent, above the roar o' the vnnd outside, thar was a screech 
an* a tremenjus racket; the ol' house shuck like it was comin* down; 
the daubin' flew from the chinks, an' overhead it 'peared like the 
or Scratch was clawin' his way through the clabboards. Next he 
come a-tearin' at the floor of the loft above us, an* a loose board 
swingin' down hit Jabe a whack an' knocked the candle offn the 
table, an' the next thing it was black as yer hat. Jabe, I reckon, 
was consid'able flustered, kase he gethered hisself up an* yelled: 

*The Devil's after us — git out o' here, fellers !' An* you bet we got. 

"It tuck me a full hour to find my way home through the bresh, an* w*en 
I did git thar, at last, an' was tryin' to tell w4ch side o* the house the door was 
on, I bumped up agin Andy groopin* his way too. 'Andy/ says I, *I move we 
git in jest as quick as the Lord'll let us,' an* says Andy, 'I second the motion*. 

"The next day w*en we went back to Baughman*s to see w*at we cu'd lam 
we found a good-sized ellum had keeled over agin the roof-poles an* poked a 
limb down through the clabboards. It *as never settled among us jest w*at it 
meant. Some said it *as the Lord*s way of votin* no ag^n our goin* out o* the 
Union, an* others allowed it was the Lord's way o' savin* us from our brash- 
ness, kase, as ever one knows, John Morgan didn't git to Injunoplis after all, 
an' as things tamed out it wa'nt jest best fer us to be seceded, y* know.*' 

— C. 5. r. 



Two Graphic Hoosier Pictures 

[The two pictures here poetically presented of the Hoosier pioneer home 
are so akin that we thus reprint them as a pair. The * 'Hoosier 's Nest," by 
John Fin ley, for many years the mayor of Richmond, was, perhaps, the first 
Indiana poem to win fame, and it is further distinguished by its introduction 
of the term "Hoosier" into literature. It was first published in 1833 (not in 
1830, as commonly stated), according to Mr. J. P. Dimn, as a Carrier's Address 
for the Indianapolis y^Mifwa/, and after some revision by the author, became 
fixed in the form from which we here quote. The other, untitled poem, from 
a far more famous poet, James Whitcomb Riley, is practically unknown and 
is not to be found in any of the author's books. It was read before an old 
settler's meeting at Oaklandon, in 1878, and is reported in full in the Indiana* 
polis Sentinel for August 5th (or 6th). Both the poems are considerably longer 
than here given, and take a wider range than the theme of the cabin home]. 



I 



The Hoosier s Nest 

'M told, in riding somewhere West, 
A stranger found a Hoosier's Nest, 
In other words, a buckeye cabin. 
Just big enough to hide Queen Mab in. 
Its situation, low but airy, 
Was on the borders of a prairie; 
And, fearing he might be benighted. 
He hailed the house, and then alighted. 
The Hoosier met him at the door. 
Their salutations soon were o'er; 
He took the stranger's hone aside 
And to a sturdy sapling tied. 
Then, having stripped the saddle ofif. 
He fed him in a sugar-trough. 

The stranger stooped to enter in. 

The entrance closing ¥rith a pin. 

And manifested strong desire 

To seat him by the log-heap fire, 

Where half-a-dozen Hoosieroons, 

With mush and milk, tin-cups and spoons. 

White heads, bare feet and dirty faces, 

Seemed much inclined to keep their places; 

But madam, anxious to display 

Her rough but undisputed sway. 

Her off-spring to the ladder led, 

And cuffed the 3roungster8 up to bed. 



o 



Two Hoosier Pictures 57 

Invited shortly to partake 
Of venison, milk and Johnny*cake, 
The stranger made a hearty meal, 
And glances *roand the room would steal. 
One side was lined with divers garments. 
The other spread with skins of varmints; 
Dried pnmpkins over-head were strung, 
Where venison hams in plenty hung; 
Two rifles placed above the door. 
Three dogs lay stretched upon the floor. 
In short, the domicile was rife 
With specimens of Hoosier life. 

The host, who centered his aflfections 
On game and range and quarter-sections. 
Discoursed his weary guest for hours, 
Till Somnus' all-composing poMrers 
Of sublunary cares bereft *em. 
And then I came away and left them. 
No matter how the story ended; 
The application I intended 
Is from the famous Scottish poet, 
Who seemed to feel as well as know it, 
That burly chiels and clever hizdes 
Are bred in sic a wav as this is. 



Mr. Riley's Poem 

[This poem, we find, is in the Stntineloi Aug. 4. 1878.) 

'BR the vision like a mirage falls 

The old log cabin with its dingy walls. 

And crippled chimney, with the crutch-like prop 

Beneath a sagging shoulder at the top; 

The coon skin, battened fast on either side; 

The wisps of leaf tobacco, '*cut and dried**; 

The yellow strands of quartered apples hung 

In rich festoons that tangle in among 

The morning-glory vines that clamber o'er 

The little clapboard roof above the door; 

The old well-sweep, that drops a courtesy 

To every thirsty soul so graciously 

The stranger, as he drains the dnpping gourd, 

Intuitively murmurs : * 'Thank the Lord!** 

Again, through mists of memory, arise 

The simple scenes of home before the eyes; 



58 The Indiana Magazine of History 

The happy mother namming, with her wheel, 
The dear old melodies that naed to steal 
So drowsily apon the summer air 
The house-dog hid his bone, forgot his care. 
And nestled at her feet, to dream, perchance, 
Some cooling dream of winter-time romance; 
The square of sunshine thro' the open door. 
That notched its way across the puncheon floor. 
And made a golden coverlet whereon 
The god of slumber had a picture drawn 
Of babyhood, in all the loveliness 
Of dimpled cheek and limb and linsey dress; 
The bough-fiUed fireplace and the mantel wide; 
The fire-scorched ankles stretched on either side, 
Where, perched upon its shoulders *neath the joist, 
The old clock hiccoughed, harsh and husky-voiced, 
And snarled the premonition, dire and dread. 
When it should hammer time upon the head; 
Tomatoes, red and yellow, in a row, 
Preserved not then for diet, but for show, 
Like rare and precious jewels in the rough. 
Whose worth was not appraised at half enough; 
The jars of Jelly with their dusty tops; 
The bunch of pennyroyal, the cordial drops; 
The flask of camphor and the vial of squills; 
The box of buttons, garden seeds and pills; 
And, ending all the mantePs bric-a-brac. 
The old, time-honored **family almanack." 

And memory, with a mother's touch of love. 
Climbs with us to the dusky loft above; 
♦ »»**♦ 

Again we stretch our limbs upon the bed. 
Where first our simple, childish prayers were said, 
And, while without the merry cricket trills 
A challenge to the solemn whippoorwills. 
And, filing on the chorus with his glee. 
The katydid whets all the harmony 
To feather-edge of incoherent song, 
We drop asleep, and peacefully along 
The current of our dreams we glide away 
To that dim harbor of another day. 
Where brown Toil waits us, and where Labor stands 
To welcome us vrith rough and homy hands. 



The Indiana Magazine of History 

VOL. I Second Qpartbr, 1905 no. « 

The Wabash and Its Valley 

Part I— The Earlier History 



ONE who delves among old books and documents that bear 
upon early Indiana history is struck by the fact that a 
great and, in some respects, a peculiar interest attaches to the 
Wabash River and the r^on that it waters. Next to the 
Mississippi and Ohio it, more than any other Western stream, 
seems to have commanded the attention of old-time travelers, 
its relation to the St. Lawrence water system giving it an im- 
portance hardly appreciated to-day by those who are not 
students of history and of former conditions. 

A glance at the map will show the magnitude of the Wa- 
bash, as compared with other Indiana rivers. Traversing the 
State in a great arc from the northeast part to the southwest 
extremity, it covers, counting its bends, more than five hun- 
dred miles. When we reflect that its valley is a tract of that 
extent, in some places many miles wide, and originally of un- 
surpassed fertility, we can realize its ultimate agricultural im- 
portance; but long before that day the river itself had a su- 
preme value. Along its course were the very beginners of 
Indiana history, and for reasons that are intimately inwoven 
with the larger history of the country. 

From the lofty tower of the court house in Fort Wayne 
one has a fine bird*s-eye view not only of the third largest 
city in Indiana, but of a much wider sweep of territory which 
circles about with a visible radius of perhaps ten miles. Down 
in the town, from the midst of trees and buildings, occasional 
glimpses may be had of the three rivers — the St Mary's, the 
St. Joseph and the Maumee — ^that find their union here, on the 
summit of the great water-shed. To north and south and east 
the eye may trace their three valleys. Westward a level, al- 



6o The Indiana Magazine of History 

most treeless, depression like the ancient bed of yet another 
river, stretches to the blue distance. 

To the instructed observer this topography tells a most 
interesting story. Eastward of him gently dips the broad 
Erie basin, sending its waters to the sea by Lake Erie, Ni- 
agara and the St. Lawrence. On the other hand, a few miles 
across the prairie-like expanse spoken of, and almost within 
sight, lies a tributary of the beautiful Wabash, and beyond it 
the vast slope of the Mississippi Valley, down which the lordly 
rivers merge in a general highway to the far-off Gulf of 
Mexico. 

The near approach to each other here of these two great 
water systems which thread the land through various lati- 
tudes for perhaps three thousand miles, binding together the 
remote parts of the continent, must be appreciated to under- 
stand the peculiar interest that attaches to the spot. By re- 
ferring to a map of this region it may be seen that the St. 
Mary's and St. Joseph Rivers, which send their waters to Lake 
Erie, do not flow from the west, but toward the west till they 
meet, then, by an unusual dip of the surface, they run back 
eastward to the Maumee, down a trough that lies between 
the two valleys of the first-named streams. The branches 
of the Wabash flow from the same direction as do the 
branches of the Maumee, but continue westward. Moreover, 
the Maumee and its two oblique tributaries form a sort of 
arrow head, which, intruding among the Wabash tributaries, 
thus make the two systems interlock and approach at their 
nearest points to within a few miles of each other. The im- 
portant feature of it is that this interlocking is not of insignifi- 
cant headwaters, as usually happens, but the nearest point of 
approach is where the streams on both sides are navigable. 
Back of all this lies a fascinating geologic story — the story of 
a vast retreating glacier, shaped not unlike the prow of a 
mighty ship, that, as it halted and retreated and anon halted, 
built up successive lines of morainic breastworks that deter- 
mined the courses of the rivers and drew together the two 
systems as above described.* 

♦For fullest exposition of this theory see Sixteenth Geological Re- 
port of Ind.; Charles R. Dryer's chapter on Allen County. 



The Wabash and Its Valley 6i 

Under the old methods of transportation, when the naviga- 
ble rivers were of paramount importance, the immense advan- 
tages of this spot where the seaboard met the Mississippi 
Valley were fully recognized by various masters of the place. 
Its military value alone was such that through three succes- 
sive periods the French, the English and the Americans com- 
manded with military posts this portage where, by a carry 
of some nine miles, troops might have easy ingress to the ter- 
ritory which otherwise was almost inaccessible. Anthony 
Wayne, indeed, regarded it as "the key to the Northwest" 
Subsequently it came to have a commercial value which made 
the early growth of Fort Wayne, and before the white man's 
advent his aboriginal predecessors had pitched their lodges 
there for similar reasons, the city just named being ante- 
dated by a Miami village known as Kekionga. A squaw, the 
mother of the Chief Richardville, who had preceded him as 
the ruler of her tribe, is said to have amassed a fortune from 
tolls exacted from the traders who used the portage; Little 
Turtle, the great war chief, was not less thrifty, and when 
the whites succeeded to the holding a flourishing business was 
carried on with carriers and pack-horses. At the treaty of 
Greenville, in 1795, after the subjugation of the northwestern 
tribes by Anthony Wayne, Little Turtle pleaded for a con- 
tinued interest in the portage. This region, he contended, had 
always belonged to the Miamis, and in one of his speeches 
he speaks of it as "the glorious gate * ♦ * through which 
all the good words of our chiefs had to pass from the North 
to the South, and from the East to the West. * * * This 
carrying place," he said again, "has heretofore proved in a 
great degree, the subsistence of your younger brothers. That 
place has brought to us, in the course of one day, the amount 
of one hundred dollars."* The explanation of this is that the 
Twightwees, or Miamis proper, the dominant tribe of the 
g^eat Miami confederacy, held many councils here with visit- 
ing tribes — hence "the glorious gate * ♦ ♦ through which all 
the good words of our chiefs had to pass," while for the use of 

♦Dillon, pp. 368, 369. 



62 The Indiana Magazine of History 

the portage by traders the holders exacted tribute or toll, thus 
levying what might be called the first tariff on imports. Gen- 
eral Wayne, in answering this part of Little Turtle's plea, 
used an argument not altogether unknown at the present day. 
"Let us inquire," he said, ''who, in fact, paid the heavy con- 
tribution. It is true the traders bore it in the first instance; 
but they laid it on the goods, and the Indians of the Wabash 
really and finally paid it."* 

Another interesting fact in connection with this portage 
was the utilizing of beaver dams on Little River. When the 
water was low these were broken away and the boats of the 
voyagers carried down with the increased floods. The witless 
animals would industriously repair the breaches thus made, 
quite unconscious of the part they were playing in man's 
traffic t 

With the coming of the explorer and the fur trader the 
Wabash begins a new phase of history. Just when the first 
white man's canoe traversed its winding miles is a matter of 
speculation. Some historians have put it as early as 1680 
and some as late as 1735 and even 1750. Some of the earlier 
chart-makers confused it with the Ohio, and on one French 
map, dated 1720, we find a stream rising in a good-sized lake 
near the east end of Lake Erie, flowing thence through what 
is now northern Ohio, and finally trending southwest to the 
Mississippi. This is called "Ouabache Autremt Appellee 
Ohio ou Belle Riviere." By 1742 the two rivers are differ- 
entiated, but flow parallel with each other, not very far apart, 
and by 1784 the Wabash is laid down with considerable ac- 
curacy. The stream was at one time christened St. Jerome 
and is so called on a few of the maps, but the name did not 
stick, and it was generally designated as the "Ouabache." 
This was the French spelling of an Indian word from an 
Algonquin stem, wabi or wapi, which meant white^ In time 
it became anglicized into Wabash, which is not far removed 

♦Dillon, p. 371. 

! Dunn's Indiana, p. 114. 
Dunn, p. 14. 



The Wabash and Its VaUey 63 

from the Indian ''Wabba-shikka/' that is attached to it in 
Hough's map, giving the Indian names of rivers.* 

Hard after the first explorers came the French fur traders. 
The most lucrative and most immediate returns promised by 
the wilderness of the new world were in the skins of its 
wild animals, and capitalists were swift to draw upon this 
source of wealth. Large companies were formed and these 
established their agents along with the military posts which 
France planted acix>ss her vast new territory from the lakes 
to the gulf. Three of these settlements, military and commer- 
cial, were located on the Wabash— one at the Miami village 
of Kekionga, where Fort Wayne now stands ; one called Ouia- 
tenon, among the Wea Indians, below the present site of 
Lafayette, and one among the Piankeshaws, eventually known 
as Vincennes. To these posts the Indians from far and near 
brought their peltries, exchanging them for commodities dear 
to the savage heart, and from here they were sent to the 
great fur houses in upper Canada. Communication between 
these remote points was effected by the famous coureurs des 
BOis, the carriers of the woods, who were the forerunners of 
the steamboat and the freight train. The reign of these wild, 
lawless and care-free rangers adds a picturesque gleam to the 
history of the beautiful Wabash. To quote the words of J. P. 
Dunn: "They were the most romantic and poetic characters 
ever known in American frontier life. Their every movement 
attracts the rosiest coloring of imagination. We see them 
gliding along the streams in their long canoes. * * * We 
catch afar off the thrilling cadence of their choruses, floating 
over prairie and marsh, echoing from forest and hill, startling 
the buffalo from his haunt in the reeds; telling the drowsy 
denizens of the posts of the approach of revelry, and whisper- 
ing to the Indian village of gaudy fabrics, of trinkets and of 
firewater. * ♦ * Another night they hav6 reached the little 
post and we are overwhelmed by the confusion of chattering, 
laughing, singing and bargaining.''! 

* Indiana Geological Report, i88a. 
t Dtinn, p. 91. 



64 The Indiana Magazine of History 

With all this gaiety, however, the lot of the voyageur was 
by no means an easy one. His food was such as few civilized 
men could live on, a day*s ration being simply a quart of 
hulled com and a pint of bear's grease, while a ceaseless ply- 
ing of the paddle from dawn till dusk could not have been 
less laborious than the toil of the Roman galley slave, whose 
task has become a synonym for hard work. 

The favorite craft of these carriers was the pirouge, a 
large canoe made from the hollowed trunks of trees, propelled 
with paddles by four men. Coming they bore coarse blue 
and red cloths, fine scarlet, guns, powder, balls, knives, hatch- 
ets, traps, kettles, ribbons, beads, vermilion, tobacco, spiritu- 
ous liquors, etc.* Returning, they carried back, as a load, 
some forty packs of skins weighing about one hundred pounds 
each, and that the exchange of the cargoes proved profitable 
to the traders we can readily believe when told that the In- 
dians were charged at the rate of four dollars a hundred for 
bullets. 

Of the three Wabash settlements named, two, Ouiatenon 
and the one at Kekionga, were never more than mere posts, 
consisting of traders and their families, and the little garri- 
son maintained by the French government. An old document 
published by the Indiana Historical Society, which has been 
called "The First Census of Indiana," g^ves the names of the 
heads of families at these points, there being nine at Fort 
Miami (Fort Wayne), and twelve at Ouiatenon. These, with 
sixty-six names at Vincennes, represented the white popula- 
tion of our territory in 1769. Colonel Croghan, an officer in 
the British service, who was captured by the Kickapoo In- 
dians and carried up the Wabash in 1765, describes Kekionga 
as forty or fifty Indian cabins and nine or ten French houses 
occupied by a runaway colony from Detroit 

Of Fort Ouiatenon, which, in all probability, was the first 
settlement in Indiana, information is so meager that the his- 
torians have waged a spirited controversy as to its site. A few 
years ago a skeleton in the remnants of a French uniform, 
along with some silver crucifixes, utensils and various frag- 

* Dillon, p. 20. 



The Wabash and Its Valley 65 

ments of military equipments were dug up on the north bank 
of the river near the mouth of Wea creek, which would seem 
to determine the spot. During the French occupancy this 
post, situated in the very heart of the fur country, did a thirv- 
ing business, the annual trade being estimated at £8,000, but 
after the English conquest it was gradually abandoned. 

The date of the founding of Vincennes is also involved in 
obscurity, and there has been not a little ingenious but barren 
speculation upon the subject. Dillon suggests 1702, Dunn 
1727 and Bancroft about 1716. The names that attached to 
it in the earlier days were various. It is first mentioned as 
the "Post du Ouabache," which became contracted into au 
poste, and this in turn, when the American settlers came, was 
corrupted into Opost. It has also been referred to as "the 
post of Pianguichats" and "L. (little) Wiaut." Sometimes it 
took its name from St. Ange, the first commandant, and from 
this was anglicised into Fort St. Anne, or Fort Anne. It 
finally became Post St. Vincent, and then Vincennes, in honor 
of its founder, Sieur De Vincennes. Vincennes was not a sur- 
name, but a title appertaining to one of the Canadian fiefs, 
this successor to it being Francoise Morgane. 

Unlike Ouiatenon, Vincennes, almost from the first, had in 
it the elements of permanence. Peopled by emigrants from 
New Orleans, Kaskaskia and various parts of Canada, it was 
an agricultural community in a crude way, and here, shut off 
from civilization by untrod leagues of wilderness, they led a 
shiftless, indolent, contented life, still retaining the customs 
and gaieties of La Belle France and adding to their costumes 
and house furnishings a picturesqueness borrowed of the In- 
dians. There were few iron workers among them, and their 
implements of husbandry were of the most primitive kind. 
The rich Wabash lands returned them a subsistence with a 
minimum of toil; the more well-to-do class held slaves who 
relieved them of that little toil, and so there was an abundance 
of time for the consumption of tobacco and snufF and home- 
made wines; for the keeping of holidays and the indulgence 
of the French passion for social intercourse and amusements. 
Among other things we learn, incidentally, of billiard tables 



66 The Indiaiu Magazine of 

among them, though how they were transported thither we 
are left to imagine. Being of the Roman Catholic faith, these 
easy-going souls were not called upon to solve religious prob- 
lems, and they were quite as free from responsibility and 
worry in political affairs. The commandant was king in a 
small way and the grand arbiter in all matters pertaining to 
the community. They carried on some commerce with New 
Orleans, sending thither flour, pork, hides, etc., and bringing 
back sugar, metal goods and fabrics. 

For more than half a century this isolated little community 
flourished, or rather, perhaps, 'Vegetated" here, untouched 
by outer influences, but the English acquisition of the West 
was the beginning of the end for them. Their first realiza- 
tion of the seriousness of the change, perhaps, was in 1772, 
when General Gage, commander of the English forces in 
America, issued a proclamation which, treating them as mere 
squatters, ordered them to leave the Indian country and re- 
tire to ''the colonies of his Majesty." The poor French, in 
great consternation, returned a remonstrance, claiming that 
they had their lands by "sacred titles." Gage, with a show 
of justice, demanded circumstantial proof of the validity of 
each title, and as the careless holders had not taken the pains 
to preserve their documents they were put to their wits end. 
Eventually, the British ministry not supporting Gage's meas- 
ures, the matter was ajusted and his Majesty's new subjects 
allowed to remain on their old claims, where, in time, they 
were all but obliterated by an alien people; though to the 
present day there are reminders in Vincennes of the old 
French occupancy. Of these three French settlements, Ouiate- 
non and Fort Miami were in the territory of Canada and sub- 
ject to that government, while Vincennes was in Louisiana, 
the border line crossing the Wabash about where Terre Haute 
now stands. 

When, in the fullness of time, the country again changed 
hands, and, after the stirring events of the Revolution, atten- 
tion was turned to the great new territory west of the Alle- 
ghenies, the importance of the Wabash was still recognized. 
General Wayne, according to the knowledge current in his 



The Wtbish and Its Valley 67 

day, was sagacious and far-seeing. In his famous Indian 
campaign he planted a fort at the bead of the Maumee where 
the French and English had built their forts before; and in 
the treaty at Greenville, following that campaign, he stipu- 
lated for a tract six miles square where Fort Wayne stood; 
one two miles square on Little River (the Wabash tributary), 
at the other side of the portage ; one six miles square at Ouia- 
tenon, and lands lying about Vincennes to which the Indian 
title had been extinguished. In addition it provided for a free 
navigation of the Wabash, believing that to be of the greatest 
military importance to the territory the river threaded. The 
control of the portage at the head of navigation was the con- 
trol of the door to that territory, and hence his designation 
of the spot as "the key to the Northwest." Had not the loco- 
motive become a factor in the trend of aflairs it is more than 
probable that Wayne's wisdom would have been proven by 
time. 

A word of post-mortem history touching the doughty vet- 
eran who wrested this spot from the red man and established 
his name here may not be amiss. Wayne, as may be learned 
from any standard biography of him, died where Erie, Pa., 
is now located, not long after his conquest of the Northwest- 
em tribes. There he lay buried for thirteen years, when his 
son removed the remains to the old home place in Chestei; 
county, Pennsylvania. Further particulars are not, I believe, 
given in any of the "lives," but some twenty-five years ago a 
fugitive article afloat in the press added some gruesome de- 
tails to the established account.^ According to this the son 
came over the mountains on his sepulchral errand in a small 
sulky. When his father's body was disinterred it was found 
to be in an excellent state of preservation. To transport it 
thus on the sulky was impossible, and a Dr. John C. Wallace, 
one of Wayne's old companions in arms, overcame the diffi- 
culty by boiling the body, thus separating the flesh from the 
bones. The flesh was returned to the original grave and the 
bones, strapped in a box to the sulky, were taken home and 
re-buried. Thus the dust of the hero of Stony Point has the 
anomalous distinction of occupying two graves. Over the 
bones a monument was erected. The first grave was forgot- 
ten for many years, when some digger for relics unearthed 
a coffin lid, with the initials A. W. and the figures of Wayne's 
age and date of death formed by brass-headed nails 

[Oopoltkkd ]l«it NuBter.] G. S. C. 



68 The Indiana Magazine of History 



Revolutionary Soldiers in Putnam County 

By W. H. Ragan 

From the Papers of the Putnam County Historical Society. 

tT is rather remarkable that Putnam County should have fur- 
•*• nished a home for any survivorof the Revolutionary strug^- 
gle. When we remember that a period of more than forty 
years intervened between the close of the Revolutionary War 
and the pioneer settlements in Putnam, and when we remem- 
ber, in addition, that Putnam County is situated almost a 
thousand miles from the scenes of that great struggle, it is, 
as I have stated, rather remarkable that veterans of that war, 
the youngest of whom must have been nearing his sixtieth 
year, should have made their way across the mountains and 
through the wilderness to found new homes in our then sparse- 
ly settled country. That some did thus migrate in their old age 
to become citizens of our county is beyond the question of 
doubt. 

It is with the hope of stimulating investigation that may 
lead to the discovery of all those who once had their homes 
within the limits of our county that I have consented to pre- 
pare this paper, in which I shall speak of those only of whom 
I have some personal or well-authenticated knowledge. There 
is a small section of country lying immediately north and east 
of the village of Fillmore and embracing but a few square 
miles of territory, at least not exceeding a half dozen, in which 
five survivors of the Revolutionary War spent their last days 
on earth, and in which their sacred ashes still remain. Three 
of the five the writer very distinctly remembers, the others 
dying but a short time before his recollection. 

I doubt if there is an area so small within the limits of the 
county, or even the State, where so many patriots of our War 
of Independence spent their last days. This is, perhaps, a mere 
coincidence, as I know of no community of interests that could 
have thus brought them together. Indeed, they had been, 



Revolutionary Soldiers in Putman County 69 

for aught I know, entire strangers to each other. Certainly 
there were no close ties of consanguinity existing among 
them. Hence, I conjecture that their settlement in such near 
proximtiy was not by design or purpose on their part 

The area in which the patriots resided embraced a small 
portion of the adjacent townships of Floyd and Marion. Three 
of them resided in the former, and two in the latter-named 
townships. At least three of the five came to this county 
with their families, the others perhaps coming with children 
or friends. Abraham Stobaugh, Silas Hopkins, Samuel Den- 
ny, John Bartee and Benjamin Mahomey were the worthy 
patriots of whom I shall speak. Their deaths occurred in the 
order in which they are named. 

Abraham Stobaugh came from Montgomery County, Vir- 
ginia, in company with his son, the late Jacob Stobaugh, and 
settled in the southern portion of Floyd township. He was 
the grandfather of Mrs. Anderson M. Robinson, of Filmore, 
and of the late Mrs. Owen, the deceased wife of our fellow- 
townsman and ex-County Recorder, George Owen. From 
Mrs. Robinson I learn that this patriot died in September, 
1836, and that he was buried with the honors of war. A mili- 
tia company from Greencastle, commanded by the late Col. 
Lewis H. Sands, fired the salute at the grave. He was buried 
in a private cemetery on the old Gorham farm in Marion 
township. There is to-day no trace of this grave remaining, 
none at least that would indentify- it among those of numerous 
friends and relatives. Mr. Stobaugh left quite a large number 
of descendants, some of whom still remain in the neighbor- 
hood of his former home. 

Silas Hopkins, if tradition may be credited, was a native 
of the city of Baltimore, and a supposed relative of the late 
millionaire merchant and philanthropist, Johns Hopkins, 
whose name will go down to posterity in connection with 
the great university his beneficence endowed. Silas Hopkins 
was the father of the somewhat noted John Deroysha Hop- 
kins, whose eccentric characteristics will be remembered by 
many in Putnam County. He was also the father of the late 



70 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Mrs. Thomas Gorham, with whom he made his home. Patriot 
Hopkins was in some particulars not unlike his eccentric son. 
His death occurred near the close of the fourth decade of this 
century. 

How long, or when, and at what period of the Revolution- 
ary struggle, and in what branch of the service, or under what 
command these patriots served, is perhaps unknown to liv- 
ing mortals; but that they were Revolutionary soldiers there 
is not the shadow of a doubt Jacob Stobaugh, the son of 
Abraham was a veteran of the war of 1812, and some of the 
descendants of Silas Hopkins laid down their lives to preserve 
that government which he gave his best years to the estab- 
lishment of. Even his eccentric son, John D., was for a time 
a Union soldier in the War of the Rebellion. Although at the 
time beyond the age of military service, he enlisted in Com- 
pany C, 70th Regiment, and served a part of the second year 
of the war as a member of that regiment, which was com- 
manded by the only living ex-President of the United States. 
At least four grandsons served in the Union Army, two of 
whom, Silas and Thomas Gorham, laid down their lives in 
their country's service, and now rest side by side in the village 
cemetery at Fillmore. 

There is something sadly pathetic in the story of the death 
of these patriotic grandsons of Silas Hopkins. They had sur- 
vived the mishaps of war from 1861 to 1865, when one of the 
brothers began to decline in health. The war was over, and 
they really were needed no longer at the front. So the sick 
brother was given a furlough to his home, and for company 
the well one was sent with him. On the Vandalia train, while 
halting at the Greencastle station, and within six miles of 
home and friends, the invalid brother quietly breathed his 
last. The survivor tenderly supported the lifeless form of 
his brother in his arms until the train reached Fillmore, where 
kind and loving friends performed the last sad rites. But one 
short month elapsed until the remaining brother was gently 
laid by his side "in the shadow of the stone." 

In those early days most every farm had its private burial 
place, in which the members of the family and friends were 



Reyolotionary Soldiers in Putman County 71 

interred. The Gorham family was not an exception to this 
general rule. On the north end of this farm, known to the 
older residents as the Judge Smith or Gorham farm, and now 
owned by Albert O. Lockridge of this city, and the first land 
in the township conveyed by the government to a private 
individual, is one of these neglected burial places. The loca- 
tion is obscure, and but for a few rough stones, one of which 
bears the indistinct inscription "W. B.," there is naught to 
indicate that it is a pioneer cemetery in which many of the 
early settlers sleep their long sleep. Here rest the mortal re- 
mains of Abraham Stobaugh and Silas Hopkins, of Revolu- 
tionary memory. But a few years will elapse until this little 
grave yard will be entirely unknown and forgotten, and pos- 
terity will then have naught but tradition as a guide to this 
spot where lie two of the founders of our Republic. 

Samuel Denny resided in the southern part of Floyd Town- 
ship on what is now known as the Gravel Pit Farm, which is 
owned by the Big Four Railway. His home was with an 
adopted daughter, Mrs. Isaac Yeates, he having had no chil- 
dren of his own. Mr. Denny first settled in Warren Township, 
where his wife died and was buried. He was the great uncle 
of our fellow-townsman, James T. Denny, Esq. Patriot Den- 
ny had long predicted that his death would occur on the 4th 
of July, which prediction was verified by the fact. In the 
early summer of 1843, l^i^ rapid decline was noted and on the 
Nation's sixty-seventh birthday, his gentle spirit took leave 
of earth. I well remember Mr. Denny, and have him pictured 
in my mind as a most venerable personage. Indeed he was 
highly respected and honored by all who knew him. I have 
already referred to the fact that he had no children of his 
own. It is, however, a well-verified tradition that he reared 
thirteen orphan children by adoption, thus showing the great 
benevolence of his character. He was buried in Warren Town- 
ship, at what is known as Deer Creek Baptist Church, by the 
side of his deceased wife, and, I have no doubt, with the hon- 
ors of war so well befitting the day and the occasion. 

John Bartee*s home was on a fraction of the same farm on 



7^ The Indiana Magazine of History 

which Patriot Denny died, and to which he had, in some way, 
acquired a fee-simple title. There were ten acres of the little 
homestead on which he resided. He lived in an humble log 
cabin, with but one room. Here in company with his feeble- 
minded second wife, and still more imbecile daughter, he spent 
his last days in extreme poverty. The family were objects of 
charity. Through the exertions of the late A. B. Matthews, 
himself a member of the Board of County Commissioners, 
that body made a small appropriation, I am unable to say just 
how much, in support of this superannuated veteran; but with 
all this, only a small share of the good things of earth fell to 
the lot of our worthy patriot in his declining years. At the 
early age of sixteen, he participated in the siege of Yorktown 
and the capture of Lord Cornwallis. His death occurred in 
February, 1848, and he was buried in the little graveyard 
on the Yeates farm near by his former home. 

Benjamin Mahorney, the fifth and last survivor, and perhaps 
among the very last of his race, died in the summer of 1854, 
more than seventy years after the close of the great struggle 
in which he was an active participant. His home, like that of 
Patriot Hopkins, was in the northern portion of Warren town- 
ship, and immediately on the line of the Big Four Railway, 
one mile east ol the little station of Darwin, He resided with 
his son, Owen Mahorney, who made him comfortable in his 
last days. He was a most venerable object, known to the peo- 
ple of the neighborhood as worthy of veneration and respect. 
His hair was white as the driven snow. Patriot Mahorney 
was a Virginian, and enlisted from Farquire county, in that 
State, in the spring of 1779, for a period of eighteen months. 
He served under Captain Walls, in Colonel Buford's regiment 
of Virginia militia. His regiment met the British cavalry, 
under Colonel Tarleton, at Waxham, North Carolina,and were 
repulsed with great loss in killed, wounded and prisoners. 
Patriot Mahorney was one of the few who escaped injury or 
capture. His term of enlistment closed on October 25, 1780, 
nearly seventy-four years prior to his death in this county. 
From the records of our County Clerk's office, I learn that he 
made application for a pension at the April term of court in 



Revolutionary Soldiers in Putman County 73 

1833^ and that he was at that time seventy-three years of age. 
From this record I also learn the above facts concerning his 
enlistment and service in the patriot cause. 

At the time of Benjamin Mahorney's death there was in 
the neighborhood, a military company with headquarters at 
the village of Fillmore, and commanded by James H. Sum- 
mers, a Mexican War veteran, and afterwards Colonel of an 
Iowa regiment in the War of the Rebellion. Captain Sum- 
mers called his company together and fired a salute over the 
open grave of the last survivor of Revolutionary memory in 
that neighborhood. The interment was at what is known as 
the Smythe graveyard, and one mile east of Fillmore. It is 
probable that the grave of Mr. Mahorney might still be 
identified. If so, it should become an object of public care and 
attention for all time to come. 

An incident occurred after the burial of Patriot Mahorney, 
when Captain Summers, with his company, returned to Fill- 
more to store their guns in the company's armory. A mem- 
ber of the company, Noah Alley (also a Mexican veteran, and 
afterwards killed at Cedar Mountain, Virginia, as a member 
of the 27th Indiana Regiment) through an awkward mishap, 
thrust the fixed bayonet of his musket through his leg just 
above the ankle, making a serious and painful wound. The 
village boys out of juvenile curiosity had gathered about the 
military company, and were many of them witnesses to this 
unfortunate accident. The writer well remembers the im- 
pression it made on his youthful mind, and this Incident will 
go down in his memory, associated with the death and burial 
of the last survivor of the Revolutionary struggle in that part 
of the county, if not in the State. 

Of these five Revolutoinary patriots, two only, Hopkins 
and Stobaugh, have living descendants in our midst. Denny, 
it will be remembered, had no children of his own. Bartee's 
wife and daughter are long since dead, and the younger Ma- 
horney, after his father's death, together with his family, re- 
moved to Fountain County, where they have been lost to 
sight, in the busy throng that now throbs and pulsates 
throughout our land. 



Tbc Jounial <^Jolui Tipto: 
mmama m Loc^ Sme far ScMe Capi- 




Mondaj- 39 a fiae cfier lu c wiag. after 



.rth 
The 



$3joo for tbe co's bd (riz^ BaithokioKw : -n^r, 

mU with BS the »etro^ We tibca set out u -^ '*'*" 

Uj <kyn to tlw town frf Soescxr. the seat -^t ^'^^ 

cooDty. At u stD| 
p 12. Set oat at 1$ 
nrer. at 7 stopt at 
baTn^ good (?) si 

Toesdar joth 

CoaHy m of wia g 
p 7 the Bhiffs. St 
out at 9. Some la 
X2ft J3.36ft37 ID ' 
tiinber. I went fNit 
at >4 p I. Saw 901 
Past a boose. Saw 
wide, dier water, ! 
h^ stage nms inl 
of S 5 ft 6. 7 ft 8. -I 
Ciost tbe rirer at ] 
p meridjan runs. ^ 
Saw a Urge 6cld oc 
ris wfao lives oa tbi 
Staid 3 days in this 

Wednesday 31. 
path, at 7 came 01 



ic Journal of John Tipton 77 

. which is 30 to 50 feet in height of a gradual 

i> good upland, the bottom the best soil for 

e seen on White river. The soil very fine 

lay. The timber hackberry, buckeye, sugar, 

At 3^ p 10 saw a spring which pleases me the 

I have seen on the river, which I intend to pur- 

e sale. A Mr. Brown lives on it; from the hill 

.inber of fine springs. At J4 p 11 came to the camp 

William Sanders (or Landers), covered with young 

Here I am told was once a French village once oc- 

.>y the Delaware Indians, but evacuated by them about 

•s ago.* The land is rich and level; staid J4 an hour. 

.1 at 15 p 12; stopt at small branch to boil our coffy and 

on of which we have plenty. We set out and saw the 

' line between 2 & 3 east in town 14 north. At 20 p 4 

-St a fine large creek. Eagle creek; large a-plenty to turn 

mill. Saw fine land, good timber, crosst the river one mile 

low the mouth of Fall creek at J4 p 6. where we found the 

ommrs.. Gov. Jennings etc., waiting for us: Went to see 

the surveyor, found his work so much forward as to enable 

us to finish our business. 

Tuesday 6th. A very cool morning. This day we spent 
in reading and walking around the lines of the sections that 
we intend to locate, and in the evening returned to our en- 
campment, having removed to the n w side of the river this 
morning, above the mouth of Fall creek, and stretched our 
tent on a high bank which we called Bartholomew's bluff, 
on fractional section number 3, which is part of our location. 

Wednesday, 7th, a fine, clear morning. We met at Mc- 
Cormicks, and on my motion the commissioners came to a 
resolution to select and locate sections numbered i and 12, 
and east and west fractional sections numbered 2, and east 
fractional section 11, and so much off the east side of west 
fractional section number 3, to be divided by a north and 
south line running parallel to the west boundary of said sec- 
tion, as will equal in amount 4 entire sections in r 15 n. of 

* Sec "Indian Towns in Marion County," No. i of this Magazine. 



78 The Indiana Magazine of History 

R> 3, E, We left our clerk making out his minutes and our 
report, and went to camp to dine. Returned after dinner. 
Our paper being ready, B. D and myself returned to camp at 
4. They went to sleep and me to writing. At 5 we decamped 
and went over to McCormicks. Our clerk having his writing 
ready the commissioners met and signed their report, and 
certified the service of the clerk. At 6 "45 the first boat landed 
that ever was seen at the seat of government. It was a small 
ferry flat with a canoe tied alongside, both loaded with the 
household goods of two families moving to the mouth of Fall 
creek. They came in a keel boat as far as they could get it up 
the river, then reloaded the boat and brought up their goods 
in the flat and canoe.* I paid for some corn and w ( ?) 62>4. 

Thursday 17th — A fine cool morning. We rose early. I 
paid for commissioners $1.25 and for supper $1.12^. Col. D 
paid one dollar and we set out at 15 p 5 for home in company 
with Ludlow, Gilliland, Blythe, Bartholomew, Durham, Gov- 
ernor Jennings and two Virginians. At 8 stopt on a small 
creek to boil our coffy for the last time as we boiled the last 
we had. Set out at 15 p 9. At 45 past 9 crosst a creek. At 
J4 p II crosst a creek. At i stopt to boil our baken. Staid 
until yi p 2. Set out and at 7 came to John Berry, having 
traveled about 45 miles over a bad path. 

Friday, 9. Clier morning. We set out at 15 p 5. At J4 
p 7 came to the upper rapids of drift river. Stopt to let our 
horses graze. Set out at 9. At 12 stopt at Mr. J. RadclifFe's. 
Had some bread and milk for our dinner and some com for 
our horses. Paid 37 J4 by B, and set out at }4 p 5 Stopt at 
Capt J. Shields, staid all night. 

Saturday 10. Clear and very hot. Set out at }4 P 5- Stopt 
at Brownstown. Had breakfast; paid 50. Stopt with Col. 
Durham in Vallonia, who had left us last kt and went home. 
Stopt at Wm. Grayham's, staid i hour. Stopt with Gen. De 
Pauw, had dinner, and at dark stopt in Salem. 

Sunday the 1 1 — Cloudy, some rain. Set out at >^ p 4. At 
15 p 6 stopt at Wilcoxes. Had breakfast, paid $2 by me. 

♦Who tliese two families were is nowhere recorded. 



Indiana Taverns 79 

( ?), had dinner, etc. At dark got 

sent 27 days, the compensation al- 

by the law being $2 for every 25 

irom the plaice where we met, and 

. o while ingaged in the discharge of 

c trip being $58— not half what I could 

'. A very poor compensation. 

John Tipton. 

iiarly Indiana Taverns 

PERS OF THE LatE J. H. B. NOWLAND 

iiiimenced traveling through the State at the 
years, and has kept it up pretty well for near- 
iias given him an opportunity to learn some- 
it c rent taverns and their proprietors. 
" to securing a tavern license was the certifi- 
c-holder testifying that the applicant had two 
nd two stalls that were not necessary for his own 
.ed in the tavern privilege was the right to retail 
uiuors — this being the only form of liquor license 
the earlier days. An old man I knew, wishing a 
nted two beds in a neighbor's house and two stalls 
able. This the neighbor certified to and the license 
cured. 

re was a class of houses of which no license was re- 
., and these were usually announced on their signs as 
s of "Private Entertainment." 

)n the different roads radiating from Indianapolis were 
ny taverns, well known in their day, a few of which may 
mentioned. On the Michigan road, south, was Coble's, 
ar Pleasant View; Adkin's, just this side of Shelbyville; 
[rs. Louden 's, just beyond the jatter place; Boardman's, in 
iJearbom County. On the Madison road were Isaac Smock's, 
Mrs. Adams*, Widow Thompson's, Chauncey Butler's (this 
was Ovid Butler's father), and many others. On the Michi- 
gan road, north, were George Aston 's and Widow Davis*; on 
the National road, east, were Fuller's, John Hagar's and Beck- 



8o The^ Indiana Magazine of History 

ner's. On all the roads, indeed, were numerous well-known 
taverns where first-class entertainment could be had for "man 
and beast" — for the man, ham and eggs, fried chicken, light 
biscuit and buckwheat cakes with honey; for the beast, a 
warm stable, with plenty of oats and hay — and all for 75 
cents. 

The signs before the taverns were sometimes as odd and 
catching as the modem advertisement. I remember one 
which hung in West Washington street that was made like 
a gate with slats, and on the slats was painted : 

"This gate hangs hifl^ and 

hinders none. 
Refresh and pay then travel on." 

John Fernley. 

Another on Washington street, opposite the court house 
read on one side: "Traveler's Ray House, Cheap," and on 
the other, "Traveler s Ray House, .Cash." 

The first sign painter in Indianapolis, Samuel S. Rooker, 
put before the public gaze some samples of his handiwork 
that I well remember. Mr. Rooker came at a very early day, 

and his first order was from Caleb Scudder, the cabinet maker. 

§ 

When the sign was done it was in flaming red letter and read, 
"Kalop Skodder, Kabbinet Maker." His next was for the 
"Rosebush" and "Eagle" Taverns, which he executed to the 
satisfaction of his patrons, but the critics said the picture of 
the royal bird on the latter sign was a turkey. A tavern- 
keeper on the National road ordered a life-sized lion on his 
sign, but when Mr. Rooker had finished his job he had hard 
work proving that it was not a prairie wolf. Rooker's most 
notable work of art, however, was one that stood on the Mich- 
igan road about six miles southeast of Indianapolis. This 
was a portrait of General Lafayette in full uniform. The 
board on which it was painted was not long enough for the 
heroic scale on which the picture was begun, so the legs were 
cut short and the put on where the knees should have been. 
Mr. Rooker 's own advertisement long stood on the northeast 
comer of Washington and Illinois streets, and read: "Sam- 
uel S. Rooker, House and Sine Painter." 



An Early Indiana Educator 8i 

An Early Indiana Educator 

John B. Anderson 

POR nearly a quarter of a century, dating from 1840, John B. 
Anderson was a resident of- New Albany, and for nearly 
twenty years he was principal of two famous classical schools 
— schools which had then not their equal in the Middle West, 
and which will always live in local history as not having been 
surpassed even in this present era of progressive education. 

In 1840 Mr. John B. Anderson, a graduate of the historic 
Washington and Jefferson College, came from Washington, 
Pa., to Brandenburg, Ky. There he engaged in educational 
work and there also he was married to Miss Cecelia Geraldine 
Alexander. At New Albany in 1840, appeared Mr. Anderson, 
a man of impressive presence, unusual height and size, of fine 
character and rare scholarly attainments. He was accompa- 
nied by his wife, a woman possessing all the grace and cul- 
ture of the representative Southern woman of that day, and 
an unmarried sister. Miss Nancy Anderson, also a woman of 
elegance and accomplishment. In this year was founded "An- 
derson's High School for Boys," designed as the catalogue 
stated, to be "a permanent English and classical school, in 
which young men might be prepared for the advanced classes 
in college, or for entering upon the business of life, profes- 
sional or otherwise." An able body of professors was secured, 
a fine curriculum in English, Latin, Greek and mathematical 
studies established-^— Monsieur Picot in charge of "the French 
language and literature," and the school at once began to 
flourish. It drew patronage from many towns in Kentucky 
and Indiana, also from Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri and 
Ohio, and even from far New York. In the prospectus issued 
by Mr. Anderson, New Albany was highly commended for its 
healthfulness, the gentral morality and industry of its inhab- 
itants, and as a place offering fewer inducements to vice than 
most other towns in the country: 

In compliance, no doubt, with "the general pecuniary em- 
barrassment of the times," as mentioned in the prospectus. 



82 The Indiana Magazine of History 

the educational rates were surprisingly moderate; tuition and 
board, including fuel and lights, per quarter of eleven weeks, 
costing only $31.25; French lessons, $5 extra; vocal music, 
under Prof. S. W. Leonard, $1 per quarter, and washing, per 
dozen, 38 cents. To this early school of the Anderson regime 
came, from Fort Smith, Ark., two boys named Hickory and 
Pinckney Rogers — known among their classmates as "Hick- 
ory" and "Pickory." From Arkansas also came several Indian 
lads of the Chickasaw tribe: Zack Colbert, son of the chief 
of the Chickasaw nation, and two half-breeds, David and 
John Vann, one a blonde, the other a typical brown Indian, 
sons of Capt. John Vann, of the ill-fated Ohio River steamer, 
Lucy Walker. Among other Anderson school boys of this 
period were Gerard Alexander, of Kentucky, nephew of Mrs. 
Anderson, known to his classmates as ''Ohio Piomingo Alex- 
ander," and William H. Hillyer, afterwards a colonel and a 
member of Gen. U. S. Grant's staff during the war. Further 
on in the chronicles are found other names now prominent in 
various ways: Charles W. Shields, professor at Princeton 
College; Hon. Jesse J. Brown, Hon. Alexander Dowling, of 
New Albany ; Mr. Henry Crawford, of Chicago, and the name 
of Vinton Nunemacher— dead at twenty-three — ^who once 
won intellectual spurs among the "Old Seminary Boys," of 
Indianapolis. 

For the establishment of Anderson's Female Seminary, in 
1843, ^ l^rgc* old-fashioned, red brick mansion on the comer 
of the public square was chosen by Mr. Anderson, and a corps 
of eight instructors was secured, which was afterwards ex- 
tended to thirteen. In 1850, 103 pupils were in attendance 
and in 1853, 132 names were registered in the catalogue. Of 
the quaint old residence in which this seminary flourished a 
word must be said. It once ranked as "the finest dwelling 
in New Albany,'* but in 1895 was torn down, having degener- 
ated into a troublesome and unprofitable tenement house. 
In the thirties, it was built by Mr. Erastus Benton, a wealthy 
Pittsburg man, mtcrestcd in the New Albany iron factories. 
This pretentious house, with its great walls and gables, broad 



An Early Indiana Educator 83 

porches and unusual architectural adornments, demanded an 
elegfant interior. The handsome furnishings called for costly 
* entertainments, and in a few years, the owner was disastrous- 
ly involved in debt, the fine residence was sold and became 
rental property, locally registered as "Benton's Folly." Its 
large halls, commodious drawing room and parlors, airy gal- 
leries and unusual number of bed-rooms rendered it especially 
adapted to the needs of the female seminary, which occupied 
it for a long and flourishing term of years. 

The girls' school was but a few minutes walk from the 
boys' school, and Mr. Anderson held both in careful superin- 
tendence. In addition to solid attainments the young women 
were taught French and German, with piano, guitar and harp 
lessons, vocal music, drawing and painting in oil and water. 
Plain and ornamental needle work were also taught Girls 
held lower rank financially than boys in that epoch, as tuition 
was billed at $75 per season, with washing 50 cents per dozen. 
Piano and guitar lessons were 25 cents each, while French and 
German lessons, and lessons in painting and drawing were 10 
cents each; a lesson in oil coloring was rated at 15 cents, and 
vocal music at 2 cents per lesson. From North and South, 
East and West, came young women to this noted classical 
school for girls ; many of the instructors were from New York 
State, and pupils were on the records from Oswego and Sara- 
toga, from Mobile and New Orleans. Among the teachers, 
at one time, was Miss Caroline Cornelia Cooke, of New York, 
afterwards the wife of Indiana's Governor, Ashabel P. Wil- 
lard. Mr. Willard, it is related, was assiduous in his attend- 
ance during leisure hours at Anderson's Seminary, and some 
of the young women who were pursuing the deep sciences 
and the elegant graces, did not fancy his physical peculiarities, 
his neck being notably longer than that of the average man. 
Girls will be girls, even with all the classics at their beck and 
call, and one staid matron now vividly recollects being repri- 
manded and incarcerated ignominiously for calling down the 
corridor to another girl, as Mr. Willard, on a prancing steed, 
drew rein at the pavement: "Lxx>k, look; there comes Neck." 



84 The Indiana Magazine of History 

"Regulations," in the Anderson schools, although de- 
scribed in the catalogue as *'kind, though firm and decided," 
were really almost a minus quantity. Among other quaint 
features of the catalogue of 1850-51 is the name, on the list of 
instructors, of Miss Rhoda B. Byers, monitress. Certainly, 
the "power of presence" was never more strongly exemplified 
than in this instance, Mr. Anderson's amplitude of gracious 
authority, Mrs. Anderson's genial bearing and Miss Nancy's 
friendly stateliness operating in all cases as potent disarma- 
ment of unruliness and insubordination. Godliness, too, abode 
in the Anderson classical schools, pupils being required to 
attend worship, either in the churches of their choice, or with 
the family of the principal. Mr. Anderson came of a family 
of clergymen, his father, Rev. Dr. John Anderson, and his 
brother. Rev. Wm. C. Anderson, being prominent in the Pres- 
byterian Church in Pennsylvania, Indiana and Kansas. 

Among the attractive features of these old-time schools, 
the family atmosphere is described as having been unusual 
and most atractive. Out of harness Mr. Anderson was al- 
ways a popular social center, the girls clustering about him 
with fearless and animated devotion. The New Albany pu- 
pils consisted of the flower of the town, and now, in all old 
New Albany families, eyes kindle and words of praise are 
spoken at the mere mention of the Anderson family. Several 
years ago, down in French town — ^Porr'entrury — I came upon 
an elderly Frenchman, a farmer and a wagon maker, whose 
dignity of bearing, choice language and general information 
impressed me as unusual, until the fact was elicited that he 
had been educated in John B. Anderson's school, walking to 
town, and paying for his tuition by serving as janitor boy. 
On his table was the New York Tribune, to which he told 
me he had been a subscriber since 1853. 

In 1853 Mr. C. C. Hine and lady, of New York, became 
associated in the management of the seminary, and at this 
date more than fifty graduates, with twelve resident 
graduates, are noted in the catalogue as the fruits of 
the preceding scholastic years. Mr. and Mrs. Hine were 
notable additions to social New Albany, and the for- 



An Early Indiana Educator 85 

mcr afterwards became prominent in New York bank- 
ing and insurance circles. Mrs. Hine was a woman of much 
culture and many accomplishments, and her presence gave 
additional zest to the care with which feminine deportment 
was molded in the Anderson Seminary. In those days mem- 
bership in this classical institution was, in itself, passport to 
the upper intellectual and social life of the town; and, even 
at this day, can be set apart, as a class formed on old-school 
models of punctilious gentleness and courtesy, the New Al- 
bany men and women who enjoyed such privileges and ex- 
ample. A true "g^eat heart" in many ways was John B. An- 
derson, and on the register of his good deeds is noted one most 
interesting incident. From Louisiana to these schools in far 
Indiana came a little g^oup of two boys and a girl. For one 
year their tuition bills were promptly met, but after that ap- 
peared a financial vacuum. Mr. Anderson, however, kept the 
children in the school several years at his own expense, and it 
has never been known whether or not this outlay was made 
good to him by their derelict guardians. In 1850, 1851, 1852 
and 1853 the Indiana g^rls in the Anderson schools, outside of 
New Albany were Eunice Meberd, Vincennes; Mary E. Hall, 
Princeton ; Annie J. Vance, Cor>don ; Elizabeth and Cordelia 
Dcvin, Princeton ; Nannie Fabrique, Pilot Knob ; Eliza J. Fos- 
ter, Evansville; Olivia Mitchell, Evansville; Arabella D. 
Wise, Vincennes; Sarah Ann Devin, Princeton; Sarah Devol, 
Terre Haute; Clarinda Mitchell, Evansville; Mary E. Rice, 
Corydon; M. J. O'Riley, Evansville; Ellen M. Brackenridge, 
Newburg; D. M. Dietz, Charlestown; Mary Hurd, Bedford; 
Nannie Johnston, Evansville; Glen J. Mcjunkin, Washing? 
ton; Mary Miller, Bono; Emma Riley, Orleans, and Helen 
Von Trees, Washington. At the Chicago Beach Hotel this 
summer two ladies who had just met investigated an instinctive 
friendliness which they felt for each other and found the bond 
to be that they were both graduates of the Anderson Seminary 
at New Albany— one having been graduated in 1850, the other 
being probably the last graduate to whom the school had 
given a diploma. Owing to ill health in 1858, the master of 
the Anderson schools retired from collegiate labor and entered 



86 The Indiana Magazine of History 

upon a long and successful career as builder and manager of 
railroads. During the war Secretary Stanton recognized his 
fine grasp of affairs, his cool judgment and remarkable execu- 
tive ability, and pressed him to accept a position as brigadier 
general. This honor was declined, but he did accept an ap- 
pointment as general manager of the United States military 
railways, serving faithfully and retiring at his own request in 
1864. Mr. Anderson was a wonderful reader and book lover, 
and at the time of his golden wedding assisted in founding at 
the College of Emporia, Kan., an Anderson memorial library, 
instead of accepting for himself and wife the usual gifts which 
such celebrations evoke. Mrs. Anderson survives him. No 
children were ever bom to this couple, whose domestic rela- 
tions were otherwise ideal, but in the remembrance of many 
school children and school children's children shall their lives 
and works be perpetuated. Carleton 

Note. — For further information about John B. Anderson by the same 
writer, see The Book-Lover Magazine, July-August, 1903. In this sketch 
Mrs. Carleton credits Anderson with having directly inspired the munifi- 
cent library gifts of Andrew Carnegie. 



Origin of the Word Hoosier 

[The many and varied accounts of the origin of the term "'Hoosier" 
mostly have in common one thing — improbability. These stories are too 
well known to give space to here and may be found elsewhere — for in- 
stance in Meredith Nicholson's "The Hoosiers." So far as we know 
Jacob P. Dunn is the only one who has made anything like a thorough 
study of the question, and because his conclusions seem to us the most 
reasonable theory in the field, and, in addition, are but little known, we 
think they will be of interest here. The following article is the second 
of two that appeared in die Indianapolis News (see Aug. 23 and 30, 
1903), and contains the substance of Mr. Dunn's argument, the first being, 
mainly, a discussion of the current stones. The entire study in a revised 
form will probably be published before very long in the collections of the 
Indiana Historical Society.] 

In 1854 Amelia M. Murray visited Indianapolis, and was 
for a time the guest of Governor Wright. In her book, en- 
titled "Letters from the United States, Cuba and Canada'' 
(page 324), she says: "Madame Pfeiffer (she evidently meant 
Mrs. Puslzky, for Madame Pfeiffer did not come here and 



Origin of the Word Hoosier 87 

docs not mention the subject) mistook Governor Wright 
when she gave from his authority another derivation for the 
word 'Hoosier/ It originated in a settler's exclaiming 
'Huzza/ upon gaining the victory over a marauding party 
from a neighboring State/' With these conflicting state- 
ments, I called on Mr. John C. Wright, son of Governor 
Wright. He remembered the visits of the Pulszkys and Miss 
Murray, but knew nothing of Madame Pfeiffer. He said : "I 
often heard my father discuss this subject. His theory was 
that the Indiana flatboatmen were athletic and pugnacious, 
and were accustomed, when on the levees of the Southern 
cities, to 'jump up and crack their heels together, and shout 
'Huzza,' whence the name of 'huzza' fellows.' We have the 
same idea now in 'hoorah people,' or 'a hoorah time.' " 

It will be noted that all these theories practically carry 
three features in common : 

1. They are alike in the idea that the word was first 
applied to a rough, boisterous, uncouth, illiterate class of peo- 
ple, and that the word originally implied this character. 

2. They are alike in the idea that the word came from the 
South, or was first applied by Southern people. 

3. They are alike in the idea that the word was coined 
for the purpose of designating Indiana people, and was not in 
existence before it was applied to them. 

If our primary suspicion be correct, that all the investiga- 
tors and theorists have followed some false lead from the be- 
ginning, it will presumably be found in one of these three 
common features. Of the three, the one that would more 
probably have been derived from assumption than from ob- 
servation is the third. If we adopt the hypothesis that it is 
erroneous, we have left the proposition that the word "hoos- 
ier" was in use at the South, signifying a rough or uncouth 
person, before it was applied to Indiana ; and if this was true 
it would presumably continue to be used there in that sense. 
Now this condition actually exists, as appears from the fol- 
lowing evidence. 

In her recent novel, "In Connection with the De Wil- 



88 The Indiana Magazine of History 

loughby Claim," Mrs. Frances Hodgson Burnett refers several 
times to one of her characters — a boy from North Carolina — 
as a "hoosier." In reply to an inquiry she writes to me : **The 
word 'hoosier' in Tennessee and North Carolina seemed to 
imply, as you suggest, an uncouth sort of rustic. In the days 
when I first heard it my idea was also that — in agreement 
with you again — it was a slang term. I think a Tennesseean 
or Carolinian of the class given to colloquialism would have 
applied the term 'hoosier' to any rustic person without refer- 
ence to his belonging to any locality in particular. But when 
I lived in Tennessee I was very young and did not inquire 
closely into the matter." 

Mrs. C. W. Bean, of Washington, Ind., furnishes me this 
statement: "In the year 1888, as a child, I visited Nashville, 
Tenn. One day I was walking down the street with two of 
my aunts, and our attention was attracted by the large num- 
ber of mountaineers on the streets, mostly from northern 
Georgia, who had come in to some sort of society meeting. 
One of my aunts said, 'What a lot of hoosiers there are in 
town.' In surprise I said, 'Why, I am a 'Hoosier.' A horri- 
fied look came over my aunt's face, and she exclaimed, 'For 
the Lord's sake, child, don't let anyone here know you're a 
hoosier.' I did not make the claim again, for on inspection 
the visitors proved a wild-looking lot who might be suspected 
of never having seen civilization before." 

Mrs. Mary E. Johnson, of Nashville, Tenn., gives the fol- 
lowing statement : "I have been familiar with the use of the 
word 'hoosier' all my life, and always as meaning a rough 
class of country people. The idea attached to it, as I under- 
stand it, is not so much that they are from the country, as that 
they are g^een and gawky. I think the sense is much the 
same as in 'hayseed,' 'jay' or 'yahoo.* " 

Hon. Thetus W. Simes, Representative in Congress from 
the Tenth Tennessee District, says: "I have heard all my 
life of the word 'hoosier' as applied to an ignorant, rough, un- 
polished fellow." 

The following three statements were furnished to me by 



Origin of the Word Hoosicr 89 

Mr. Meredith Nichoison, who collected them some months 
since. 

John Bell Hennenian, of the department of English, Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville, writes : "The word 'hoosier' 
is generally used in Virginia, South Carolina, Tennessee as an 
equivalent for 'a country hoodlum,' *a rough, uncouth coun- 
tryman,' etc. The idea of the 'country' is always attached 
to it in my mind, with a degree of 'uncouthness' added. I 
simply speak from my general understanding of the term as 
heard used in the States mentioned above." 

Mr. Raymond Weeks, of Columbia, Mo., writes : "Pardon 
my delay in answering your question concerning the word 
'hoosier' in this section. The word means a native of Indiana, 
and has a rare popular sense of a backwoodsman, a rustic. 
One hears : 'He's a regular hoosier.' " 

Mrs. John M. Judah, of Memphis, writes: "About the 
word 'Hoosier'— one hears it in Tennessee often. It always 
means rough, uncouth, countrified. *1 am a Hoosier,' I have 
said, and my friends answered bewilderdly. 'But all Indi- 
ana-born are Hoosiers,' I declare. 'What nonsense!* is the 
answer generally, but one old politician responded with a 
little more intelligence on the subject : 'You Indianians should 
forget that. It has been untrue for many years.' In one of 
Mrs. Evans's novels — 'St. Elmo,' I think — a noble and phil- 
anthropic young Southern woman is reproached by her 
haughty father for teaching the poor children in the neighbor- 
hood — ' a lot of hoosiers,' he calls them. I have seen it in 
other books, too, but I cannot recall them. In newspapers 
the word is common enough, in the sense I refer to." 

It is scarcely possible that this wide-spread use of the 
word in this general sense could have resulted if the word had 
been coined to signify a native of Indiana, but it would have 
been natural enough, if the word were in common use as 
slang in the South, to apply it to the people of Indiana. Many 
of the early settlers were of a rough and ready character, and 
doubtless most of them looked it in their long and toilsome 
emigration, but, more than that, it is an historical fact that 



90 The Indiana Magazine of 

about the time of the publication of Finley's poem there was 
a great fad of nicknaming in the West, and especially as to 
the several States. It was a feature of the humor of the day, 
and all genial spirits "pushed it along." A good illustratkm 
of this is seen in the following passage from Hoffman's "Win- 
ter in the West" (published in 1835, Vol. i, Page 210) referred 
to above : 

"There was a long-haired 'hooshier' from Indiana, a couple 
of smart-looking 'suckers' from the southern part of Illinois, 
a keen-eyed, leather-belted 'badger' from the mines of Ouis- 
consin, and a sturdy, yeomanlike fellow, whose white capot, 
Indian moccasins and red sash proclaimed, while he boasted 
a three years' residence, the genuine 'wolverine,' or nauralized 
Michiganian. Could one refuse to drink with such a compa- 
ny? The spokesman was evidently a 'red horse' from Ken- 
tucky, and nothing was wanting but a 'buckeye' from Ohio 
to render the assemblage as complete as it was select." 

This same frontier jocularity furnishes an explanation for 
the origin of several of the theories of the derivation of the 
name. If an assuming sort of person, in a crowd accustomed 
to the use of "hoosier" in its general slang sense, should pre- 
tentiously announce that he was a "husher," or a "hussar," 
nothing would be more characteristically American than for 
somebody to observe, "He is a hoosier, sure enough." And 
the victim of the little pleasantry would naturally suppose 
that the joker had made a mistake in the term. But the sig- 
nificance of the word must have been quite generally under- 
stood, for the testimony is uniform that it carried its slurring 
significance from the start Still it was not materially more 
objectionable than the names applied to the people of other 
States, and it was commonly accepted in the spirit of humor. 
As Mr. Finley put it, in later forms of his poem : 

With feelings proud wc contemplate 
The rising glory of our State, 
Nor take offense by application 
Of its good-natured appdlation. 

It appears that the word was not generally known 
throughout the State until after the publication of "The Hoos- 



Origin of the Word Hoosier 91 

iers' Nest*'* though it was known earlier in some localities, 
and these localities were points of contact with the Southern 
people. And this was true as to Mr. Finley's locality, for the 
upper part of the Whitewater valley was largely settled by 
Southerners, and from the Tennessee-Carolina mountain re- 
gion, where the word was especially in use. Such settlements 
had a certain individuality. In his "Sketches" (pag^ 38) the 
Rev. Aaron Wood says : 

"Previously to 1830 society was not homogeneous, but in 
scraps, made so by the eclectic affinity of race, tastes, sects 
and interest. There was a wide difference in the domestic 
habits of the families peculiar to the provincial gossip, dialect 
and taste of the older States fro m which they had emigrated." 

The tradition in my own family, which was located in the 
lower part of the Whitewater valley, is that the word was not 
heard there until ''along in the thirties.'* In that region it al- 
ways carries the idea of roughness or uncouthness, and it de- 
veloped a derivative — "hoosiery" — which was used as an ad- 
jective or adverb to indicate something that was rough, awk- 
ward or shiftless. Testimony as to a similar condition in the 
middle part of the Whitewater valley is furnished in the fol- 
lowing statement, given me by the Rev. T. A. Goodwin : 

"In the summer of 1830 I went with my father, Samuel 
Goodwin, from our home at Brookville to Cincinnati. We 
traveled in an old-fashioned one-horse Dearborn wagon. I 
was a boy of twelve years, and it was a great occasion for me. 
At Cincinnati I had a fip for a treat, and at that time there was 
nothing I relished so much as one of those big pieces of gin- 
gerbread that were served as refreshment on muster days, 
Fourth of July and other gala occasions, in connection with 
cider. I went into a baker's shop and asked for 'a fip*s worth 
of gingerbread.' The man said, *I guess you want hoosier- 
bait,' and when he produced it I found that he had the right 
idea. That was the first tune I ever heard the word 'hoosier,' 
but in a few years it became quite commonly applied to In- 
diana people. The gingerbread referred to was cooked in 
square pans — about fifteen inches across, I should think — and 



92 The Indiana Magazine of History 

with furrows marked across the top, dividing it into quarter 
sections. A quarter section sold for a ftp, which was 6% 
cents. It is an odd fact that when Hosier J. Durbin joined 
the Indiana Methodist Conference, in 1835, his name was 
misspelled 'Hoosier' in the minutes, and was so printed. The 
word 'hoosier' always had the sense of roughness or uncouth- 
ness in its early use." 

At the time this statement was made, neither Mr. Good- 
win nor I knew of the existence of the last four lines of Fin- 
ley's poem, in which this same term "hossier-bait" occurs, 
they being omitted in all the ordianry forms of the poem. 
The derivation of this term is obvious, whether "bait" be 
taken in its sense of a lure or its sense of food. It was simply 
something that "hoosiers" were fond of, and its application 
was natural at a time when the ideal of happiness was "a 
country boy with a hunk of gingerbread." 

After the word had been applied to Indiana, and had en- 
tered on its double-sense stage, writers who were familiar 
with both uses distinguished between them by making it a 
proper noun when Indiana was referred to. An illustration 
of this is seen in the writings of J. S. Robb, author of 'The 
Swamp Doctor in the Southwest" and other humorous 
sketches, published in 1843. H^ refers to Indiana as "the 
Hoosier State," but in a sketch of an eccentric St. Louis char- 
acter he writes thus : 

"One day, opposite the Planter's House, during a military 
parade, George was engaged in selling his edition of the Ad- 
vocate of Truth, when a tall hoosier, who had been gazing at 
him with astonishment for some time, roared out in an im- 
moderate fit of laughter. 

"What do you see so funny in me to laugh at?" inquired 
George. 

"Why, boss," said the hoosier, "I wur jest a thinkin' ef I'd 
seed you out in the woods, with all that har on, they would a 
been the d — dest runnin' done by this 'coon ever seen in them 
diggins — ^you're ekill to the elephant ! and a leetle the haryest 
small man I've seen scart up lately." 



Origin of the Word Hoosier ^3 

Unfortunately, however, not many writers were familiar 
with the double use of the word, and the distinction has grad- 
ually died out, while persistent assertions that the word was 
coined to designate Indiana people have loaded on them all 
the odium for the significance that the word has anywhere. 

The real problem of the derivation of the word "hoosier" 
is not a question of the origin of a word formed to designate 
the State of Indiana and its people, but of the origin of the 
slang term widely in use in the South, signifying an uncouth 
rustic. There seems never to have been any attempt at a ra- 
tional philological derivation, unless we may so account Mr. 
Charles G. Leland's remarks in Barriere and Leland's "Dic- 
tionary of Slang, Jargon and Cant," which are as follows: 
"Hoosier (American). A nickname given to natives of Indi- 
ana. Bartlett cites from the Providence Journal a story which 
has the appearance of being an after-manufacture to suit the 
name, deriving "hoosier from'husher — from their primary ca- 
pacity to still their opponents." He also asserts that the Ken- 
tuckians maintained that the nickname expresses the exclama- 
tion of an Indianian when he knocks at a door and exclaims 
*Who's yere?' However, the word originally was not hoosier 
at all, but hoosieroon, or hoosheroon, hoosier being an abre- 
viation of this. I can remember that in 1834, having read of 
hoosiers, and spoken of them, a boy from the West corrected 
me, and said that the word was properly hoosieroon. This 
would indicate a Spanish origin." 

The source of Mr. Leland's error is plain. "Hoosieroon" 
was undoubtedly coined by Mr. Finley to designate a Hoo- 
sier child, and what the boy probably told Mr. Leland was 
that the name to apply properly to him would be Hoosieroon. 
But that alone would not dispose wholly of the Spanish sug- 
gestion, for "oon" or "on" is not only a Spanish ending, but 
is a Spanish diminutive indicating blood relation. In reality, 
however, Mr. Finley did not understand Spanish, and the 
ending was probably suggested to him by a quadroon and 
octoroon, which, of course, were in general use. There is no 
Spanish word that would give any suggestion of "hoosier." 



94 '^^^ Indiana Magazine of History 

The only other language of continental Europe that could be 
looked to for its origin would be French, but there is no 
French word approaching it except, perhaps, "huche," which 
means a kneading trough, and there is no probability of deri- 
vation from that.* 

In fact, "hoosier" carries Anglo-Saxon credentials. It is 
Anglo-Saxon in form and Anglo-Saxon in ring. If it came 
from any foreign language, it has been thoroughly anglicized. 
And' in considering its derivation it is to be remembered that 
the Southerners have always had a remarkable faculty for 
creating new words and modifying old ones. Anyone who has 
noted the advent of "snollygoster" in the present generation, 
or has read Longstreet*s elucidation of "fescue," "abisselfa," 
and "anpersant" (Georgia Scenes, page 73), will readily con- 
cede that. And in ihis connection it is to be observed that 
the word "yahoo*' has long been in use in Southern slang, 
in almost exactly the same sense as "hoosier," and the latter 
word may possibly have developed from its last syllable. 
We have a very comomn slang word in the North — "yap" — 
with the same signification, which may have come from the 
same source, though more probably from the provincial En- 
glish "yap," to yelp or bark. "Yahoo" is commonly said to 
have been coined by Swift, but there is a possibility that it 
was in slang use in his day. 

It is very probable that the chief cause of the absence of 
conjectures of the derivation of "Hoosier" from an English 
stem was the lack in our dictionaries of any word from 
which it could be supposed to come, and it is a singular fact 
that in our latest dictionaries — the Standard and the Cen- 
tury — there appears the word "hoose,** which has been in 
use for centuries in England. It is used now to denote a dis- 
ease common to calves, similar to the gapes in chickens, 

* Mr. Dunn is sometimes over-positive in his statements. Mrs. Emma 
Carleton, of New Albany, calls our attention to the old French word 
huissier, as used by Sir Walter Scott in "Tlie Abbott" (Chapter 18). 
The **liussier" was an usher; hence Mrs. Carleton suggests, with some 
plausibility, that the word might have attached to the first French occu- 
pants of Indiana, as the ushers of civilization, or that the use of it by 
them "might have been the lingual forefather of Hoosier." — The Editor. 



Origin of the Word Hoosier 95 

caused by the lodg:ment of worms in the throat. The symp- 
toms of this disease include staring eyes, rough coat with hair 
turned backward, and hoarse wheezing. So forlorn an aspect 
might readily suggest giving the name 'hooser" or hoosier" 
to an uncouth, rough-looking person. In this country, for 
some reason, this disease has been known only by the name 
of the worm that causes it — "strongylus micrurus" — it sounds 
very much like "strangle us marcus" as the veterinarians pro- 
nounce it — but in England "hoose" is the common name. 
This word is from a very strong old stem. Halliwell, in his 
"Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial words," gives "hooze" 
and "hoors," and states that "hoos" occurs in the "Cornwall 
Glossary," the latter being used also in Devonshire. Palmer, 
in his "Folk-Etymology," says that "hoarst — a Linconshire 
word for a cold on the chest, as if that which makes one 
hoarse," is a corruption of the old English "host," a cough, 
Danish "hoste," Dutch "hoeste," Anglo-Saxon "hweost," a 
wheeziness ; and refers to Old English "hoose," to cough, and 
Cleveland "hooze," to wheeze. Descriptions of the effect of 
hoose on the appearance of animals will be found in Arma- 
tage's "Cattle Doctor," and in the "Transactions of the High- 
land Society of Scotland," fourth series. Vol. 10, at page 206. 

There is also a possibility of a geographical origin for the 
word, for there is a coast parish of Cheshire, England, about 
seven miles west of Liverpool, named Hoose. The name 
probably refers to the cliffs in the vicinity, for "hoo," which 
occurs both in composition and independently in old English 
names of places, is a Saxon word signifying high. However, 
this is an obscure parish, and no especial peculiarity of the 
people is known that would probably give rise to a distinctive 
name for them. 

There is one other possibility that is worthy of mention 
— that the word may have come to us through England from 
the Hindoo. In India there is in general use a word com- 
monly written "huzur," which is a respectful form of address 
to persons of rank or superiority. In "The Potter's Thumb," 
Mrs. Steel writes it "hoozur." Akin to it is "housha," the title 



96 The Indiana Magazine of History 

of a village authority in Bengal. It may seem impossible that 
**hoosier" could come from so far a source, and yet it is almost 
certain that our slang word "fakir," and its derivative verb 
"fake," came from the Hindoo through England, whither for 
many years people of all classes have been returning from 
Indian service. 

As a matter of fact words pass from one language to an- 
other in slang very readily. For example, throughout Eng- 
land and America a kidnapper is said in thieves' slang to be 
"on the kinchin lay," and it can scarcely be questioned that 
this word is direct from the German "kindchen." The change 
of meaning from "huzur" to "hoosier" would be explicable by 
the outlandish dress and looks of the Indian grandees from a 
native English standpoint, and one might naturally say xA an 
uncouth person, "He looks like a huzur." 

It is not my purpose to urge that any one of these sug- 
gested possibilities of derivation is preferable to the others, or 
to assert that there may not be other and more rational ones. 
It is sufficient to have pointed out that there are abundant 
sources from which the word may have been derived. The 
essential poin is that Indiana and her people had nothing 
whatever to do with its origin or its signification. It was ap- 
plied to us in raillery, and our only connection with it is that 
we have meekly borne it for some three score years and ten, 
and have made it widely recognized as a badge of honor, 
rather than a term of reproach. ' J. P. Dunn. 



The Primitive Hoosier 

T^ HE following enthusiastic bit of writing, copied into the 
Journal from the New Orleans Picayune more than sixty 
years ago, gives a picture of the Hoosier of that period who 
came down the river with his flatboat load of produce. Says 
the Picayune writer: 

"There is a primitive and pristine simplicity of character 
and independence of mind about a Hoosier that pleases us 
much. His step is as untramnieled by the artifice of fashion 



The Primitive Hoosier 97 

and as free from the constraint of foppery as the mighty rivers 
of the West are from obstruction in their impetus course 
to the ocean, or as the path of the buffalo herd over the wild 
prairie. Bom on the fructuous soil of freedom, and unchecked 
in his growth by avarice and dissimulaion, he rises to man- 
hood with a mind unwarpt and a spirit unbent like the trees 
of the forest around him. He loves liberty — loves it in his 
heart's core — he would fight — he would die for it. ♦ ♦ ♦ He 
cries from his soul, 'Long live liberty!' because the instinct 
of his free and unsophistocated nature tells him that it is the 
inalienable birthright and heritage of man, and he thinks that 
to live without it is impossible as to exist without the free air 
that wantons round his Western home. He may be ignorant 
of the use of the eyeglass, but is his aim with his rifle less 
deadly ? He may not be able to discuss the merits of the last 
novel, but thinkest thou that he is ignorant of the cardinal 
principal of liberty? In a word, he may not be a thing with 
his face hid in a stock, long hair and a shirt collar, but might 
not more confidence be placed in his brawny arm in time of 
war than in a whole regiment of such men of doubtful gender? 

"We do love to see a Hoosier roll along the levee with the 
proceeds of the plunder of his flatboat in his pocket. It is the 
wages of industry, and no lordly ecclesiastic or titled layman 
dares claim a cent of it. See with what pity he regards those 
who are confined to the unchangeable monotony of a city life, 
and observe how he despises uniformity of dress. He has 
just donned a new blue dress coat with silk linings and flow- 
ered gilt buttons. His new pants look rather short for the 
present fashion, but this is easily accounted for*— they were 
of stocking fit or French cut at the instep, and thinking they 
pressed rather close he has curtailed them of some six inches 
of their fair proportion. * * * He glories in still sporting 
the same unpolished peg boots, and the woolen, round-topped, 
wide-leafed hat in which he set out from home. The Hoosier 
says, or seems to say — 

" 'A life in the woods for me,' and his happy and independ- 
ent life attests the wisdom of his choice." 



98 The Indiaiu Magazine of History 

Local Historical Societies 

tN the introductory article to the first number of this maga- 
-^ zine we expressed the hope that we might do something 
toward promoting the work of local historical societies. We 
cannot say at this writing that we are particularly encouraged. 

So far as we have been able to learn local societies have, 
at one time or another, been organized in the following coun- 
ties: St. Joseph, Henry, Randolph, De^ware, Hamilton, 
Carroll, Wayne, Martin, Putnam, Parke and Clark. Our at- 
tempts to gather information concerning the origin, history 
and accomplishment of these societies resulted with most of 
them, in nothing. Some of them, we know, have ceased to be. 
The Putnam County organization, for instance, has been out 
of existence some ten years, but its archives are still preserved 
by one of the original members, and from them we secured 
the article on "Revolutionary Soldiers*' published in this 
number. In similar collections esewhere there are doubtless 
many valuable papers which should not be wholly lost, and 
which would not be if those having them in custody would 
but render a very small service. On another page we explain 
a plan of the State Librarian to collect as exhaustive a bibli- 
ography as possible of Indiana material, both published and 
unpublished. Upon application he will send copies of a 
printed form on which the description and location of such 
material may be set forth for the benefit of any student along 
certain lines who may be interested in it. If these papers 
of non-existent societies were handed over to the keeping of 
the State Library it would much increase their chances of use- 
fulness. But even a knowledge of them in private possession 
is desirable. 

From societies now existing, which we tried to reach with 
letters of inquiry, there were but few responses. The most 
circumstantial informaton received was from the Wayne 
County organization, and for this reason, and because it would 
seem to be an excellent model for those contemplating new 
organizations, we here deal fully with it. 



Local Historical Societies 99 

This society has rooms in the court house, where it has 
begun the collection of a library and historical museum; and 
contributions, such as old letters, manuscripts, pictures, books, 
pamphlets, relics, or an3rthing that will illustrate the history 
and progress of the country, are solicited. It holds four meet- 
ings a year, at various places in the county, and to these the 
general public is invited. The program of 1904, which is be- 
fore us, gives an idea of the character and scope of these meet- 
ings, and we here copy it in substance. 

February 27 (in the rooms of the society in the Court 
House, Richmond), i — ^The Early Railroads of Richmond, by 
Mr. James Van Dusen. 2 — Original Poem, by Rev. Luke 
Woodard. 3 — Report of the New Orleans meeting of the 
American Historical Association, by Mr. Jesse S. Reeves. 
4 — Report of a visit to the Henry County Society, by Mrs. 
Helen V. Austin. 

May 21 (High School, Cambridge City), i — ^The Whisky 
Frauds of 1876, by Dr. Joseph W. Jay. 2 — History of Dairy- 
ing in Wayne County, by Mr. W. S. Commons. 

August 27 (Meeting House, Fountain City. All day 
meeting, devoted to the Pioneer Industries of the county). 
I — Papers on Field Industries. 2 — Papers on Household In- 
dustries. 3 — Papers on Industrial Amusements. 

November 10 (Rooms of the Society), i — Prominent Ed- 
ucators of Wayne County, by Prof. Lee Ault. 2 — The Wayne 
County Argonauts of '49 and '50, by Prof. Cyrus W. Hodgin. 

Other noteworthy papers, given in 1903 were on the Old 
National Road; Historic Houses of Centerville; Early Mills 
of Wayne County and the Geological History of Wayne Coun- 
ty. These papers, as we understand, are all carefully pre- 
served by the curator of the society in its room, and a number 
of them, doubtless, contain interesting historical data not to 
be found elsewhere. 

Another feature of the Society's work is the publishing 
once a year of a historical pamphlet contributed to its ar- 
chives. Two of these, thus far, have been issued, "The Nam- 
ing and Nicknaming of Indiana," by Prof. Cyrus W. Hodgin, 



• ••• :•• 

• • •:• 



• •• 

• •• 



lOO The Indiana Magazine of History 

and "Institutional Influence of the Germans in Richmond/' 
by Fred J. Bartel. The membership dues are fifty cents a 
year. 

The Constitution of this society may be secured by send- 
ing to Prof. Cyrus W. Hodgins, Richmond, Ind. 

Since writing the above we have received reports from 
the Henry and Monroe County societies, through the kindness 
of Mr. Benjamin S. Parker, of New Castle, and Prof. J. A. 
Woodbum, of Bloomington, whose letters we add. The first 
of these organizations is among the oldest, and the latter the 
newest, we believe, among our local societies. 



Henry County Historical Society 

The Henry Count> Historical Society held its 19th annual 
meeting at its building in Newcastle on Saturday, April 29th, 
1905. As the above statement indicates, this society was or- 
ganized and began active work in 1887. Its constitution pro- 
vides for two meetings with papers, addresses, discussions, 
music, etc., in each year. As with other similar societies, it 
has been indebted, during much of its career, to the efforts 
of a few persons for its continuous existence and progress. 

The hope of its founders, and those who have since carried 
forward its work, has been to collect and preserve in an easily 
accessible shape, the history of every township, town, village, 
and country neighborhood, from the first setlement forward. 
The society also seeks to illustrate the life of the country and 
its people, through the various changes and steps of progress, 
by a collection ' of earlier and later industrial implements, 
household and kitchen utensils, natural history specimens, and 
whatever may serv^e to give to the present and future genera- 
tions, correct ideas as to the method by and through which 
the county has been improved and the people have progressed. 

Taking advantage of the law passed by the State Legis- 
lature in 1901, the society applied to the Board of County 
Commissioners and County Council for an appropriation to 
purchase or build a home for the society and its collection. 



V- •-• 






Local Historical Societies loi 

An appropriation of $5,000 was promptly made. Soon after 
an unexpected event occurred. In order to close up and set- 
tle the estate of the late General William Grose, the adminis- 
trator offered at a very low figure the splendid residence prop- ' 
erty of the General. Upon the appearance of the advertise- 
ment the late W. H. Adams began a movement to secure the 
home, including one acre of ground for the use of the society. 
The Commissioners were called together, then the County 
Council met in special session, and in about a fortnight, the 
county of Henry became the owner of the property for the use 
of its Historical Society. The fine mansion not only furnishes 
large space for the society's collection and library (which now 
contains about 800 volumes), but also provides a residence 
for the custodian. While a full historical collection is sought 
for, the managers are taking great care not to cumber the 
space with mere "old junk," A place must have some other 
merit than age to make it worth preserving. It must be part 
of an illustrative chain that elucidates some branch or portion 
of the country's life, past or present, to be acceptable. Small 
appropriations have been made, year after year, to this soci- 
ety, but up to the present a considerable per cent, of the ap- 
propriations thus made have gone back to the county treasury 
unused, so that the cost of maintenance has, thus far, been 
but trifling to the county. The society pays its own running 
expenses except the cost of light, water and fuel, and the 
maintaining of buildings and grounds. 

The 19th annual meeting was a very enjoyable one and 
very well attended. Its principal features consisted of a 
fine address upon the preservation of local history by the re- 
tiring President, Mr. John Thornburgh; an exceedingly inter- 
esting letter from Mrs. S. A. Pleas, (now of Florida) widow 
of the naturalist, Elwood Pleas, one of the promoters of the 
society ; a splendid -address delivered by Judge L. C. Abbott, 
of Richmond, representing the Wayne County Historical So- 
ciety, upon "Life in Washington Fifty Years Ago;" a local 
paper, entitled a "History of Clear Spring," a well-known 
neighborhood of the county, by Miss Orabell Shaffer, and a 
unique series of caricatures and illustrations of the early life, 

- - : :' 



I02 The Indiana Magazine of History 

dress and manners of the people of the county by Clark 
Gordon, the Spiceland artist. 

A musical program furnished by local talent proved a 
popular feature. The fine dinner served by the ladies of New- 
castle and Spiceland, free to all, was one of the features of the 
meeting which commanded undoubted popular approval. 

The officers chosen for the ensuing year are: President, 
Clark Gordon, of Spiceland ; Vice-President, Nathan T. Nich- 
olson, of Newcastle; Secretary, Miss Linnie Jordon, of New- 
castle; Treasurer, Benjamin F. Koons, of Mooreland; Chair- 
man Executive Committee, John Thomburgh, of Newcastle; 
Trustees, Eugene H. Bundy, Newcastle; Henry Charles, 
Spiceland; Robert M. Chambers, Newcastle. 

Benj. S. Parker. 
Newcastle, Ind., April 30, 1905. 



Monroe County Historical Society 

On April 6, 1905, after previous conferences, a Monroe 
County Historical Society was formed in the lecture room 
of the Christian Church of Blooniington. Mr. Amzi Atwater, 
formerly professor of Latin in the University, was elected 
President, Mr. W. B. Seward, an old and well-known citizen 
of Bloomington, was made Vice-President, Mr. J. A. Wood- 
burn was appointed Secretary and Mr. Dudley Smith Treas- 
urer. Prof. S. B. Harding, of the University, Miss Minnie 
Ellis, teacher of history in the Bloomington High School, and 
Miss Margaret McCalla were made advisory members. The 
Constitution and By-Laws of the Wayne County Society were 
adopted for the use of the new society. The Monroe County 
Society expect to meet once a month and have papers from 
various members. At this first meeting of the Society Pro- 
fessor Atwater read a paper on '*The University of Forty 
Years Ago." At the May meeting Judge H. C. Duncan, of 
Bloomington, will read a paper on Hon. James Hughes, one 
of the leading public men of Monroe County forty years ago. 
Mr. Seward will prepare a paper on "Old Water Mills of Mon- 
roe County," and other papers of local interest are under way. 



• t, 

• • 



••: .-. .* 



An Indiana Bibliography 103 

The outlook for the society is good and it is hoped that there 
will be found a growing interest in its work. 

J. A. WooDBURN, Secretary. 
Bloom ington, Ind., May 6, 1905. 

In addition to the above we have received a copy of the 
Constitution of the Wabash County Historical Society. This 
society was organized in 1902. As we understand, it has at 
present no definite plan of active work, but in its room in the 
Court House it is gradually accumulating appropriate ma- 
terial. 

No doubt there are other local societies of which we have 
not been able to learn, and fuller information from any or all 
of these is solicited. 



An Imiiana Bibliography 

A S THE result of a paper read before the Indiana Library 
Association at its last meeting by W. E. Henry, State 
Librarian, a movement has begun which has for its purpose the 
collecting of material for a bibliography of Indiana. Blank 
cards requesting information concerning bibliographical matter 
of interest to the State has been sent to editors, librarians and 
others interested in this matter over the State, and it is the 
intention of the authorities of the State Library to publish 
this information as it is collected. 

Mr. Henry was chosen by the association to act as Chair- 
man of a committee whose duty it was to organize and pro- 
ceed in the work outlined. This committee consists of W. M. 
Hepburn, librarian at Purdue University; Arthur Dransfield, 
of New Harmony; J. L. Smith, of Winchester; Miss Anna 
Nicholas, of this city; Col. R. S. Robertson, ex-Lieutenant- 
Governor ;' Arthur Cunningham, librarian at the State Normal; 
Miss Merica Hoagland, organizer for the public library com- 
mission; Miss Minnetta T. Taylor, Greencastle; Miss Eva N. 
Fitzgerald, librarian of the Kokomo public library; George S. 
Cottman, of Irvington, and Miss Jennie Elrod, reference libra- 
rian of the State Library. 



I04 The Indiana Magazine of History 

The card blanks that are being sent over the State have a 
place for the enumeration of the writings of the individual of 
any city, county or town; church publications are asked for, 
as are the publications of associations and societies. Special 
attention is-^ven to references to local history, and the enu- 
meration of the newspapers of any community, together with 
the date of establishment, and the location of the most com- 
plete files. Directories or gazeteers of each town or county 
are also asked for, and the list closes with a request for a list 
of the official reports of towns or counties or any officer of 
either. 

Mr. Henry points out that the success of the attempted 
bibliography depends upon the care with which these card 
blanks are filled out by those to whom they are sent. If the 
matter is attended to carefully the result as published by the 
State Library will be invaluable to students of local history. 
— Indianapolis News. 

To this we append the following scheme, outlined by Mr. 
Henry, and sent out by him as a guide to those assisting him 
in the work : 

OUTUNB FOR BIBLIOGRAPHY OF INDIANA. 

This should include any item written concerning Indiana or its peo- 
ple, and any item on any subject if written while the writer recognized 
Indiana as his or her place of residence. 

Unit for collecting information: Town, G)unty and State. 

1. Writings of individuals, viz: 

a. Books. 

b. Pamphlets. (If title is not descriptive, state subject in note.) 
r. Articles or series of articles in newspapers or magazines. 

Note. — Give name of author in full with date of birth and place of 
residence if living; date of death if not living. Concerning each of these 
items give: Title in full, publisher, date and place of publication, and 
number of pages. Illustrations. 

2. Church publications. 

Note.— Minutes of yearly meetings. Synods. Conferences, Associa- 
tions, etc. Any manuscript record of births, marriages and deaths ; if such 
record exists, where it may be found. 

3. Educational institutions. 

a. Catalogues, year books, bulletins. 

b. Reports of original investigations. 



The Robert Dale Owen Memorial 105 

4. Publications of associations and societies. 

a. County fairs. 

b. Historical or other societies. 

5. Local history. 

a. County or town history. 

b. Social organizations, secret societies, etc. 

c. Family history and genealogy. ' 

d. Biographies. 

c, Gub papers containing local history or biography, either printed 

or manuscript 
f. Club programs and year books. 

6. Newspapers. 

a. Name of paper. Editors. Politics. Subscription price. 

b. When established. 

c. If suspended, give date. 

d. Give inclusive dates of the most complete file known to exist 

and where it may be found. Other important or accessible 
files. 

7. Directories or gazeteer of town or county. 

8. Official reports of town, county or any particular officer in either 
town or county. If published regularly indicate date of first issue and fre- 
quency of publication. If not issued regularly, give date of each issue. 
Where fi]es are preserved. Include manuscript journals, diaries, etc, if in 
public library or otherwise made available. 



The Robert Dale Owen Memorial 

T^ HE Women's clubs of Indiana have individually, from 
time to time, turned their attention to the study of the 
State and its notable citizens, and this growing interest has 
now taken the form of a definite movement expressive of a 
more substantial appreciation. It is the attempt to raise a 
fund of $2,000 or $2,500 for a bust of Robert Dale Owen, to 
be placed in the State Capitol. This fund is to be contributed 
exclusively by the women of the State "as a lasting memorial 
to the man who for many years persistently labored to secure 
just laws concerning the educational and property rights of 
women." Last year a circular was issued setting forth in 
brief the claim of Owen to the proposed honor; since then the 
promoters have been vigorously carrying on a "campaign of 
education," and the public generally is being enlightened as 



io6 The Indiana Magazine of History 

never before concerning the services of one of the most dis- 
tinguished men Indiana has produced. Entertainments of 
various kinds by the women's organizations for the benefit of 
the fund have been urged. Mr. George B. Lockwood, author 
of "The New Harmony Communities," and an authority on 
Owen, lectured in Indianapolis for the benefit of the fund, be- 
sides contributing fifty autograph copies of his book; the In- 
diana State Federation of Women's Clubs and the Indiana 
Union of Literary Clubs, as organizations, endorse the move- 
ment, and the desired sum bids fair to materialize. The chief 
movers representing the Memorial Association are: Chair- 
man, Mrs. Julia S, Conklin, Westfield; Secretary, Miss Esther 
Griffin White, Richmond; Treasurer, Mrs. S. E. Perkins, In- 
dianapolis. Art Committee, Mrs. D. O. Coate, Shelbyville; 
Mrs. Rose Budd Stewart, Muncie; Miss Esther Griffin White, 
Richmond. Finance Committee, Mrs. S. E. Perkins, Indian- 
apolis; Mrs. J. T. McNary, Logansport; Mrs. Eva O'Hair, 
Grecncastle; Mrs. J. N. Studebaker, South Bend; Mrs. Mary 
D. Maxedon, Vincennes; Miss Minnetta T. Taylor, Green- 
castle. 

Robert Dale Owen, son of Robert Owen, who founded the 
famous New Harmony Community, was the most noteworthy 
of a family of notable brothers. Legislator, Congressman, re- 
former and public-spirited citizen, he was intimately identi- 
fied with the life and progress of Indiana and of the nation 
as well. In Congress he was a promoter of various important 
measures and was recognized as a man of capacity and force. 
As a Legislator and a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1850 he left a deep and lasting impress. His most im- 
portant service, perhaps, was in behalf of the legal rights of 
women, whose status, when he championed their cause, was 
incredibly inferior and unjust. The serfdom and helplessness 
of the wife of sixty or seventy years ago is not remembered 
or known now by the thousands of to-day, who, whatever re- 
strictions still remain, are, by comparison, immeasurably ad- 
vanced. For that advancement Robert Dale Owen, more than 
any other man, deserves recognition, and it seems altogether 



Gleaned from the Pioneers 107 

fitting that the women who are concerning themselves with 
the broader field of thought should accord the recognition and 
acknowledge their debt in the manner proposed. 



Gleaned from the Pioneers 

A Humble Life Story 

A RECENT item in the newspapers announcing the 
^^ critical, probably fatal illness of Mrs. Elizabeth Mc- 
Clay, centenarian, of Indianapolis, brings to the mind 
of the writer certain pleasing recollections of a very 
obscure and humble, but, as he thinks, a quite remarka- 
ble person. Some years ago Mrs. McClay made her home 
with a relative of the third generation on a farm within- 
sight of the roofs of Irvington, and here the Rambler 
(as we will designate ourself), found her, was inter- 
ested to the point of fascination, and returned more than once, 
to sit a spare hour with her in her homely but tidy room over- 
looking the country spaces; to hear her low, placid talk and 
to solve, if maybe, the secret of her attraction. 

Mrs. McQay seemed wholly un-at-home amid the people 
and scenes of to-day, as though her lapping over into an alien 
period was a chronological misfit. The Rambler apprehended 
this from many things half said and things not said at alL If 
his guessing was true, earth had seemed denuded and tmnat- 
ural to her ever since the great forests had melted away, and 
the inhabitants thereof had undergone strange transformatioos 
that separated them from her. So her function now was to 
live fondly in the past and most expectantly in the future, 
and to wait with the mute patience of nature while the sknr 
seasons ran their rounds. Meanwhile, the feeble hands, that 
had long since earned rest, rarely knew an idle moment Serv- 
ice was as much a part of her being as was breathing. The 
newspaper item referred to stated that she had that year made 
twenty-five quilts that others might be warm. Doobtleaa this 
was so. 



io8 The Indiana Magazine of Histoty 

Mrs. McClay wore, indoor and out, an old-fashioned sun- 
bonnet with paste-board stays, and under this a little linen 
cap. From the depths of that bonnet, framed by the cap's 
white frill looked out a wrinkled face so calm and peaceful 
that one wondered if its owner ever could have known bit- 
terness and sorrow. To show so little sign of weariness and 
wreckage at the end of a long century of existence surely must 
have argued a pleasant journey. As to this, let her simple 
little story testify. It is here given as nearly ver batim as the 
Rambler could reproduce it at the time. Let it be added that 
the quaint pioneer dialect with its barbarisms, which is here 
modified somewhat, did not, somehow, seem uncouth in her, 
nor discrepant with her gentle voice and personality. 

"If my daddy and mammy came traveling past here to- 
day,' I'd drop everything, old as I am, and follow them," 
avowed the aged reminiscent. "Oh, how I did love my 
daddy and mammy! — who could be nearer to me than they 
was? where they went I went; their God was my God. I 
remember plain as yesterday when my daddy went oif to 
fight the British and Injuns in 1814. The morning he went 
there was his shot pouch and powder horn and g^n all ready 
for him, and he said to us : 'Now, when I go I don't want any 
of you to say a word to me.' So when he was all ready and 
had put on his pouch and horn he kissed us children and then 
went to mammy, who was sitting by the fireside looking in 
the coals, and laid his hand on her shoulder and kissed her, 
but never said a word, and she never said a word. After that 
he took up his g^n and went straight out, but my little baby 
brother crawled on the floor after him, crying for daddy to 
take him up, and I looked out of the window after him, and 
called out 'good bye, daddy!' but he never looked back once. 
Six months later he came back again, and oh ! but we was a 
joyful lot. That was way down in Tennessee. 

"When I was a woman grown and married with children 
of my own, my man and daddy took a notion they'd try In- 
jianny. So we all came, with just one wagon to carry our 
things and the children, while the rest of us walked, me tot- 



Gleaned from the Pioneers 109 

ing my baby. We didn't seem to do well here, and by'n by 
daddy wanted to ^o back, and we went with him. Then we 
seemed to do worse than ever there, and daddy said he'd try 
Injianny again, and we come. Injianny didn't 'pear to be 
much better than Tennessee, after all, and back we tromped. 
Then after while it seem like there was no chance at all in 
Tennessee, and daddy took a notion again. I was getting 
despret tired of the travel, but daddy coaxed me and mammy 
coaxed me, and this time they promisel they would stay, and 
seeing they were bent on it, I agreed. So five times I walked 
back and forth between Tennessee and Injianny, kase I would 
have followed my daddy and mammy to the ends of the earth. 

''My man sickened in Injeanny and took to his last bed, 
and kase we were so pore it looked like I would have a despret 
time raising the children. In them days, when pore folks 
couldn't care for their own flesh and blood they would bind 
'em out to strangers till the children were of age. My man 
had been a bound boy, and he called me to his bedside, and, 
said he, 'promise me that no child of mine shall ever be bound 
out;' and I said, 'so long as 1 can lift a hand to work for 
them they shall not be bound out; and daddy and mammy 
promised, and that seemed to take a great load off his mind. 

"After he was gone I kept my promise to him. I worked 
out by day, indoor and out ; I spun and I wove. I pulled flax 
and piled brush; all kind of work that's done by woman or 
man I done, and I kept my children together. Two of the 
little ones died, but the rest of 'em and daddy and mammy 
I kept together. Then my daddy, that I loved so, went, and 
it was harder for me, but still I worked and kept them to- 
gether till all were old enough to take care of theirselves. 
Next my Janey, who was married, was smitten by the hand 
of the Lord, and on her death bed she mourned and grieved 
bekase of her babies. 'Oh, my precious little ones ! what will 
become of them ?' she cried out once, when the end was draw- 
ing nigh. 'Never mind, darling, said I, 'mammy will take care 
of your little ones — she has took care of you and she will take 
care of them, and that give her comfort before she passed 



no The Indiana Magazine of History 

away. And me and my old mammy took charge of the little 
ones, but it wan't long before the good Lord gathered them 
one by one, and oh I I rejoiced, bekase then I knowed my 
darling Janey had them again. Then my mammy -died, and 
so all them that was nearest to me left me, and as they went 
I was glad, kase I knowed their troubles were all over, and 
I had only to wait. If I could bring them all back to me with 
a word I wouldn't speak it, kase they're happier where they 
are and I can go to them." 

This was old Mrs. McQay's brief and simple story, very 
simply told — a story too humble, doubtless, to find many lis- 
teners. To the Rambler it seemed far worthier of interest 
than many a one that unravels itself more imposingly, for in 
the heroism and endurance, the patience and calm, rock-like 
faith of it, and in the strength of human ties revealed as she 
told it, was something elemented and essentially great. 



flRORGR WINTER-Thb 



The Indiana Magazine of History 

VOL. 1 Third Quarter, 1905 no. 3 

George Winter, Artist 

The Catlin of Indiana 

MANY times,, to the knowledge of the present writer, a query 
has been made as to the fate of a certain large oil painting 
that once belonged to the State of Indiana, and was kept in the 
State House. The picture was that of the Tippecanbe battle 
ground, and was particularly valuable not only because of the 
importance oi that battle and its prominence in the State history, 
but also because of its political and civil bearing on the common- 
wealth in subsequent days. Although the painting came to the 
State as a gift, the State did not think highly enough of it to 
guard it, and it has long since gone the way of all rubbish. One 
informant teUs me the last time he saw this picture it was stowed 
obscurely away in a little room off the Supreme Court chamber, 
in the old State House. It was unframed, with canvas broken 
and lopped over, when the contents of the old Capitol were re- 
moved the painting seems to have disappeared for good. That 
is about all that is known of the treasure. Where the picture 
came from— who painted it — not one in. hundreds, even among 
those who remember it, could tell; and yet that inquiry leads to 
a fund of interesting information. 

In the newspapers of forty or fifty years ago one may find an 
occasional communication signed **George Winter,** and as often 
a paragraph about this individual, whose napie, except among 
the older residents of the locality where he lived, is now sunk in 
oblivion. Prom these fragmentary scraps one gathers that Mr. 
Winter was a pioneer artist of the Wabash Valley — honored as 
such in his day — and with tastes and interests that stimulate 
curiosity about the man and his work. 

George Winter, the painter of the Tippecanoe picture, was 
well known in northern Indiana for nearly forty years. He can 
hardly be called the first professional painter of note in the State, 



1 1 3 The Indiana Magazine of History 

since Charles A. I^ueur and others of the New Harmoar group 
antedate him, while Jacxib Cox of Indianapolis was bis contempo- 
rary. In a history of Indiana's art movement. Winter wonid 
take conspicuous rank among its beginners. The foundations 
for his work were laid in England, under favoiaUe drcnmstances. 
Bom at Portsea in tSto, of a cultured family, he lived in an art 
atmosphere from childhood. His talent was fostered and en- 
couraged. After a preliminary course of private instrwrtion be 
went to I/>ndon, entered the Royal Academy, and lived and 
worked with artists for four years. When twenty years oU he 
came to New York City. Seven years later — 1837 — found him 
at I/igansport, and moat of the remainder of bis life was ^>ent 
in the Wabash Valley. 

After residing thirteen years in Logansport, he removed to 
Lafayette and lived there tmtil 1873, when he went to California. 
In 1876 he returned to Lafayette, and soon after died of apo- 
plexy while sitting in a public audience at the opera-house. 

During these years Mr. Winter earned his livelihood with 
bis bmsb, in a new country which was supposed to have very 
little appreciation of art — something of a mystery when we con- 
sider how meagerly our present artists fore in the midst of a more 
advanced culture. One of these latter who, when a young man, 
knew Winter, testifies to his business enterprise. Being an in- 
dustrious painter he accumulated a great number of canvases, 
and once a year, about holiday time, would put them up at a 
"grand raffle." It proved a popular method. People who would 
not dream of paying a hundred dollars for a "mere picture," did 
not mind risking a dollar or two for a chance; and as a coose- 
quence.tbese raffles being well attended, art found its way to the 
walls of the people. Many of these pictures are now preserved 
in Lafayette, Logaosport, Peru and other Wabash River towns. 
The late Judge Horace P. Biddle of Logaiisport had five of them 

L-_L ^ fj^jj. jjgg jj|- jjjg character of those that caught the 

te. They represent local scenes on Kel and Wabash 

realism, in one or two instances, being modified with 

jncy. 

rate letter written in 1S41 and now in possession of 

dn Historical Society, the artist speaks of six different 



George Winter 113 



pictures of the Tippecanoe battle gtound and of two of these as 
having a dimension of ''152 square feet each." According to 
his description all were taken from different points of view, and, 
taken together, conveyed one idea not only of the battle ground, 
but of the "surrounding romantic country." 

These pictures were painted in 1840, and the immediate in- 
centive seems to have been the great Tippecanoe campaign of 
that year. There are indications, however, that this attempt to 
benefit by the fleeting public interest was hardly successful, for 
further on in the letter he writes: 

"Although I have been defeated in getting these views be- 
fore the puUic eye at the time when political excitement ran 
high, yet I have often indulged in the consoling hopes that 
Harrison would be elected, and that an interest would still be 
felt. * * * I think if I could get these pictures to Cincin- 
nati some time before the General sets out for the White House 
* * * that it would be a favorable time to exhibit them. I 
have also thought that it would be a propitious time, too, either 
at the inauguration or during the spring to exhibit them at 
Washington." 

Nothing, probably, ever came of these plans; the pictures 
have passed away from human knowledge, and of one only have 
we the meager record. This one was presented to the State and 
the State threw it away. 

The most noteworthy and the most valuable work left by Mr. 
Winter was a collection pictures that was never sold by him. 
All are now in the possession of his daughter, Mrs. C. O. Ball of 
Lafayette. When he came to Logansport, in 1837, to quote hi^ 
own statement, he was **allured to Indiana to be present at the 
councils held by Col. A. C. Pepper, at the village of Kee^waw-* 
nay, in regard to the Pottawattomie immigration west of the 
Mississippi." He had an artist's romantic interest in the pictur- 
esque red man. What George Catlin was to the Indians in gen- 
eral George Winter was to the Pottawattomies and Miamis of the 
Wabash, and this rare collection, still preserved by Mrs. Ball, is 
the result. Presumably he valued them too highly to raffle them 
off' miscellaneously, and the fortunate fact that the collection is 
still intact, together with much valuable manuscript matter, is 



114 The Indiana Magazine of History 

certainly one of which the State of Indiana ought to take ad- 
vantage. They represent a phase of life on Indiana soil which 
has been little recorded, and no literary records could convey a 
more graphic idea of the present inhabitants' barbarian prede- 
cessors and their characteristics. 

According to my careful count, there are nine oil paintings 
and thirty-eight water colors in the coU^tioo. Of the oils> four 
canvases are filled in with groups of heads, representing in all 
thirty-three Pottawattomie chiefe and women. One is a life-size 
head of Frauds Godfroy, the last war chief of the Miamis, and an* 
other of Joseph Barron, the famous interpreter, who served Gen- 
eral Harrison for eighteen years, and was an important peraoni^e 
in the Indian transactions of General Tipton and Abel C. Pepper. 

The water colors are mostly of uniform size, the cards perhaps 
a foot square. The greater part of them are portraits with 
Jlandscape , backgrounds. They are beautifult color studies, the 
Indian costumes of that day, with their rich riot of hues and the 
finery furnished by the traders making rarely picturesque sub- 
ject. Some of these are of Indian chiefs, prominent in their 
day, but now lost to memory, while a number are of Indian 
.women, belles of their tribes, gorgeously apparaled. Several rep- 
resent modes of burial, manner of traveUng, etc., and two are of 
Prances Slocum, the white captive, whose strange story has been 
repeatedly published. 

;. Along with this collection is a mass of manuscript matter 
v/hioh undoubtedly has a decided historic value, and which prob- 
ably offers a mqre intimate description of the Wabash Indians 
than has been preserved elsewhere. Among these records a large 
number of folders of stiff paper are neatly bordered and carefully 
filled in with writing. This is a descriptive and biographical key 
to the water colors; the sheets correspond in size to the pictures, 
and the whole makes a large portfolio, which should certainly be 
procured and placed where the writers of our history can have 
access to them. — G. S. C. 



NOn— aincc the above wu wriUea two iatereallag pictwet by George Winter have 
been fonnd. One. of the Tippecanoe batUe-gnmnd, is now being re-loached« and wiU 
probably come into poaaeaaion of the State Library. The other, of William Digby, the 
founder of tafkyette, waa reacned from a aeoond-hand atoie in that dly and will be 
hung in the Lafliycttc library bnilding. 



George Winter 1 1 5 

Winter's Description of Frances Slocum 

[The following letter from the pen of George Winter is re-printed from 
a proof-sheet fhmished ns by Mrs. C. G. Ball, of Lafayette, Mr. Winter's 
daughter. It was written as a commnnication to the Philadelphia Press — 
date not attached. The picture referred to is one of two oil portraits by 
this artist now, as we understand, in possession of Slocum families at 
Wilkesbarre, Pa. This one is reproduced in Meginness' book on Prances 
Slocum, and the other in Lossing's "Pield Book of the Revolution."] 

SIR: A few days since my attention was called to your inter- 
esting reminiscences published in the Washington Chronicle^ 
since reproduced in the Lafayette Courier. 

Your allusions to Frances Slocum, the **Lost Sister,*' are of 
peculiar interest to me, as I am familiar with her history, being 
at the time of her discovery, a resident of Logansport, and inti> 
mately acquainted with Colonel G. W. Ewing at the time he 
wrote the letter that led to her discovery, which you published 
so long ago. 

In the year 1839, at the request of the Slocum family, I visit- 
ed the **Deaf Man's Village,** for the purpose of sketching the 
likeness of Frances which is the only effort of the pencil of her 
executed from life. Her history being so romantic and interest- 
ing I availed myself of the opportunity then and there of making 
sketches of the Captive's home from several points of view, and 
other surroundings that I thought would be of general interest. 

My visit to the Captive's home was attended with many inter- 
esting circumstances. It was a potent auxiliary in satisfying a 
desire of seeing and knowing the red races in their aboriginal 
homes, I having been allured in 1837 to Indiana to be present at 
the councils held by Colonel A. C. Pepper at the village of Kee- 
waw-nay, in regard to the Pottawattamie emigration west of the 
Mississippi. 

There have been several notices of the history of Frances 
Slocum during the time intervening between her discovery and 
the present. They are, however, marred by many inaccuracies. 

Having known Frances Slocum personally, and being fa- 
miliar, too, with her Indian family, will you accept the follow- 
ing statement of personal appearance, which I extract from my 
journal (unpublished) of a visit to the**Deaf Man's Village/' 
A. D. 1839. 



ii6 The Indiana Magazine of History 

I will, however, premise that Colonel Ewing was not an 
Indian agent. Colonel A. C. Pepper was the agent at the time 
of the discovery of the **Lost Sister." Colonel Ewing was an 
Indian trader of considerable prominence and success. He was 
of the well-known firm of Ewing, Walker & Co. Ewing, as a 
trader, knew Frances Slocum for many years, but it was not un - 
til the captive woman was in deep affliction — hopeless of re- 
covery, and in the conviction of mind that the realities of life 
were about to close upon her — that she revealed her history to 
Colonel Ewing. Her anticipations of death at that time did not 
receive their fulfillment, for she did not die until 1847. 

The following are the extracts from the journal: 

** Preparations were then made for the *sitting.* An old split- 
bottom chair was brought in by *Kick-ke-se-quah' from the ad- 
joining room, which I placed near the little window, so as to ob- 
tain the best angle of light to fall upon her. Frances Slocum 
presented a very singular and picturesque appearance. Her 
'foui€ ensemble' was unique. She was dressed in a red calico 
'pes-mo-kin,* or shirt, figured with large yellow and green 
figures; this garment was folded within the upper part of her 
*mech-a-ko-teh,* or petticoat, of black cloth of excellent quality, 
bordered with red ribbon. Her nether limbs were clothed with 
red fady leggings, *winged* with green ribbon; her feet were 
bare and moccasinless. *Kick-ke-se-quah,* her daughter, who 
seemed not to be without some pride in her mother's appearing 
to the best advantage, placed a black silk shawl over her shoulders 
pinning it in front. I made no suggestions of any change in 
these arrangements, but left the toilette uninfluenced in any 
<me particular. 

** Frances placed her feet across upon the lower round of the 
chair. Her hands fell upon her lap in good position. Frances 
SloQum's face bore the marks of deep-seated lines. Her forehead 
was singularly interlaced with right angular lines and the muscles 
of her cheeks were of ridgy and corded lines. There were no in- 
dications of unwonted cares upon her countenance, beyond times 
influences, which peculiarly mark the decline of life. Her hair, 
originally of a dark brown, was now frosted. Though bearing 
some resemblance to her family (white), yet her cheek bones 



George Winter 1 1 7 

seemed to have the Indian characteristics — face broad, nose bulby, 
mouth indicating some degree of severity, her eyes pleasant and 
kind. 

'*The ornamentation of her person was very limited. In her 
ears she wore a few small silver earbobs, peculiarly Indian style 
and taste. Prances Slocum was low in stature, being scarcely 
five feet in height. Her personal appearance suggested the idea 
of her being a half-breed Pottawattamie woman rather than a 
Miami squaw. The Miamis and Pottawattamies have very dis- 
tinctive characteristics in regard to stature and conformation of 
head and facial appearance.'' 

The above description of the personality of Prances Slocum is 
in harmony with the effort of my pencil. 

Allow me to add that she had three daughters, one only of 
whom is now living. She is residing on the Mississinnewa, the 
wife of the Rev. P. Bondy, a Miami Baptist preacher, who was 
converted to Christianity under the missionary zeal of George 
Slocum, a Baptist, son of Isaac Slocum, who settled in the Miami 
National Reservation. Mrs. Bondy was a widow when I knew 
her, in 1839; her name then was '*0-sou-pak-shin-quah.** 

*'Kick-ke-se-quah,** the oldest daughter, was the wife of 
Captain Jean Baptiste Brouillette. He died three years since. 
The Captain was a distinguished Miami; he was a medicine man 
(not a juggler), an orator of great volubility and force; he was 
also a convert to Christianity, and preached among the Miamis 
with success. The other daughter died before the discovery of 
Prances Slocum. Her death was associated with very painful 
and startling circumstances. The story runs that the son of a 
chief wooed her, but did not win her heart; her affections were 
bestowed upon another champion for her love. Her happiness, 
however, was not consummated by marriage. She drooped and 
died; and suspicion, ever active, suggested, and, it was feared, too 
truly, that she was the victim of poison. 

The wigwam upon the Mississinnewa, at the **Deaf Man's 
Village,** was a large, double log cabin, of comfortable capacity, 
such as characterizes the thrifty farmer's home in the West. A 
smaller cabin was attached to it, in which a very aged squaw 
lived* There was also a small bark hut, separated from the 



1 1 8 The Indiana Magazine of History 



main log, by a dtntanre of a few rods. In addition to these 

structures, were a tall com crib and stable, all of which, unitedly, 

constituted the famous ''Deaf Man*s Milage** — the home of Mon- 

o-con-a-qtia, the ''Lost Sister," Frances Slocum. '*She-buck-o- 

nah'* was the name of the deaf chief, the second husband of the 

heroine of whom we have written so long an epistle. Hoping it 

may not be considered obtrusion upon your active engagements, 

I remain yours very truly, 

Georgb Winter. 



Sketch of Frances Slocum 

THE story of Frances Slocum, the * 'White Rose of the Mi- 
amis/* as some one has poetically styled her, has been often 
told, but in connection with the preceding description of her by 
George Winter, the romantic and curious incidents of her career 
will bear repeating here. 

Frances Slocum has now been dead some fifty -eight years. 
Bom to the white man*s heritage she began life under the loving 
care of white parents. She ended it a squaw among the Miami 
Indians, a thousand miles from her birth-place, the wealthy 
widow of a chief and alienated utterly from her own race, from 
whom she had been separated more than sixty-eight years. The 
account of this transformed life is one of the most remarkable to 
be found in all our Indian annals. 

The Slocums were Quakers who came from Rhode Island to 
the Wyoming valley, in eastern Pennsylvania, when Frances was 
four years old, and settled where the city of Wilkesbarre now 
stands. This was in 1777. The next year occurred the historic 
attack and butchery by the British and Indians which has so often 
been the theme of prose and verse. The Slocum home was 
a.Hsailed and pillaged by three Delaware Indians when the men 
were absent. The mother and most of her children fled and 
concealed themselves in the woods, but little Frances, who, in 
the consternation of the moment seems to have been overlooked, 
secreted herself under a flight of steps leading to the loft till one 
of the Indians discovered her feet protruding, and dragged her 



Frances Slocum 1 19 

out. A lame brother had also been left iu the house, and as the 
marauders made off with the children their mother, forgetful of 
her own peril, came out and pleaded for their release. The boy 
was left, but the last she saw of her little girl she was thrown, 
bag-wise, over her captor's shoulder, and, with one hand out- 
stretched, the other trying to keep the long, luxuriant hair from 
her face, was calling piteously to her mother for help. 

The sorrows of this unfortunate woman were great. Francis 
was her favorite child, the pet of the household, and the memory 
of the little one's last heart-rending appeal never died away. To 
fill her cup to the brim, a month or so after the abduction both 
her husband ahd father were shot down, tomahawked and scalped 
by the savages. This new grief, terrible as it was, time assuaged, 
we are told; but the fate of her child, from its ver}* uncertainty, 
haunted her till her death, more than twenty-eight years after 
the separation. 

During those years repeated efforts were made to find the 
lost daughter. Her brothers made trips as far westward as Ohio 
and Detroit to meet Indians, agents and traders, hoping through 
them to get trace of their sister. Mrs. Slocum herself, then 
fifty-three years old, braved the difficulties of wilderness travel 
to attend a gathering of Indians who were to return captives to 
their families. To facilitate the search liberal rewards were 
offered, but all of no avail, and in this connection one or two 
interesting facts come to light, indicative of the Indian character. 
In the first place the family and tribe into which Prances was 
adopted accorded her an unusual regard, as was revealed by her 
subsequent account. One reason givjsn for this was the color of 
her hair, which is described as reddish or auburn, and which to 
the Indians was so unusual as to be esteemed a mark of dis- 
tinction. Hence, they were not willing to give her up. Again, 
the indications are that her foster-people knew of the search that 
was being made for her, and the further supposition is that the 
Indians far and wide knew who had this particular auburn-haired 
captive, yet, despite the proffered rewards, never a one would 
reveal her whereabouts — an illustration of the fidelity with which 
a red man will keep the secrets of his fellows. Until the day of 
her death Mrs. Slocum believed that her daughter still lived, and 



120 The Indiana Magazine of History 

for years after that the family clung to the hope and instituted 
occasional search and inquiry, but finally the question was laid 
at rest as one of the mysteries never to be solved. 

Now comes another chapter of this romantic story. Fifty - 
seven years after little Frances Slocum had been carried off in 
eastern Pennsylvania, Colonel George W. Ewing, a well-known 
fur trader of the Wabash Valley, made an interesting discovery. 
He was traveling on horseback from Ft. Wajme to Logansport, 
and stopped over night at an Indian habitation known as the 
**Deaf Man*s Village,** on the Mississinewa River. This * 'vil- 
lage** consisted of a log cabin residence and various outbuildings 
that had been the home of She-pan-can-ah, a deaf Indian, then 
deceased, who was the war chief of the Miamis before Francis 
Godfroy. The place was now occupied by the venerable widow 
of She-pan-can-ah, Ma-con-a-qua, together with her family. 
They were quite wealthy, from the Indian point of view, owning 
a great number of horses, cattle, hogs and fowls, and a large 
reserve of land. Several things about the old woman led Mr. 
Ewing to suspect that she was really not an Indian, and, gaining 
her confidence, he got from her the story of her life and ' her 
abduction in early childhood. * She remembered her Christian 
name — Slocum — and that her father was a Quaker, but where 
her old home was she did not know, further than that it was 
somewhere along the Susquehanna River. Her story impressed 
Mr. Ewing deeply, and he resolved to communicate his inform- 
ation to some one in eastern Pennsylvania in hopes of reaching 
some of Ma-con-a-qua*s family. To whom or where to write 
was a puzzling question, but finally selecting Lancaster as an 
old and important town on the Susquehanna, he sent a letter at 
a venture to the postmaster of that place. 

Then happened one of those curious little freaks of fate which 
sometimes occur outside of the novelist's pages. It chanced 
that said postofl5ce was in charge of a woman, owner of the 
Lancaster Intelligencer. It further seems that this woman had 
not journalistic sense enough to know that Mr. Ewing's long 
and circumstantial letter made a good **story," to say nothing of 
the humane considerations involved. Instead of publishing it 
she cast it aside among a lot of old papers, where it lay forgotten 



Frances Slocum --^ 121 

for two years. It chanced again that it was not destroyed, and 
that in the course of time it was discovered by some one who 
recognized its importance. It now found the light in the InUlli- 
gencer, which had changed hands, and fate this time ordained 
that it should be published in a large extra edition of the paper, 
which was widely distributed. A copy found its way to Joseph 
Slocum, one of the brothers, at Wilkesbarre. The family there 
at once opened up a correspondence with Colonel Ewing, and 
this resulted in two brothers and a sister, all old then, meeting 
at Peru, Indiana, to identify their sister. 

Accompanied by an interpreter the trio followed an Indian 
trail ten miles up the Mississinewa to the rude home of Ma-con- 
a-qua. They were received by a stolid woman to all appearances 
a thorough Indian, with the coolness and reticence of her adopted 
race. She had been apprised of their coming, but showed no 
feeling, either of gladness or curiosity. She asked no questions 
concerning either them or her parents, and dtuing their visit 
treated them with a civil indiflference. When they invited her 
to visit them at Peru she would not promise till she should con- 
sult with Francis Godfroy, the chief, but when he assured her 
that it was safe to make the visit, she and her two daughters 
and a son-in-law came, a picturesque cavalcade riding their 
ponies single file and * 'decked in gay, barbaric apparel.** In 
accordance with the formal Indian etiquette, they bore with 
them a haunch of venison, and this being solemnly presented as 
a token of confidence and received in the same spirit, their reserve 
gave place to an open friendliness, and Frances talked of herself 
at length. To the request that she go back East to her kinfolks, 
even for a brief visit, she would not consent. To her resolution 
she firmly adhered, and her people, after this successful issue to 
their long quest, went sorrowfully back to their homes. 

The **white captive** lived ten years after this visit from her 
kindred, and died at her home on the Mississinewa in March, 
1847, aged seventy-four years. Her life presents an interesting 
study of that much-mooted question, environment versus heredity . 
While she became in all her tastes an aborigine, thoroughly 
alienated from the aspirations of her native race, she seems to 
have retained certain Caucasian qualities, among them a strength 



122 The Indiana Magazine of History 

of character and a dominating mentality which gave her among 
the red people that prestige which the whites that mingled with 
the Indians have almost invariably commanded. She was free 
from the vices that are particularly common among the Indians, 
notably that of intemperance, and her cleanliness and orderly 
housekeeping were contrary to the slovenly habits of these dirty 
people. She had the Indian's fondness for picturesque apparel, 
and her industry and skill to this end is most interestingly shown 
by some of her clothes still preserved by Galwiel Godfroy, a well- 
known Miami, now living east of Peru. These garments, some 
of them of the finest broadcloth procurable of the traders, are 
beautifully ornamented with designs worked with narrow silken 
ribbons of diflferent colors, the needlework looking like machine 
stitching. 

Of a piece with the story of the "White Rose of the Miamis" 
is the account of her marriage to She-pan -can-ah, the chieftain, 
which is as romantic as the fond falmcations of the Indian legend 
writers who love to talk about "dusky mates.** Ma-con-a-qua 
found the young warrior by the wayside badly wounded, and he 
was taken to the lodge of her foster parents and nursed back to 
health. P<»r a time he remained with them and, being a skilled 
hunter, furnished the family with meat. When he prepared to 
seek pasttu-es new they prevailed with him to stay permanently, 
and the presumably hdr Ma-con-a-qua was given him to wife. 

Some years ago the question of preserving in a permanent 
way the memory of Frances Slocum and of the vanished race 
with which she was linked was agitated, and on the 17th of May, 
1900 a handsome and substantial monument of white Ivonze was 
unvdled over her grave, near the village of Peoria, Miami 
County, Indiana, The branches of the Slocum £amily were 
represented by many members fhmi Michigan, Ohio, and States 
further east, and remnants of the Miami tribe of Indians gathered 
for the occasion, scMne from their distant res^re in Kansas. In 
addition a large att^idance from the surrounding country made 
the occasion the more memorable and served to promote a senti- 
ment which we of Indiana might well cultivate. 

• G. S. C. 



The Wabash and Its Valley 123 

The Wabash and Its Valley 

Part II — Settlement and Early Development 

THE treaty of St. Mary's, made in 18 18, which gave to the 
United States government the whole interior portion of Indi- 
ana, threw open to settlement the greater part of the upper Wa- 
bash valley. In the **New Purchase'* there were, according to a 
writer of that time (Dana), some 8,500,000 acres, and emigration 

could not spread over that vast area in a day; but by the early 
twenties, nevertheless, the "land hunter*' had penetrated to the 

Wabash bottoms, attracted thither by the wonderful fertility and 
other advantages of that region. A tract receding twenty to 
forty miles from the river on either side comprised the **valley,** 
and throughout this tract were magnificent forests interspersed 
with beautiful prairies luxuriant with growths of waving grass, 
prodigally gay with countless flowers, and with a soil practicallj- 
bottomless. More than that, the noble Wabash promised com- 
munication with the remote outer world, and all things pointed 
to an opulent future. In 1824 the land office for the sale of 
Wabash lands was opened at Crawfordsville, then the only settle- 
ment between Terre Haute and Fort Wayne. A mixed population 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State and from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and other sections, came pouring in, 
and the coveted localities were rapidly taken up at the govern- 
ment price of $1.25 per acre. Among these pioneers the honest 
home-seekers were so far in the ascendency that speculators were 
obliged to be wary and content themselves with second choice, 
but they were amply in evidence, nevertheless. Immediately on 
the heels of these first purchases came the craze for the establish- 
ment of towns that were to be future emporiums, and for the 
following decade they sprang up like mushrooms along the river, 
each big with ambition and hope, and each envious of the others. 
The founding of a prospective city seems to have been a very 
simple performance, consisting chiefly in laying off one's purchase 
into **town lots,** and booming the same in various and divers 
ways. The first requisite was that the location be at a ford of 
the river as a likely place for the establishing of a steamboat 



124 The Indiana Magazine of History 

dock. The beginning of Lafayette is an example. William 
Digby purchased a piece of land so thickly grown with hazel, 
and plum brush, and grape vines that the surveyor had great 
diflficulty in doing his work. After creating a **town'* by laying 
out this ground and naming it Lafayette, in honor of the illustri- 
ous Frenchman, Digby sold most of the site to Samuel Sargeant 
for the sum of $240, and Sargeant began his little **boom'* by 
getting some of the influential Crawfordsville citizens interested 
in it. A few cabins went up, but it was uncertain for a good 
while whether the embryo city would live through its beginning. 
An ironical wag of another settlement jeeringly dubbed it **Lay 
Flat,*' or * 'Laugh At,** and threatened to ^'greatse it with a bacon 
rind so that the next dog that came by might eat it.** Time 
and unforseen circumstances, however, turned the tables, and 
eventually Lafayette looked proudly down upon all of her rivals. 
Of these ambitious towns some have passed, not only from ex- 
istence, but from the very memory of the succeeding generation, 
and others, overborne by the trend of events, have long since 
ceased to aspire. 

The making of Lafayette was the fact of its location at the 
head of navigation. Steamboats from New Orleans, bringing 
commodities to the heart of this new country, could not penetrate, 
beyond the mouth of the Tippecanoe, and so **Lay Flat** became 
the great receiving and distributing point for the country about, 
which drained into it a vast surplus of grain and hogs. During 
the thirties it was the largest and most important city northwest 
of Cincinnati; its streets were crowded with teams; some coming 
from as far east as the Ohio state line, and one writer tells us of 
no less than sixteen steamboats l5ang at her wharves at one time. 

Despite the thrift at this point, however, the country above 
developed slowly because of inadequate communication with the 
outer world. Towns farther up the river, such as Logansport 
and Peru, were constrained to "play second fiddle** to their more 
fortunate rival, and the desire of these places to have navigation 
reach them was so desperate as to be ludicrous. A bonus of" 
several hundred dollars was oflered to the first steamboat captain 
who would prove such navigability, and heroic efforts were made 
to that end. In June of 1834, the water being high, a little 



The Wabash and Its Valley 125 

■ 

steamer called the Republican **setsair* from Lafayette, bound 
for Logansport. She proceeded without trouble as far as Delphi, 
then began to stick on various sandbars, at each of which delays 
the passengers would render assistance by getting out into the 
water and pushing, or by extending a long rope to shore and 
pulling. Several days were expended at this arduous toil, much 
to the entertainment of throngs of Indians, men, women and 
children, who loitered along the banks admiring the strange craft. 
Eventually, a dozen yoke of oxen were brought down from 
Logansport and the Republican hauled bodily over ripples and 
sandbars to her destination. The boat was ruined and left to 
rot in the bottom of the river at the newly -established head of 
navigation, and whether the bonus received compensated the 
captain for his loss history does not say. A year later another 
boat, the Science, made the attempt. The water being unusually 
high, Logansport was safely reached. Here a lot of additional 
passengers were taken on, and the Science went merrily on and 
up. Trying to ascend a rapids the swift current got control of 
the boat, which, carried helplessly backward, narrowly escaped 
being battered to pieces, much to the terror and panic of those 
on board. Returning to Logansport, they unloaded about two 
hundred barrels of flour and salt; then the passengers walked 
around the rapids, meeting the boat above, and at length Peru 
was made. Here a fracas occurred between some of the Peruvians 
and a part of the Logansport contingent; a crowd of bellicose 
Irishmen, who were working on the canal there, unable to resist 
this opportunity to indulge their favorite passion, came to take a 
hand, and the capain of the Science, deeming prudence a virtue, 
**put to sea" again, leaving part of his passengers to find their 
way back home as best they could. Excursions in those days 
were even more delightful than they are now.* 

But the day of glory for this region was* yet to dawn. The 
grand scheme for the internal improvement of Indiana, projected 
as early as the twenties, contemplated, first of all, a navigable 
waterway that should connect Lake Erie with the lower Wabash, 
and in time this dream became a fact. In 1843 the great Wabash 

*Moch of the above infomiation is got from Sanford Cox's "Recollections of the 
Bftrly Settlement of the Wabash Valley"— one of our best and most entcrtainin{c books 
of local reminiscences. -' 



126 The Indiana Magazine of History 

and Erie canal» after long labor and many ups and downs, was 
completed, and the occasion duly commemorated by barbecues, 
speeches and general rejoicings. A large number of freight and 
packet boats at once made their appearance, infusing new life 
into all the little river towns. The abundant agricultural wealth 
of the Wabash country now found comparatively cheap and easy 
transportation directly to the East; the regions north and south 
for a distance of fifty to a hundred miles gravitated to this outlet, 
and from the Illinois couutry, westward, to Lafayette came flock- 
ing the great prairie schooners laden with their contributions to 
the world's marts. Westward, in turn, came the capacious 
freight boats laden with merchandise of all kinds, and the packets 
with emigrants who, now having access to this land of promise, 
came in an uninterruped tide, adding to the new currents of life. 
Towns along the river which, heretofore, could have only a 
broken and restricted intercourse with each other, were now reg- 
ularly connected, and traveling was made possible to the multi- 
tude. And it was idyllic and picturesque traveling. People not 
given to the frantic haste of the present day were content to 
spend leisurely hours sitting in pleasant company on the deck or 
in the cabin of the smoothly-gliding packet. Passengers got 
acquainted and fraternized, played games, discoursed, argued, 
and, no doubt, made love, and when the boat was delayed it was 
quite common for congenial couples or groups to step off and 
stroll on ahead, gathering wild flowers as they went. Yet 
movement, bustle and excitement, were not lacking. The speed 
of the best packets was about eight miles an hour, and one writer 
gives us a picture of the swkggering driver in a slouch hat and 
top boots, lashing his team to a sharp trot. On approaching a 
town there was a great blowing of horns from the deck, and 
when dock was made everybody went ashore to mingle with the 
townsmen, to ask' and answer innumerable questions, and to 
descend upon the public houses, presumably for fluid refresh- 
ments. When the boat was ready to go a horn was blown again 
to warn the passengers aboard, and on they fared to the next 
stopping place. 

An Englishman named Beste, who, with his family, traveled 
through here early in the fifties, describes his trip from Terre 



The Wabash and Its Valley 127 

Haute to the lake and gives interesting glimpses of the people.* 
Being an Englishman of position this traveler could not under- 
stand the rather brusque anti-aristocratic notions which fre- 
quenUy shocked and pained him. The children, according to 
him, were independent and pert, while their elders were inordi- 
nately jealous of their doctrine of equality and rights, and he 
dwells with some severity on their rudenesses and crudenesses. 
Among other things, he mentions that the chewing of ' Burgandy 
pitch'' was a universal habit among the women. 

The ordinary course of travel was sometimes retarded by 
mishaps to the canal, which, at some points, ran between levees 
or dikes, instead of through an excavated channel, and not in- 
frequently these levees, springing a leak, let the water uncere- 
moniously into the low lands without, in which case the boats 
lay in the mud till the break was repaired. Among the unusual 
happenings recounted is that of the wreck of the packet boat 
Kentucky, in 1844. A mill-dam giving way in the high country 
back from the canal let loose a great flood which, sweeping down 
to the canal, broke through the tow-path at one of these embank- 
ed points. The packet mentioned was carried bodily through the 
gap, washed down into the river bottoms, which were submerged 
with a freshet, and broken to pieces among the trees. Three of 
the passengers were drowned. The others were rescued by the 
people of the vicinity, but the baggage and mails were swept 
away and lost. 

The canal was continued south to Evansville, but the lower 
part never attained an importance comparable to the upper, and 
soon fell into disuse. And the upper part, incalculably im 
portant though it was in its time, was destined to speedily have 
its day. It was some eleven years in the making, and thirteen 
years later the Toledo & Wabash Railroad was completed along 
its line to Lafayette. The ushering in of the railroad era gave a 
new turn to the tide of affairs; now all is changed, and the old 
picturesque phase of life which formed so interesting a cliaptei 
in our State's history is all but forgotton, save by the liugcnni^ 
remnants of the past generation. — G. S. C. 

^**Tlie Wabash, or. Adventures of an HnRlish Gentleman's Family in the Init iio* 
of America," by J. Richard Beste, Efiq. 



128 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Some Letters of John Gibson 

[The following letters of John Gibeon are not published, we believe, in 
in any existing sketch of him. They were written in September, 1812, 
when Gibson was Acting-Governor of the Indiana Territory. War with 
England had been declared the previous June, the frontier of the northwest 
had become involved, Port Harrison on the Wabash, commanded by Captain 
Zachary Taylor (afterward President Taylor) had been invested by a formi- 
dable body of Indians, and these official fragments show Gibson's prompt 
steps in the exigency. Copies of the letters were found among the papers 
of the late William Wesley Woollen.] 

THE day after the Indian attack on Fort Harrison (Sept. 4, 
18 1 2), and before the news of it reached Governor Gibson, 
he had written ''To the officer commanding the quota of militia 
of Kentucky destined for Vincennes** requesting that Kentucky 
troops, conformable to the orders of Governor Harrison, be sent 
as expeditiously as possible to Vincennes. This was in anticipa- 
tion of Indian troubles. Brigadier General J. Winlock, com- 
manding the forces at Louisville, replied to the letter stating that 
one of the regiments called for had been taken ''on toward Fort 
Wayne by Governor Harrison,*' and that he lacked the necessary 
equipage for the remainder of his troops, there being but 300 
muskets, 200 pounds of powder, 20 camp kettles and 300 flints 
for upward of six hundred men. Having no public money at 

his command he found great difficulty in suppl3ring the deficien- 
cy, but hoped to be able to march by Sept. 10. 

Before the latter date Gibson, then apprised of the Fort 

Harrison investment, wrote again, as follows: 

^ Vincennes, September piA 1S12. 

Sir: — On the 4th inst. I wrote you requesting the immediate 
march of the troops destined for this place, and on the following 
day I sent a verbal message by Lieut. Whitlock requesting you 
to have all your heavy baggage under the charge of a guard and 
proceed with all possible dispatch to this place, as the Indians 
have invested Fort Harrison and commenced an attack on the 
frontiers. It is indispensably necessary that no time should be 
lost in your march hither, as there can be but little or no danger 
between this and Louisville, except from small skulking parties. 



Some Letters of John Gibson 129 

If your baggage should in the least retard your marcdi leave it to 
come on under a safeguard, and proceed yourself with the troops 
under your command with all the speed you can. 

Yours, 

John Gibson, 

Acting Governor. 

On the twentieth of September General Winlock wrote from 
his encampment on "White River, 16 miles from Vincennes,'* 
that he would be at Vincennes on Tuesday, at 12 o'clock with 
640 men, and that some 600 more, mounted, would be with him 
the next day; for which force he wished some provision would be 
made. 

At the same time he wrote to General Winlock Gibson dis- 
patched the following letter to General Samuel Hopkins, "or the 
officer commanding the militia of Henderson County, Kentucky." 

Vincennes^ September gth^ 1812, 

Sir: — The Indians have invested Fort Harrison, and have 
attacked the frontiers of one of the counties and killed upward 
of twelve persons. From the number of hostile Indians within 
the reach of the frontiers of this and the adjacent territory, a 
general attack is greatly to be apprehended. But a small force 
has yet arrived from the State of Kentucky, and the thinness of 
our population and the extent of our frontiers render it difficult 
if not impossible, to raise such a force here as is necessary to 
protect our settlements. Under the circumstances we must look 
to volunteer from Kentucky for assistance. The exigency is 
such as to preclude the possibility of appl3ring for aid from your 
quarter through the proper channel. But if there are any in 
your county or the settlements adjacent to it, who are disposed 
to volunteer I do not believe that the Governor of the State of 
Kentucky would object to it. May I therefore ask the favor of 
you to use your best endeavors to raise as many volunteers as 
can be conveniently obtained. I shall apprise the Governor of 
Kentucky of this application. 

I am respectfully, Sir, your obt. servt., 

John Gibson, 

Acting Governor. 



130 The Indiana Magazine of History 

In response to this Col. Philip Barbour, commanding the 6tli 
regiment of Kentucky volunteers, dispatched to Gibson 241 
men under Major William R. McGary, "armed as well as the 
nature of the case would admit of/' Arms and ammunition for 
this force were secured by impressment, and the balance of the 
regiment was promised as soon as equipment was supplied. 

The following letter is to Col. William Russel, of the United 
States atmy: 

Vincennes, September 16^ 1812, 

Sir: — Yesterday at 4 o'clock in the afternoon a Sergt.(?) of 

Capt. Taylor's company arrived here express from Ft. Harrison, 

who informed us that he had left the fort on the 13 inst. in the 

night. I also rec'd two letters from Capt. Taylor. He informs me 

that after a severe attack made on him by the Indians, which 

lasted seven hours, he was still able to maintain his garrison. It 

will be unnecessary to give you the particulars of the Captain's 

Letters, as I expect before this reaches you you will have seen 

him. I expect to load in a few days a number of wagons with 
flour and whiskey. These with 25 beeves for the garrison will 

start immediately. Major McGary who arrived here yesterday 

with 240 men of Col. Barbour's Regt. of Ky. Militia will take 

command of the escort which goes with the provisions and cattle « 

destined for Ft. Harrison. The escort will consist of thirty 

mounted riflemen and one hundred infantry. I have directed 

the Major to proceed with the utmost precaution to Ft. Harrison; 

that, should he meet you on the way or at Ft. Harrison, he is to 

obey any orders you may please to give him. I rec'd a letter from 

General Winlock dated at Louisville Sept. 12. He informs us 

that he would march with all possible speed to this place. The 

Ranger who brought the letter informs me that General Winlock \ 

on the 13th was two miles on this side Jefiersonville. Major Mc- 
Gary informs me that one thousand mounted horsemen from Ken- 
tucky would randezvous at Red Bank on Sunday next, and were 
to proceed to this place under the command of General Hopkins, 
and that the remainder of Col. Barbour's r^. would also march 
to this place as soon as they recieve arms, which were hourly 
expected to arrive at that place. I am in great hopes before you 



Some Letters of John Gibson 131 

receive this you will have entered Ft. Harrison and been able to 
clear your way to that place. 

I enclose a number of letters which I rec'd by mail and by 2 
rangers which I sent express to Gov'r. Bdwards and to you. 

I have the honor to be very respectfully your humble svt. 

JNO. Gibson, 

Acting Governor. 

One other letter among these MSS., dated a few days 
previous, and addressed to Col. Robert Robertson, concerns the 
protection of the Clark County frontier. 

On the 1 2th of September 18 12, Governor Gibson addressed 
Colonel Robertson, as follows: 

Vincennfs, September 12, 1812, 

Sir: — If the company ordered from your regiments should 
not have marched to this place, you will immediately order that 
company or some other to the frontier of Clark Cotmty to act in 
conjunction with one ordered from Harrison County. I shall 
leave it to your own discretion to dispose of the men to the best 
advantage, taking care to have an eye to Linley*s settlement and 
the Drift Wood and Pigeon Roost Settlements. Should there be 
no person authorized in your county by the Contractor to furnish 
provisions you will please have them furnished and they will be 
paid for at the contract price. 

You will give particular orders to the officers commanding to 
employ their men continually in recounoitering and scouring 
through the country or the frontier and should anything extra- 
ordinary or alarming occtir, you will give me the earliest iufoi- 
mation thereof by express. 

I am respectfully your obt. servt. , 

Jno. Gibson, 

Acting Governor, 






132 The Indiana Magazine. of History 



Historical Relics the State should Own | 

^TpHERE are in our State, in private (>os8ession, at least a few 
^ collections of historical value which should, if possible, be 
made public possessions and be accessible to all that are interested 
in such. Two of these collections we particularly have in mind. 
One is the paintings of Ge6rge Winter, the Lafayette artist, 
spoken of elsewhere in this number. When we saw these they 
were held by Mr. Winter's daughter, ^rs, C. G. Ball, of Lafiay- 
ette, and were of unique interest. Being, in large part, portraits 
of notable Pottawattomie and Miami Indians and of their dress 
and customs, and being accompanied by keys and much informa- 
tion in manuscript form from Mr. Winter's pen, it is altogether 
desirable that they be owned by the State as relics of the pictur- 
esque race that once owned and trod our soil. 

The other collection is that of Mr. Charles B. Lasselle, of 
Logansport. Mr. Lasselle, who, we believe, is still living, is of an 
old French family, which has been intimately identified with the 
Wabash region since Revolutionary times. His grandfather was 
a trader at the Indian town of Kekionga (Fort Wajme) long 
before Anthony Wayne's subjugation of the Northwestern tribes. 
His father, Hyadnthe Lasselle, during his life was a substantial 
citizen of Fort Wa3me, Vincennes and Logansport, and this sdon 
of the third generation has himself helped make the history of 
the great valley since pioneer times. The historic instinct, and 
the disposition to preserve what might be of possible future value, 
seems to have inhered in the Lasselles. As the result of long 
hoarding the present member of the family has in his possession 
enough documents and relics of real historic interest to astonish 
one. First, there are hundreds of letters, business accounts and 
miscellaneous papers, reflecting trade and lif^ along the Wabash 
since the last century. It is the kind of material that the 
thorough historian, working to modem methods, is most in search 
of — the kind that throws sidelights and reveals intimate glimpses 
of past conditions. Here, for example, is an old account-book of 
Francis Bosseron, storekeeper at Vincennes when Captain Helm 

under the instruction of George Rogers Clark, held that post. 
In it is a page devoted to Helm's private purchases, such as **one 



Relics the State should Own 1 33 

chapeau," **one capote,** pla3riiig cards, and frequent bottles of 
**taflBa'* and **eu de vie." There is also a page charging the 
State of Virginia, through Captain Helm, with divers articles 
and services, among them ''five ells of red silk,*' and '*3^ ells 
of green silk for a flag,*' and along with this the claim of one 
Madam Goderre for making the flag. Full of interest are these 
few words touching this red-and-green flag which was, perhaps, 
the first symbol of the nation ever planted in Indiana. 

Apropos to this place and period there is, also, the liquor 
chest of General Hamilton, the English Governor of the Vin- 
cennes post, who captured Helm, and was in turn captured by 
Clark. It is a mahogany box about eighteen inches square, 
partitioned into nine smaller squares for as many liquor decanters. 
Of these only one now remains — the apple-toddy bottle. Those 
familiar with Clark's famous siege, will remember the story of 
Hamilton and his prisoner. Helm, sitting sociably together by 
the open fire, watching an apple toddy brew, when the rifle 
fusillade began and the bullets pecking at the chimney threw 
down dirt and spoiled the brew. This antique piece of glassware 
is, most likely the identical bottle used on that memorable oc- 
casion. General Hamilton gave the chest to Francis Bosseron, 
and after various changes of ownership, carefully recorded, it was 
secured by Mr. Lasselle. 

Along with these may be mentioned a plat of Vincennes, 
made in 1792, each lot marked with the holder's name, also 
original doctiment relating to French families of Vincennes, 
genealogical tables of Vincennes and Kaskaskia, and many other 
papers of similar character. Not the least interesting of the 
many relics is the great parchment treaty document, given by 
the United States to the Miami Indians at the treaty of St. Mary, 
in 1818, when the central portion of the State, as far north as 
the Wabash River, was purchased. This instrument, bearing 
the signatures of Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass and Benjamin 
Parke, commissioners; William and John Conner, interpreters, 
and the marks of the various chiefs that represented their tribe, 
was delivered to John B. Richardville, the Miami head chief, and 
finally came into the Lasselle family through marriage relations. 

These are but a part of the things treasured up by Mr. 



} 



134 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Lasselle. Whether or not they are now for sale, we are not 
authorized to say; but the indications are that some day they 
will be scattered and lost. The point to be made is that the 
collection now exists, that its value is such the State could well 
afford to make a generous bid for it, and that no step whatever 
is taken to secure it. 

In this connection it may be said that the State quite un- 
necessarily lost the large collection of books and relics of the late 
Judge Horace P. Biddle, also of Logansport. Besides the relics 
and pictures which Mr. Biddle had long been collecting his library 
consisted of some 8,000 volumes, representing a money value of 
$15,000. At least 3,000 of these volumes were rare works not to 
be easily found elsewhere, which students came from afar to con- 
sult. When James D. Williams was Governor Mr. Biddle proposed 
that the State agree to take his entire library at his death at 10 
cents a volume. Governor Williams, according to Mr. Biddle, 
twice recommended in his messages that the Legislature take 
advantage of the offer, but no notice whatever was taken of the 
proposition. 



The Howe Collection 

THE '*Howe Collection," now in possession of the Indi- 
anapolis Public Library, consists of books and pamphlets 
relating to Indiana and affairs in Indiana, and is in itself a library 
of rare value. The collector. Judge Daniel Waite Howe, has 
been one of the few who realize that not only old and scarce 
books are worth securing but that the seemingly valueless records 
of to-day have a value on the morrow; much that others threw 
away he had the foresight to save; as a result much of this 
collection, particularly the pamphlets, is not, as a collection, 
duplicated anywhere, and of many of the individual pamphlets 
it would be exceedingly difficult to now find other copies. The 
gathering up of these has been the work of years, and they were 
donated to the Indianapolis library on the condition that they be 
kept intact and designated as **The Howe Collection.*' There 
are 534 volumes, many of which are pamphlets bound together, 
and 52 unbound pamphlets. 



The Howe Collection 135 

A complete catalogue of this material occupies too much space 
to be given here, but its general character, briefly indicated, may 
point the way to matter some student is in search of. A full and 
separate catalogue is furnished at the library. • 

Of the laws of Indiana there is a complete set of Laws of the 
Governors and Judges, from the ist to the 4th sessions (i8oi-'o3); 
also Territorial Laws from 1805 to 181 5, with revision of 1807. 

Of other works of a legal and legislative character there are 
Court Reports, Digests, Citations, General and Special Compila- 
tions, Session Laws, Pleading, Practice, etc., Ordinances of Indi- 
anapolis, Journals and Proceedings of the Constitutional Con- 
ventions, House and Senate Journals almost complete from 18 16, 
Documentary Journals and Annual Reports, Brevier Legislative 
Reports, complete (i 852-1 887), and Reports of State OflScers. 

Of miscellaneous works there are State and local Directories 
and Gazetteers, many State and County Atlases and Histories, 
Church and College Histories, and rare books too varied to specify. 

Of the large number of pamphlets, bound and unbound, there 
are many Biographies not to be found elsewhere. Addresses, 
Papers, Sketches, Reports of Conventions, Church and College 
Documents, Proceedings, Records and Reports of Societies, 
Essays, Articles preserved from Magazines, and many publi- 
cations of various kinds relating to Indianapolis. To the coming 
historian who essays to bring the story of the city down to date 
these Indianapolis pamphlets, indeed, will aflFord invaluable 
material, reflecting, as they do, the thought and movements 
of the times even more circumstantially than does the news- 
paper press. It is the kind of material that is essential to accu- 
racy and that is yet more ephemeral, even, than the newspapers, 
for preserved files of the latter usually can be found, whereas 
pamphlet literature is rarely deemed worth the collecting. 

A particularly valuable volume for one making a study of 
the State's internal improvement system of seventy years ago, is 
a compilation made by the late John B. Dillon of official reports 

and other documents, which form much of the material for a 
history of that movement. 



\ 



136 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Betsy Ross Descendants in Indiana 

[Since these descendants have been traced some of them, it is probable, 
have changed their locations.] 

'T^HE story of the first Stars and Stripes has been repeatedly 
^ told in periodical literature, though if one refers to the 
general histories, it is surprising how little is found. Even the 
'* Archives of Pennsylvania*' and ** Watson's Annals of Phila- 
delphia," which aim to rescue from oblivion all the minor events 
of interest, tell us nothing of the woman who lived and died and 
made the first flags for the Union in Philadelphia. The Story, 
told briefly, is as follows: 

In June of 1777 the American Congress adopted our national 
flag of thirteen stripes and thirteen stars. The very first one 
made embodying this design was the handiwork of sundry patri- 
otic ladies of Philadelphia, and it was flung to the breeze from 
the mast-head of Commodore Paul Jone's ship, the Ranger. In 
this flag the stars were six-pointed. Then a committee was 
appointed by Congress to select an ofiBcial flag maker. 

This committee, accompanied by General Washington, waited 
on Mrs. John Ross, a young woman noted for her skill in needle- 
work, and a niece, by marriage, to Colonel George Ross, one of 
the committee. Washington drew the design of the flag for her,' 
but she objected to the six-pointed star, terming it a **British" 
star. Folding a piece of paper, she produced one of five points, 
as preferable. The amendment was accepted, and such a star it 
has been since. 

There, in a little brick house built two centuries ago and still 
standing'(unless recently torn down) in Arch street, Philadelphia, 
the earliest flags used by the nation were made. The first of 
these floated over Washington's victorious army when Burgoyne 
surrendered in October, 1777. Among the relics that have been 
preserved is an oflBcial order to pay Betsy Ross £14 12s 2d for 
making flags for the fleet in the Delaware river. 

Betsy Ross was married three times, her last husband being 
John Claypole. Three daughters are mentioned, at least two of 
whom were full sisters, Claypole by name. These two sisters 
represent two lines of descendants. One of the branches, tracing 



Betsy Ross Descendants in Indiana 137 

its ancestry to Clarissa Sidney Claypole, has members in Phila> 
delphia, New Orleans, Charleston, S. C, and in Indianapolis, 
the latter being Mrs. J. L. Jackson and her children. 

The other branch, which has been traced by Mrs. M. C. 
Thayer, of Indianapolis, daughter of James Conwell, has con- 
tributed considerably to the population of this State. Rebekah 
Walpole, the other sister, married Abraham Conwell, and four 
grandsons of this couple — James, William, Isaac and A. B. 
Conwell, came to Indiana at an early day. All settled in the 
Whitewater region — ^James in Franklin county, near where Laurel 
now stands; William at Cambridge City; Isaac at Liberty, and 
A. B. at Connersville. All were merchants and successful 
business men. 

James Conwell, who was married twice, had a large family, 
chiefly daughters. Of these no less than eight married in 
Indiana, and their children and grandchildren are to be found 
in a number of Indiana towns. So far as we can determine, there 
are in Richmond, 2 — Mrs. C. S. W. Ross and her daughter, Miss 
Ella Ross; in Fairland, Franklin County, 9 — Louise Bumside, 
Lynn Bumside and three children, Mrs. Winnie B. Carson and 
two children, and Mrs. Nora B. Enyart; in Rushville, 9 — Mrs. 
Fannie Smith, Dr. Will Smith and one child, Walter Smith, Mrs. 
John Frazee and two children, Mrs. Will Percy and one child; 
in Indianapolis, 8 — Mrs. Maria C. Thayer and daughter, Miss 
Laurel Thayer, Mrs. J. C. Smith and three children, and Mrs. 
J. E. Fish and one child; in Anderson, 3 — Mrs. Charles T. Dox 
ey, Thomas N. Stillwell and Horace Stillwell. Of the William 
Conwell branch there is one grandson at Portland. Of the Isaac 
Conwell branch there are two daughters — ^Ann Rebecca Conwell 
and Mrs. Mary Jones, in Anderson, and Dr. Horace Jones, Dr. 
William Jones and a sister, either at Anderson or Noblesville. 

A. B. Conwell, the fourth of the pioneer brothers, who 
settled in Connersville, is now represented there by not less than 
twelve descendants — one daughter, Mrs. Anna Merril; four grand- 
children, John Merril, William Merril, Conwell Merril and their 
sister, and seven great-grandchildren. There is also another 
sister, a Mrs. Havens, in Rushville. 

In addition to these we are informed of Mrs. Andrew J. King 






138 The Indiana Magazine of History 

and her son, G. Ray King, of Brookville. 

In tracing this family tree, it is interesting to note that 
individuals of musical and poetic talent have cropped out all 
along the line, and in the Clarissa Claypool branch there has 
been at least one representive in each generation who seems to 
have inherited Betsey Ross's talent for needlework. 



Revolutionary Soldiers in Indiana 

IN our last issue we published an article on the Revolutionary 
soldiers who ended their days in Putnam County, this State. 
Apropos to the subject we here reprint from the Indianapolis 
News a condensed account of Revolutionary graves in southern 
Indiana as located by the researches of Piankeshaw Chapter, 
D. A. R. 

**Piankeshaw Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, 
of New Albany has been one of the most active chapters in the 
State in marking the graves of Revolutionary soldiers. The mem- 
bers have been for several years delving into village cemeteries 
and private burial lots to discover these graves, and at the present 
time a total of thirty have been fotmd in Floyd and the adjoining 
counties. Harrison county leads with nineteen; Floyd has six; 
Washington, two, and Crawford, Scott and Orange one each. 
A cluster of Revolutionarj' graves was found in Clark county, 
and with the organization of Anne Rogers Clark Chapter, at 
JeflFersonville, Piankeshaw Chapter courteously placed the graves 
under the care of that chapter. Of the nine graves in Floyd 
county, four are in Fairview cemetery. New Albany. They are 
the last resting-places of Joseph Bell, a light infantryman, who 
fought seven years in the Continental army. 

"He was born in Pennsylvania and moved to New Albany in 
18 18, dying in 1848, at the age of ninety years. Not far from his 
grave is that of Joshua Fowler, who died March 18, 18.20. On his 
headstone is the inscription, **A Patriot of the Revolution.** In 
another grave rests Richard Lord Jones, who enlisted at the age 
of thirteen years as a drummer. He was bom in Connecticut in 
1761, and died in this city in 1852. The last of the four is 



Revolutionary Soldiers in Indiana 139 

Benjamin Buckman, bom in Hadly, Mass., in 1759, and died near 
Salem, Ind., in 1842. He was buried at Salem, but years later 
his body was brought to New Albany. He was a prisoner at 
Quebec for six months and was with Washington when he crossed 
the Delaware. For several years before his death he walked from 
Salem to Vincennes to receive his pension. The other graves in 
Floyd county are those of Jacob Garrison, buried at Galena, and 
Gabriel Poindexter, at Floyd Knobs. 

In Harrison county are the following graves: Charles Dyer, 
one miles southwest of Crandall; Joshua Bennett, Samuel Raugh 
and Patrick Hunter, at Rehobeth; Hinsonn Johnson, Webster 
township; Peter Deatrick and George Kron, at Elizabeth; Charles 
George, Indian Creek; David Trout, at Luther's Chapel; John 
Williams, near Fredericksburg; John Smith, near Corydon; James 
Cooper, near H^ancock's Chapel; Henry Funk and Daniel Funk, 
near New Amsterdam; Abraham and Joseph Harman, near Cory- 
don, and John Long and Philip P. Stine, near Highfill. In 
Crawford county is the grave of Jeremiah Wight, who is buried 
near Fredonia. Jacob Doan represents Washington county, and 
is buried near Hardinsburg. Scott county has the grave of one 
veteran, Amasa Mitchell, who is buried in Friendship cemetery, 
near New Frankfort. He was the youngest of seven brothers who 
served in the Revolution. The grave in Orange county is that of 
William Moore, who is buried near Livonia.'* 

To this we may add that Marion County claims several 
Revolutionary graves. Isaac Wilson, who came to Indianapolis 
in 1820 and died in 1823, is said to have been a veteran of both 
the Revolutionary war and the war of 181 2. He was buried in 
the front yard of his residence at the spot where North and 
Maxwell street now intersect. 

It has been stated that Wilson was the only Revolutionary 
soldier buried in Indianapolis, but in a communication to the 
Indianapolis News ^ August 10, 1898, Mr. J. H. B. Nowland claims 
four others — **Mr. Oliver, father of the late Dandridge H. Oliver; 
Mr. TaflFe, father of the late Hannibal TaflFe; John George and 
Edmund C. Johnson.** 

All these. Mr. Nowland says, were buried ** in or around this 
city," and adds that he collected the pension of John George. 



140 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Indiana University Forty Years Ago 

By Amzi Atwater 

{Read before the Monroe County Historical Society^ 

The Early Courses — The Faculty and its Heavy Work — Literary 
Societies — Chapel Exercises — Old-time Mischief^Estimate of 
Faculty — Traits of the Old Professors — Elisha Ballantine. 

COMING to take pastoral care of the Christian Church of 
Bloomin^on in January, 1865, I enrolled at once as a student 
in the University classed as a Junior. It was not an unusual 
thing, in those days, for a student or a professor to fill a pulpit 
in one of the churches. My ministerial predecessor James H. 
McCollough was also a student. Doctor T. A. Wylie, at the 
time professor of Latin and Greek, was the regular minister of the 
Reformed Presbyterian church which stood where the U. P. 
church now stands. Professor Rlisha Ballantine, when he returned 
to the University in 1867, preached some for the New School 
Presbyterian people, and President Cyrus Nutt, who had once been 
paster of the Methodist church here and later a Presiding Elder, 
preached much of the time somewhere on Sundays. 

Our present High School building is the same in outward 
form and nearly the same in internal structure that it was when 
it stood as the only University building on the campus at the 
south end of College Avenue. I use the term University, for that 
was its official designation, but there was little about the insti- 
tution to diflFerentiate it from the ordinary western college except 
its small law class of seven Seniors and eight Juniors taught by 
Professor Bicknell. The smallness of college attendance was 
partly caused by the war of the rebellion which was then in full 
career and had drawn away many both actual and prospective 
students to the Union army. 

There were two regular courses each leading to graduation 
and a degree, the one * 'classical, " with Greek and Latin as chief 
studies and the goal of A. B., the other ''scientific," which re- 
quired one year less time and was generally supposed to be easier. 
There were 79 in the four regular classes that year. Adding the 
15 law students and it made 94. Summing up preparatory and 
all, the catalogue of 1865 announced an attendance of 189. 



Indiana University Forty Years Ago 141 

The faculty as shown by the catalogue of 1865 consisted of 
six members: Rev. Cyrus Nutt, D. D., Professor of Mental, 
Moral and Political Philosophy; Rev. Theophilus A. Wylie, A. 
M., Professor of Greek and Latin; Daniel Kirkwood, L. L. D., 
Professor of Mathematics; Richard Owen, A. M., Professor of 
Natural Philosophy and Chemistry; George A. Bicknell, L. L. D., 
Professor of I^aw; James Woodbum, A. M., Adjunct Professor of 
Languages and Principal of the Preparatory Department. These 
six men men covered the whole ground of University instruction 
as then provided for. Doctor Wylie besides teaching the ad- 
vanced Greek and Latin classes served the institution as librarian. 
The library, having lost heavily by the fire a few years before 
(1854), was quite small, consisting of a few hundred volumes 
(possibly a few thousand) procured since that disaster, the **Derby 
Donation'' and about a thousand volumes loaned to it by Dr. 
Richard Owen. This diminutive library found plenty of space 
in the room on the second floor, west wing, which I think Prof. 
Kirkwood later on used as a recitation room. Dr. Owen, while 
carrying all the Physics, Physiology, Geology and Chemistry 
also (since Professor Marquis had lately resigned), taught all the 
German and French that was called for, and the History, too, 
and was Secretary of the faculty besides. There was no need of 
a Registrar as each professor recorded his own grades in a record 
book with his own hand, and performed any other clerical work 
that was necessary. 

The contrast between then and now appears most striking 
when President Bryan lately announces the University in an 
advertisement thus: ''Twenty Departments, co-educational, seven- 
ty-one members of the faculty," and the enrollment this year is 
found to be 1538. 

If you wish to be impressed still further with the change, 
pass through the present admirably equipped chemical de- 
partment in Wylie hall, then go down to the High School and 
peer into the little dark basement furnace room at the east end 
of the building where Dr. Owen taught chemistry. But no doubt 
many a good scholar got his chemical start there under the 
teaching of that admirable man. 

The catalogue of 1865 mentions three literary societies, but 
I have no recollection of a third. The two that chiefly occupied 



142 The Indiana Magazine of History 

the ground were the Athenian and Philomathean, the one having 
a room in the east wing, third floor, the other in the west. There 
was little difference in the merits of these organizations. Be- 
lieving as I then did (and do now) that a literary society offers 
the student an excellent means of culture, I hastened to attend 
their meetings and soon found myself enrolled as an Athenian. 
I was greatly surprised on entering the Athenian hall at seeing 
rows of boots (many of them cow-hide) standing around the room. 
Some of the owners had put on slippers, others had socks as their 
only foot wear. I must explain that boots were the regular thing 
for men in those days. Only women wore shoes. On inquiry I 
learned that the society had lately bought a fine carpet and as 
Bloomington walks were bad, they had adopted a protective rule 
that members should remove their boots on entering the hall and 
attached a fine of ten cents for non-compliance. It was expected 
that they would provide themselves slippers and some did so. 
The state of the atmosphere with a hot stove and a score or two 
of empty boots and a lot of stocking-footed youngster^ sitting 
around may easily be imagined. Just before adjournment the 
program provided for the assessment of fines which the president 
announced and the treasurer recorded unless the house by vote 
excused the offender. The regular exercises of the society 
consisted chiefly of essays, declamations, debate, and sometimes 
of extempore speaking. In this last named, the member would 
be called out and given a subject after reaching the floor. It 
was the effect of this practice to teach a young man to invent 
his material and think on his feet. Finally the critics report 
bestowed praise or blame (chiefly the latter) upon each per- 
formance. 

It must be admitted that there was much of boyish crudity 
about the whole thing, but that was to be expected. Some 
members would not be prepared and would be fined for failure. 
Some would take a perfunctory part to avoid the fine. But there 
was always a goodly number of ambitious men who did their best. 
The essays, probably, were the weakest part; the debate, perhaps, 
the strongest. But here too, was a weakness. The program 
committee would sometimes report for debate one of those com- 
parative old questions (peurile to begin with and already worn 
threadbare) such as * 'Resolved (every proposition for debate had 



Indiana University Forty Years Ago 143 

to begin with a 'resolve'), **That Columbus was a greater man 
than Washington** — in debating which the great discoverer 
would be praised and the first president belittled by the aflBrm- 
ative and vice versa as to the negative — or again **Resolved, 
That the Indians have been treated worse than the Negroes,*' 
or still again, * 'Resolved, That the pen is mightier than the 
sword.** I remember ridiculing such questions and may have 
partially succeeded in getting them discarded. 

The miscellaneous debate and contention over parliamentary 
rules and over the excusing or remitting of fines would often 
hang on so long that the janitor, acting under instructions, 
would come up at midnight and put out the lights, turn out the 
society, and lock the door. 

The fraternities were few in number and made but a compara- 
tively small showing in those days. I think the Betas, the Phi 
Delts and the Sigma Chis were all that were in existence. These 
had been running for a few years. Their great aim, so far as an 
outsider could see, was to secure.honors for their members. This 
they strove to do through the literary societies of which they 
were members the same as **The Barbs.'* They would have their 
candidates for **Twenty-Second-of-February Orator** and **Spring 
Speakers" and for the society * 'Valedictory Exercises** just before 
commencement. **The Spring Speakers*' were the orators at 
the annual literary society exhibition. For these honors the frats 
combined and contended often ynth success since they, though in 
the minority, were well organized. Sometimes they were beaten 
when the Barbs had a strong leader. I think the fraternities 
had literary exercises of their own the evening before the 
meeting of the regular literary society and drilled themselves in 
debate to enable them to better meet their opponents next 
evening. They surely had more literary ambition that the frats 
have to-day. 

An idea of the chapel exercises on both week days and 
Sundays will best be obtained from the catalogue of 1865. 
Under the head of "Religious Services," you read: 

(i). The duties of each day, during term time, commence with 
religious services which all are required to attend. 

(2). Every Sabbath at 3 o'clock p. m. a lecture on some 



144 The Injdiana Magazine of History 

moral or religious subject is delivered in the University chapel, 
and it is expected that all the students will attend. It is also 
recommended by the faculty that the student attend some other 
place of public worship on Sabbath morning according to the 
direction or preference of his parents or guardian. / 

(3). At all chapel exercises students are expected to be in 
their seats when the bell stops tolling. As this rule of chapel 
attendance did not seem to be strictly in accord with the theory 
of our State and country — no State religion and no compulsion as 
to attending its ministrations — ^an exception was made in the case 
of those students who themselves or whose parents were opposed 
to religious exercises. These were granted perpetual non- 
attendance. Perhaps there were always a few such, not many. 

I think that mischief was more common forty years ago than 
now. It would be idle to attempt to mention the various forms 
of trickery by which the restless student amused himself and 
annoyed the authorities of college and town. If there has been 
a change for the better, how has it been brought about? The 
general growth of the college away from crude and boyish con- 
ditions, and its development into a higher University life has been, 
we may say, the chief general cause. The coming of the young 
ladies has made a great change. It has developed the social 
element — a thing that may easily be carried too far if it has not 
already been so — and has naturally tended to greater polish of 
manners and refinement, drawing the young men away from the 
ruder and more outlandish sports, and has brought them more 
and more to the social reception, the dance, and the banquet. 
In some respects this appears to be a good thing, in some an evil. 
Can you eliminate the evil and retain the good? 

But perhaps the chief cause has been the rise of college 
athletics and the athletic spirit. This has given the young men 
(yes, and the young ladies too) a new ambition for physical 
development — surely a great desideratum. It has largely stopped 
the unhealthy bending over books for eighteen hours of the 
twenty-four, as Tilghman H. Mallow did who. though he won 
high scholarship, destroyed his own life in so doing. Futhermore 
vigorous young men have mostly ceased to plot some base trick, 
and are filled with an eager desire to outclass and overcome their 
opponents at home and their rivals abroad in physical force and 



Indiana University Forty Years Ago 145 

skill. They talk it at table and in their rooms, and they yell it 
in chapel and on Jordan field and make it one of the chief things 
in University life. This also may be overdone. 

As I come to speak of the faculty, I must think of them first 
as my teachers and then as my associates. 

I took logic and mental philosophy with Dr. Nutt, Greek 
and Latin with Dr. Wylie, and physiology and history with 
Dr. Owen. I found President Nutt a kind and fatherly man. 
He received students in a friendly manner and always proved 
himself a friend and did everything for them that he could. He 
had a good memory and was a fair teacher. 

I found Dr. Richard Owen an enthusiastic teacher of science. 
He had wall charts nearly covering the sides of his recitation 
room presenting to the eye the great geological formations 
and periods and the classification of the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms. No student of his will ever forget with what en- 
thusiasm he would start from his desk and with long pointer in 
hand pass rapidly round the room and review his class upon the 
outlines — the Stratified Rocks and Unstratified Rocks; the terms, 
Mesozoic, Paleozoic and Azoic; the classification of mammals, 
birds, reptiles and fishes; the vertebrates, articulates, moUusks 
and radiates. The names of great scientists were often on his 
his lips — Cuvier, Linnaeus, Audubon and the rest and, later, 
Darwin, Huxley, Tyndall and others, busts of whom he placed in 
the new building that was afterward built and burned. If it 
is a part of a teacher's business to force idle and indifferent 
students to learn, willing or unwilling, you would not class Pro- 
fessor Owen as an ideal or even a good teacher. He was too 
unsuspicious for that. It was his custom to call the members 
of the class alphabetically for recitation and if he was half down 
the roll one day (and that was frequently the case) he would 
begin the next day at the same point and go on in order to the 
end; so that the shirking student, knowing what to count on, 
made his calculations and omitted preparations for the day that 
he did not expect to be called out. The doctor was a most 
charming and instructive talker upon any subject that had come 
under his wide observation. On that account students often 
asked questions (some did it, doubtless to consume time) in an- 
swering which he was occasionally led far from the topic in hand. 



146 The Indiana Magazine of History 

But in most cases, the ideas, the information and real science 
acquired by the digression was of more value than the r^^ular 
book lesson of the day. 

My own experience as a student under Dr. Theophilus Wylie 
in Latin and Greek confirms what has so often been said as to the 
versatility of his scholarship. He seemed perfectly at home in 
the classics, as if they had been his life-long specialty; but when 
Professor Ballantine returned to the University in 1867 as pro- 
fessor of Greek and Prof. Cyrus M. Dodd was elected professor 
of Latin, Dr. Wylie took the chair of Natural Philosophy (or 
Physics as now named). At his entrance into the faculty in 1837 
his chair was called Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. 

But all the later years of his teaching were spent in the chair 
of Astronomy. Professor Kirkwood never, so far as I remember, 
taught a class in that science, in which he had a world-wide 
reputation. But later on, in the seventies, when Saturday morning 
lectures became the order. Professor Kirkwood gave the students 
lectures on comets, meteors, etc., which were highly appreciated. 
A student who should have met Doctor Wylie on the street in 
those days — a man of small stature and weak voice and halfdiflfi- 
dent, unworldly manner certainly far from self-confidence — would 
hardly have been able rightly to estimate him. In order to do 
so, he would need to visit him in his rare old home and see him 
in the midst of his most interesting family and accept their 
generous hospitality. He would thus see him surrounded by 
every indication of old time learning and refinement such as few 
have enjoyed. He would see him in the midst of his books, his 
pictures, his ancestral portraits and paintings and mementos of 
other times and scenes. Only thus would he realize his hereditary 
touch with scholars, divines and great missionaries and the noble 
forces leading to the world*s advancement. 

On the death of Professor James Woodbum September 8, 1865, 
I was chosen to fill his place. The salary of the position was 
$800. The regular professors, Dr. Wylie, Dr. Owen and Dr. 
Kirkwood had $1100, President Nutt (I think) $1400 or $1500. 
If any one wonders at the smallness of these salaries, let him 
remember that the fixed income of the University was only about 
$8,000, that the first professors, Baynard R. Hall and John M. 
Harney received only $250 per year and that our common country 



I 



Indiana University Forty Years Ago 147 

school teachers in the forties received only about ten to fifteen 
dollars a month for three months school, lady teachers often 
getting but $1 per week. 

The examinations held by the faculty (as far as I remember) 
were entirely oral and were not very rigid. In language it would 
be required to translate some selection from an author and answer 
pertinent questions in parsing and construction. Visiting 
members of the faculty would be invited to quiz the class to test 
their scholarship. On subjects which would admit of it, numbered 
topics would be made out to be drawn by lot from the professor's 
hat or hand. The student, when his number was called, respond- 
ed and went to talking on his topic. It was a pleasant way to 
examine and be examined but it readily lent itself to the cheating 
tendency as students sitting close together could easily swap 
topics in the hope of getting one less difficult than the one they 
had drawn. No professor was more easy and yielding than 
Professor Kirkwood. I call to mind his report (probably made 
just before commencement of 1866) of a student who had been 
away in the war. He said: **I asked him two questions; he 
couldn't answer either of them. I didn't ask him any more — 
I knew he couldn't answer." But when the decision finally 
came as to placing his name on the list of Seniors, the indulgent 
professor voted for his graduation — and he was passed. 

In June 1868 I was chosen Professor of Latin and Greek in 
Hiram College (President Garfield's old institution) where I had 
been a student some years before. Returning to Indiana Uni- 
versity as professor of Latin in September 1870 I found quite a 
change had taken place in college — the salaries had been increased 
and new and able men were being added to the faculty. Professor 
Elisha Ballantine was now (after a four 5-ears temporary absence) 
in the chair of Greek since 1867. Professor George W. Hoss, 
who had lately been Superintendent of Public Instruction, was 
now since 1868 the Professor of English Literature. Judge B. E. 
Rhoads was Professor of Law and Colonel James Thompson, lately 
from the Army, had just been elected to the chair of Military 
Science and Civil Engineering; and a little later (November 1870) 
Herman B. Boisen became Professor of Modem Languages. 
There was also young Scot Butler, later President of Butler 



148 The Indiana Magazine of History 

College, who was doing preparatory teaching with the sub- 
freshman class. His work lasted through the year iSyo-'yi. 

The new men brought in a tide of new life. Being: 
usually younger they were more aggressive and full of plans for 
reconstructing and improving old conditions. Some men have a 
natural liking and ability for business administration. Such were 
Professor Hoss, Colonel Thompson, Judge Rhoads, Professor 
Boisen and Scot Butler. Dr. Wylie and Professor Kirkwood (the 
latter was seldom called Doctor then) now took but little part in 
Faculty discussions, though Professor Ballantine and Dr. Owen 
held their own. Dr. Wylie often sat through the faculty 
meeting with only an occasional remark. But he would have a 
pencil and paper in hand with which he would seem to be 
scribbling in an absent-minded way. Look over his shoulder, if 
it will not be thought impolite. Why, he has drawn a picture, 
perhaps a human face, with the hand of an artist. How often have 
I seen him sit down with a pamphlet or catalogue and cover it 
over with such sketches. He seemed to do this work almost 
unconsciously. I think he could have drawn a good group picture 
of the whole faculty at one sitting. Professor Kirkwood was a 
good listener as he sat with his cane in hand supporting his arm. 
He said but little, but occasionally we heard a bit of grave humor 
from him. Once when we were talking of our hotel accom- 
modations the Professor told a little experience: **A man on the 
train," said he **asked me about Bloomington hotels, I told him 
we had two hotels in Bloomington — whichever one he went to he 
would wish he had gone to the other." 

Professor Kirkwood was the main reliance in moving an 
adjournment. So much was this the case that when some other 
member thought to do so he, perhaps, would begin: '*Begging 
Professor Kirkwood's pardon, I move we adjourn." 

In those days cases of discipline came before the whole faculty 

for investigation and decision. Those who were accused of some 

misdoing and the witnesses were cited to the faculty room. There I 

are doubtless men now in public life — congressmen, judges, 

doctors, lawyers, etc., who can remember being called before the I 

faculty in some of these troublesome cases. Though sharp 
questions were fired at the accused, the discipline on the whole 



Indiana University Forty Years Ago 149 

was just and mild. It was too mild, sometimes for our military 
professor, Colonel Thompson. On one occasion when some 
offender was let off quite easy against his protest he remarked 
**Our Catalogue says *the discipline of the University is strictly 
paternal,' I suggest that we change the wording for the next 
catalogue and make it read ''strictly maternal,'* 

KUSHA BALLANTINB. 

There is one man whose name has not been sufficiently dwelt 
upon either in these memories or by the many eulogists who 
have written of the old faculty. We have had good teachers in 
the University but Professor Ballantine was among the best; 
other good scholars we have had but he was among the very best. 
He was, I think, more on his guard against cheating and deception 
than was Doctor Owen, Doctor Kirkwood or Doctor Wylie. We 
have had and now have many men of noble character but none 
in this respect could be placed higher than Elisha Ballantine. 
For cultivation of mind, for accuracy of scholarship and ability 
to instruct; for literary style, for refinement of culture, for deep 
and true conscientionness; for purity of heart and simple Christian 
dignity of manner and of life Professor Ballantine stood on the 
highest plane. *'Mark the perfect man and behold the upright,'* 
says the wise old scripture, **for the end of that man is peace.** 

He had resigned his chair of Greek but after a little had been 
recalled and had been made President pro tem. to meet an 
emergency. After the election of President Jordan he continued 
to teach Greek. On the last day of his life (March 31-1886) he 
was at College as usual and conducted chapel exercises. Coming 
in from his garden that afternoon with some felling of distress at 
the heart he dropped into his easy chair. His faithful daughter 
came at call and ministered to him. But almost before she was 
aware he had passed from earth. 



150 The Indiana Magazine of History 

A Pleasing Morristown Custom 

LITTLE Morristown, in Shelby county, enjoys the distinction 
of having developed a fraternal spirit all its own, and of keep- 
ing alive an interest in the past in an unusual and pleasing way. 
For a third of a century the older generation have come together 
the fourth Sunday of each May to spend the afternoon singing, 
as of yore, from the famous old '^Missouri Harmony'* song book. 
Sixty or seventy years ago the singing school, with its expert 
instructor, was a favorite form of social diversion, and the 
''Missouri Harmony** was a particularly popular book in these 
schools. Then, with a newer generation, the singing classes 
passed away, but with the elder folks the ancient melodies, 
presumably, had imperishable associations, for in 1872 the old 
Morristown class, was reorganized under its first leader. Dr. 
D. S. McGaughey. Ever since then they have held their annual 
meeting; the whole country-side makes it a gala occasion and 
turns out in force to hear the sonorous bass and quavering 
treble of the aged singers. The venerable Dr. McGaughey has 
long since joined the choir invisible, and year by year the ranks 
of the * 'charter members** are thinning, but younger recruits 
have caught the spirit of the occasion, and the class bids fair to 
continue. 

Still another observance of the same character, and in this 
same Morristown, further indicates the spirit of the place. This 
is the periodical reunion of the Dr. Fitch pupils. Dr. O. F. 
Fitch, now nearing his ninetieth year, was an educator, in 
Morristown and elsewhere in the State, for many years, and it is 
his proud boast that upward of six thousand pupils have been 
enrolled under him. It is like a capping sheaf to his labors that, 
toward the end of a life of faithful service, a goodly number of 
these sometime pupils should come gathering back to give him 

greeting. This they did a few years since, bringing with them 
their resurrected school books; men and women, then themselves 
growing old, stood up before their former preceptor once more 
and went through their/ ^exercises, * * subject to his criticism. 
**Schoor* was followed by much feasting, after a picnic fashion; 
and this was the inauguration of a series of reunions that, at the 
last account we had, bade fair to continue as long as Mr. Fitch 
lives. May Morristown's pleasing custom be emulated elsewhere. 



The State Seal of Indiana 151 



The State Seal of Indiana 

A RECENT discussion in the Indianapolis News of the origin 
of the State seal of Indiana (see News for January 28 and 
February 22, 1905), brings out some interesting facts touching 
that rather obscure subject, though it leaves it as obscure as 
before. 

The first State Constitution provided that ''There shall be a 
seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and shall 
be used by him officially, and shall be called the seal of the State 
of Indiana,*' and on the 13th of December, 18 16, the first 
legislature enacted that **The Governor of this State be and he 
is hereby authorized to provide a seal and also a press for this 
State, and that a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars be and 
is hereby appropiated for that purpose, to be paid out of any 
money in the treasury not otherwise appropiated.** 

These brief records have hitherto been regarded as about our 
only source of information concerning the origin of our State 
seal, which has repeatedly been commented upon for its inappro- 
priateness as an emblem for Indiana. The familiar picture of a 
man felling- a tree, a fleeing buffalo, and a sun half hidden by a 
mountainous horizon is manifested incongruous as regards the 
buffalo and mountains. The latter have been variously explained 
as the Allegheny mountains, as the Rockies and as **the hills 
lying east of Vincennes/* and the orb beyond them has been 
both the rising and the setting sun — the emblem of a rising 
prosperity and of the star of empire taking its way westward. 
All of this, however, has been mere guess-work. 

One of the newspaper writers above referred to has found 
that the House Journal of 18 16 records a discussion of the 
proposed seal which thus specifically defines the design: **A 
forest and a woodman felling a tree, a buffalo lea\nng the forest 
and fleeing through the plain to a distant forest, and the sun 
setting in the West, with the word Indiana.** In this description 
the idea of the **setting** sun is explicitly stated, but no mention 
whatever is made of mountains. Why they were introduced, if 
the seal was originated then and in accordance with the law of 



152 The Indiana Magazine of History 

the first legislature, is nowise apparent. But the fact seems to 
be that the seal, despite the evidence of the legislative records, 
was not originated at that time; for it is affirmed by Mr. J. P. 
Dunn that on a slavery petition in the archives at Washington, 
dated 1802, is a copy of the seal of Indiana Territory which has 
the same general features as the present emblem — woodman 
cutting a tree, buffalo, sun and mountains, with the word 
* Indiana** on a scroll in the branches of the tree. A reprint 
of this document with a description of the seal may be found in 
the publications of the Indiana Historical Society, Volume II, 
pp. 461-469. This removes the whole question backward, and 
the first State legislature, by this statement, did not originate the 
seal at all. As the seal on the slavery papers antedated the 
Territorial legislature, and in the records of the first territorial 
authorities there is no light on the subject, the question of origin 
will probably always be mere speculation — particularly as the 
papers that might have established the facts were long since 
destroyed. Mr. Dunn argues that the device was ordered in the 
east and brought to the new territory by either Governor William 
Henry Harrison or Secretary John Gibson, more probably the 
latter, as he conducted the government of the territory before the 
coming of Governor Harrison. 

Some ten years ago the legislature undertook to ascertain the 
origin of the seal and the authority of the device, because of the 
various and diflFerent forms in use, whereas it was desirable that 
the public business of the State should have a well-defined, and 
legally authorized seal. R. S. Hutcher, the leading clerk of the 
Senate in 1895, an expert in such studies, was appointed a spedal 
commissioner to investigate the matter and learn whether the 
State **has any legalized, authorized great seal.** The result of 
Mr. Hutcher*s investigation was but to prove that little or 
nothing could be known. There was even no record to show 
that the design agreed upon by the two houses in 18 16 had ever 
been formally adopted. Hutcher recommended that a more 
definite seal be established by legislative action, but no such 
action was taken. 



Some Self-made Indianians 153 

Some Self-made Indianians 

Op the Indianians whose names are identified with the State's 
history an interesting proportion has been composed of **self- 
made men/* if by that definition we mean those that started as 
poor boys and, without any aid or opportunities other than what 
they created by their own efforts, made their way to the front. 
Of the twenty -five men, from Jennings to Hanley, who have 
occupied the Governor's oflBce, at least one third may be fairly 
considered as coming within this category. Ratliff Boone, our 
second chief magistrate, was a pioneer boy of Kentucky, who, 
in lieu of going to school, took up the gunsmith's trade. Noah 
Noble also grew up in the wilds of Kentucky, and was largely 
self taught. James Whitcomb was a farmer's son, and his 
portion was **hard work and coarse fare," but he borrowed books 
and read them and made for himself a neighborhood reputation 
for learning. By perseverance he fitted himself for college, and 
after entering school maintained himself by teaching during vaca- 
tions. Joseph A. Wright was a poor boy who aspired to a college 

education. He entered the State University and paid his way 
by ringing the college bell and doing janitor's work, by toiling 

in a brickyard, and even by gathering nuts from the woods. He 

also did odd jobs of masonry, as is shown in the old college 

records. As an impecunious young lawyer, after leaving college, 

he submitted a bid for carrying the mail from Brownstown to 

Terre Haute, offering to do it for $334 per annum, but he was 

too obscure to be considered, and a better-known man, though 

now utterly forgotten, got the job at $398. Ashbel P. Willard 

taught school and did cheap clerical work as a stepping-stone to 

politics. Oliver P. Morton was of a poor family. He began life 

as a hatter's apprentice, and later, by frugal management, part 

of the time cooking his own meals in his room, succeeded in 

getting two years of college training. James D. Williams was 

reared as a pioneer farmer's boy, accustomed to hard manual 

labor, with but very little schooling, and throughout his life he 

retained the character of a sturdy, homely son of the soil, although 

almost continuously in the public service for nearly forty years. 

Isaac P. Gray, before entering public life was a dry goods clerk; 

Alvin P. Hovey, a brick mason; Ira J. Chase, Claude Matthews 



154 The Indiana Magazine of History 

and James A. Mount, farmers. The two last named were farmers 
to the end, and took pride in reckoning themselves of that class. 
Mr. Mount began with no capital but a pair of willing hands 
and a will to do, and first made himself an eminent agriculturist. 

Of the men who have represented Indiana in the United States 
Senate a number were of the type under consideration. James 
Noble, like his brother Noah, was a Kentucky pioneer boy, 
accustomed to labor, who '*grew up strong and self-reliant.'* 
John Tipton, as a young man, was a woodsman and Indian 
fighter, illiterate, but a man of native intelhgence, a keen 
observer and a natural leader. Jesse D. Bnght, with but littJc 
claim to education, made his way by sheer will and his unusual 
talent for leadership. Daniel W. Voorhees, bom of pioneer 
parents, had his mother and himself to thank for his advancement, 
and the life of Albert J. Beveridge is but the old story of a success 
which had for its antecedent the hard and humble life of the farm . 

Of those otherwise prominent in our public service many 
might be dted as victors over adverse conditions. James Rariden, 
lawyer and legislator, and one of the eminent men of the old 
White-water region, started with but meager schooling, and the 
qualifications that gave him an exceptionally high rank as a legal 
light were acquired in his contact with men. Charles H. Test, 
began as a surveyor's assistant, and while earning his livelihood 
at this business he read law at odd hours and by the the time he 
was twenty years old had qualified himself for admission to the 
bar. William W. Wick, one of the best-known of Indiana's 
early judges, acquired some schooling as a boy, and when 
eighteen years old left his home in Pennsylvania to seek his 
fortunes. He made his way westward by degrees, supporting 
himself by teaching here and there, and satisfying his thirst for 
knowledge as he could. He first studied medicine, then read 
chemistry, as he said, ''principally by the light of log heaps in 
a clearing/* and also read law ''of nights and Sundays." By 
his twenty-fourth year he had drifted to Connersville, Indiana, 
and there settled himself as a practicing lawyer. John Wesley 
Davis, judge, legislator, foreign minister. Governor of Oregon 
Territory, Congressman and one of the three Indianians who 
have been Speaker of the House in Congress, spent his boyhood 
on a farm, then was bound out as an apprentice to a dock-maker. 



Some Self-iiaade Indianians 155 

After that he was a storekeeper, and then practiced medicine 
until, when thirty years old, he found his proper sphere in politics. 
Tilghman A. Howard, prominent in politics in this State for 
fourteen years, and regarded as an exceptionally able man, is 
said to have received about a year's schooling all told, yet when, 
at the age of nineteen, he lefb his North Carolina home to make 
his way in the world, the first vocation he took up was that of 
teaching, and his biographer tells us that although he '*never 
attended an academy or a college, he was a very learned man. 
He was acquainted with the civil law, with theology, history, 
politics, geology, mineralogy, botany, philosophy and the occult 
sciences. His mind was a vast storehouse of knowledge, it being 
questionable if there was another man in the State of equal 
information.** Cyrus L. Dunham, lawyer, legislator, Congressman 
and judge, paid for his early schooling with the money he earned 
working out, and later, by taking service on a fishing smack, 
saved enough to give himself a short course in a seminary. 
Michael C. Kerr, the second Indianian who was Speaker in 
Congress, was **mainly self-educated, ".and ''mastered the funda- 
mental principles of jurisprudence and political philosophy,*' in 
the knowledge of which he afterward became a master, while 
teaching school. Schuyler Colfax, our other Speaker in Congress, 
Vice-President of the United States, and Congressman, began 
earning his living as a store clerk at the age of ten years, and 
from that time made his own way. George W. Julian, well 
known in Indiana for half a century, was bom to a lot as hard 
and unpromising as that of Abraham Lincoln. With an indomi 
table will, however, he overcame the difficulties, laboring with 
his hands and teaching a country school while making the most 
of his precious books and laying the foundations for his future 
public career. Walter y. Gresham lost his father in infancy, 
and received but little schooling as a boy. Joseph E. McDonald, 
United States Senator, left the farm when twelve years old to 
learn the saddler*s trade, and Franklin Landers and J. P. C. 
Shanks, prominent Indiana politicians, both hewed out their own 
fortunes. William A. Woods, Joseph A. S. Mitchell and Asa 
Iglehart, eminent jurists, were all poor boys, bom to toil, who 
worked their way to the front by persistent effort. 



156 The Indiana Magazine of History 

**The Northern Indiana'' 

A Lake Steamer of 1852 

[The following sketch, found in an old periodical, was kindly sent to 
us by Mrs. Emma Carleton, of New Albany.] 

IN 1852, on Lake Erie, was a passenger steam-boat named 
"The Northern Indiana.** This boat is mentioned in a sketch 
entitled **An Excursion of One Thousand Miles Out West,** 
published in **The Literary World,'* of July 10, 1852, and 
written by a New York participant in a ^'Stockholders* Excursion** 
over the '^Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad.*' 
Says this writer: 

**The company, when assembled at Dunkirk pier, numbered, 
we believe, some four hundred, all of whom found ample room 
and accommodation in the splendid and spacious cabins of the 
•Northern Indiana' * ♦ ♦ Soon after we were settled on 
board, dinner, pleasant word to the traveler, was announced. 
Those of the gentlemen who were happy enough to have ladies 
in charge, were soon summoned to the dining-cabin, where tables, 
tastefully decorated with flowers, awaited their approach. * * 
It was well remarked by a gentleman that the bill of fare 
furnished a most gratifying argument in favor of railroads, for by 
no less potent an agent than steam could the varied excellencies 
of the fish, flesh and fruits of so many distant regions be brought 
together. 

**The Northern Indiana is the *crack* boat of the lake, having 
lately beaten her powerful rival, the Mayflower, in a run for the 
purpose of testifying their respective powers, from Buffalo to 
Cleveland. She is sharply built for speed, with engines 6f great 
power, and large and beautifully decorated cabins.'* 

Of the country in northern Indiana, as seen from the new 
railway, the writer said: 

'*The vast wheat fields of Indiana and the general look of 
thrift and prosperity of the region through which we passed 
excited universal admiration.'* 

Chicago was then seven years old. 



Some Books at Hand 157 

Some Books at Hand 

By the Editor 
The Nbw Harmony Movrmknt* 

IN reading The New Harmony Movement one marvels that so 
much rich material has lain so long, practically unworked. 
Mr. Lockwood is to be congratulated that he has so large a field 
almost wholly to himself; and, on the other hand, the interested 
reader is to be congratulated that the man who took up the subject 
had the patience and ability to do it thoroughly and well. He 
has not grudged giving years to the task. Originally, we believe, 
he essayed the work as a college thesis, which was subsequently 
published in The Republican^ of Peru, Ind., and in that form it 
was by far the fullest treatise on the New Harmony experiment 
that had hitherto appeared. Further research in the voluminous 
material available resulted, some years later, in The New Har- 
mony Communities^ a handsome, profusely-illustrated volume 
published by the author; and the Appleton book, bearing the date 
1905, though in cheaper form, represents still further additions 
and revisions. 

Many are familiar, in a general way, with the story of Robert 
Owen, the Welsh philanthropist, who invested his fortune in a 
great social experiment in the wilderness of Indiana more than 
three-quarters of a century ago. The soaring social and edu- 
cational aims of that experiment, the impracticable dreams, the 
signal failures, and the unique life and remarkable personages 
connected with the little town of New Harmony on the Wabash, 
all have passed into the limbo of vague and dimly known things; 
but, as often happens, the things thus imperfectly remembered 
are not at all the more important facts of the occasion — ^the facts 
that should be remembered. Robert Owen was not a mere 
impracticable theorist who squandered his energies for want of 
ballast. He was one to have been loved and one to be loved 
now. His errors of judgment (and some of them, no doubt, were 
remarkable) were as nothing compared with the spirit that moved 
the man from first to last, prompting him to sacrifice himself and 

*'*Tlie New Harmony Morement,*' by George B. Lockwood, with the oollabontion 
of Charles A. Proaser in the educational chapters. D. Appleton & Co., N. Y. 



158 The Indiana Magazine of History 

his world's goods on the alter of a noble idea. In the carefully- 
studied facts presented by Mr. Lockwood we nowhere find evi- 
dence that Owen sought self-aggrandizement or expected gain. 
Contrariwise there is continuous evidence that he was controlled 
by a desire that may be called an abiding passion to aid and 
uplift his fellow-men. This benevolence was broad and universal, 
extending to all men regardless of color or creed, and concerning 
itself alike with the helpless child facing its future and the helpless 
adult who was a victim to social conditions. In the face of loss, 
of the faithlessness of associates, of disappointments of many 
kinds; in spite of indifference, opposition and ingratitude, even 
from those he sought most to benefit, he persisted in carrying 
out ideas that, always, were deep rooted in and sitstained by the 
craving to aid humanity* He was a true lover of his fellows. 
In a world where the struggle for self even to the point of 
superfluity and grasping gain is the recognized normal thing it 
ill-behooves those who have any strain of nobility to remember 
with a cynical or a superior smile only the failures of a man like 
Robert Owen. Yet it seems to be one of the ironies of fate that 
he who rebukes men by departing from the beaten track will be 
remembered by his failures when his successes are forgotten. 
Owen's successes were of no mean character and scope. Before 
he came to America he had, by the exercise of a paternal 
philanthropy, and as a cotton-mill operator, so transformed for 
the better the tcwn of New Lanark, Scotland, that * 'represen- 
tatives of royalty, philanthropists, educators from all parts of 
Europe journeyed thither to study the processes Mr. Owen had put 
in operation for the betterment of the working people in his mills.** 
He had found there the drunkenness, shiftlessness and dishonesty 
that were inseparable from the conditions that prevailed among 
the working classes of that day — conditions of ignorance and its 
accompanying vice as dense as obtained among the black slaves 
of America. By meliorating those conditions he so far lifted the 
community out of its vices that a traveler who visited the place 
wrote: * 'There is not, I apprehend, to be found in any part of 
the world a manufacturing community in which so much order, 
good government, tranquillity and rational happiness prevails.** 
He sought the confidence and co-operation of his employes; he 
established for their children schools far superior to most then 



« 



Some Books at Hand 1 59 

existing in the United Kingdom; he promoted comfort in the 
homes, and set up a store where goods could be secured at cost, 
thus relieving his people of the exorbitant middleman's profits. 
lu short, he did so much for them that his partners in the mills 
refused to keep pace with him, even though the better class of 
employes resulting from his methods made the business more 
lucrative than ever. Twice he dissolved the partnership, each 
time forming a new one, and proceeded with his philanthropic 
work. With tongue and pen, as well as with money he fought 
the fight of the working man and particularly of the working 
child, who then from tenderest years was doomed to factory 
servitude. Unfortunately for his cause he felt impelled to intrude 
upon the public his religious, or, rather, anti-religious views — 
a crime beside which all mere philanthropic effort counted as 
nothing, and it succeeded in forcing him out of the Lanark mills, 
and undermined his influence in all circles. After this he stood 
for Parliament in Lanark borough. The working men whose 
good he had promoted for nineteen years and who then had the 
opportunity to send their best friend to court, saw fit to defeat 
him in favor of one who **more loudly swore his fealty to the 
common people.'* Had it been otherwise Owen would never 
have established his colony at New Harmony. As it was, on 
the heels of this defeat came the proposition to purchase in 
America, at a comparatively low figure, the great estate of the 
Rappists, where he might put his .social ideas into effect under 
what seemed ideal conditions. His acceptance of the proposition 
and his Ensuing experiment, together with that of his associate, 
William Maclure, is one of the pathetic chapters of history, and 
is a most interesting study of certain aspects presented by man, 
individually and collectively. The mingled wisdom and folly of 
the New Harmony movement; the noble aspirations turned awry 
as if in jest by the hidden hand of a power that willed othewise; 
the strange spectacle of what may be called a salon of the world's 
elect gathered here in the heart of the pioneer west, and the 
influences that have radiated and spread from this first wave set 
in motion by Robert Owen are, as we have already implied, well 
and fully dealt with in Mr. Lockwood's book, and the social 
student will be well repaid by a careful study of it. 



i6o The Indiana Magazine of History 

ADDRB83 ON THE POTTAWATTOMIE INDIANS* 

This Address, written and delivered in support of a bill before 
our last legislature, failed in its immediate object, as the bill did 
not pass, but as a monograph on the Pottawattomie Indians of 
northern Indiana it is of such interest and value as to merit a 
place in any historical collection. Mr. McDonald is r^arded as, 
perhaps, our best authority on this particular subject. He has 
long been a deeply interested, a conscientious and a sympathetic 
student of the vanished aborigines as presented by the records 
and traditions of the locality where he was reared. And a study 
of this tribe in its passing is a study of the Indian question in 
little. The story has in it much that was pathetic and tragic, 
particulary to a large band located on Twin Lakes (Marshall 
county) under a chief called Menominee. Menominee was an 
Indian of unusual character, a friend to the whites, a convert to 
Christianity, and a zealous promoter of good among his people. 
By a treaty of 1832 twenty-two sections of land had been reserved 
to him and three other chiefs. When the whites came for the 
reserved remnants (as they always did) Menominee declined to 
be tractable, and sign away his land. As the other chiefs signed 
it, however, that was held to be sufficient, and at the end of the 
time stipulated by the treaty the recalcitrant chief and his people 
were unceremoniously ousted; their cabins were torn down^ 
their mission chapel dismantled, and the whole band, numbering 
nearly a thousand, put under a strong military escort commanded 
by General John Tipton, to be conveyed to a reservation beyond 
the Mississippi river. Amid tears and lamentations they took 
their departure. It was in September, the weather hot, the season 
dry and sickly. Suffering from the swelter, dust and thirst the 
hapless Indians sickened like sheep and the long route was 
marked with their graves. Particularly was there mortality 
among the small children; the ailing, jostled along under the 
burning sun in rude army wagons, suffering for water and with no 
relief from the hard ordeal, stood little chance, and almost every 
day some wronged mother surrendered her o&pring to earth. 

•Address of RcpresenUtive Daniel McDonald, of Marshall coanty. delivered in the 
House of RepresenUtives, Indianapolis, Feb. 5. 1905, on the bill to erect a monument to 
the PotUwattomie Indians at Twin Lakes, Marshall county. 



Some Books at Hand i6i 

In this Address of Mr. McDonald's, and particularly in 
another brochure issued by him some years since {Removal of the 
PottawattomU Indians from Northern Indiana) the reader finds 
a circumstantial account of the matters here touched upon. , In 
the earlier publication there is also much information regarding 
individuals, both Indians and whites, connected with our earlier 
history. The booklets, we believe, can be had by addressing 
Hon. Daniel McDonald, Plymouth, In'd. 

Lakb Maxinkuckbb. 

The History of Lake Maxinkuckee, by Daniel McDonald, to 
which is appended '^Fishes and Fishing in the Lake,'* by Judge 
A. C. Capron, **The Maxinkuckee Lake Association," by W. T. 
Wilson, and ''The Aubbeenaubbee yacht Club,*' by T. H. Wilson, 
Jr., is a handsome booklet designed to promote interest in what is 
regarded as one of Indiana's finest lakes. The historical part 
contains considerable interesting lore about the first settlers and 
the Indians who were located about the lake. Of particular 
interest are some authoritative letters touching the name of the 
place. These letters, written to Mr. McDonald in response to 
queries we here give: 

Department of the Interior y 

Washington, D, C, Sept, ij, i88g. 

Dear Sir: — In reply to your letter of the i8th, I have to say 
that the lake referred to is spelled **Muk-sin-cuck-u** in the 
official field notes of the survey of the township in which the 
lake is situated. 

Respectfully yours, 

W. M. Stone, Acting Commissioner. 

Auditor of State , 

Indianapolis, Ind,, Sept. 27, i8gj. 

Dear Sir: — On examination of our field notes I find in the 
survey made by Deputy Surveyor David Hillis he spells it **Mek- 
in-kee-kee.*' In another place in a survey of a small fraction of 
land on the lake Jerry Smith, deputy surveyor, spells it **Muk- 
sen-cuk-ee.** This is all the field notes show as to the name. 

Very truly yours, 

A. C. DAii.y, Auditor of State. 



1 62 The Indiana Magazine of History 

County Surveyor's Office y 

Plymouth, Ind,, Feb, /, i8^. 

Dbar Sir: — On examination of the records of the surveyor's 
office of Marshall county, containing copies of the original field 
notes, I find the following in regard to the orthography of Max- 
inkuckee lake. On page 43 of the survey of towns 32 and 33, 
David Hillis, deputy surveyor, makes the following note: * *There 
are also several lakes in the county. The Max-in-kuck-ee lake 
is large and beautiful," ♦ * * 

In a survey of section 32, range i east, Jerry Smith, deputy 
surveyor, on page 48 says **Set post on Muk-sencuck-ee Lake.** 

Yours, John C. Buti.br, 

Deputy Surveyor Marshall Co. 

Hartford, Mich,, Feb, S- 1898. 

My Dear Sir: — Your inquiry of February 3d, relative to 
the meaning and pronunciation of the word Muck-sen-cuk-ee, at 
hand. I have written it as nearly correct as the white man's 
o-daw-naw (tongue) can pronounce it. It means, in the Algon- 
quin dialect, **There is grass." ♦ * * 

Simon Po-ka-gon.* 

On page 705 of the revision of the Indian Treaties of the 
United States, in a treaty made at Nees-wau-gee Camp, in 1838, 
the word is spelled Max-ee-nie-kee-kee. Only in the records of 
Marshall county is it spelled Max-in-kuck-ee. This is but a 
copy of the original field notes at the State Auditor's office, and 
whoever transcribed these notes made a mistake in the spelling; 
and thus was established the form that has become fixed. The 
present name, says Mr. McDonald, *' lacks a good deal of being a 
pure Indian word. *Max* is German, and the balance of the 
word is made up of Scotch, Irish, American and Algonquin." 

THE FIRST OI.D SETTLERS* MEETING. 

Mr. Isaac H. Julian, of San Marcos, Texas, sends us a copy 
of the "Memoir of David Hoover," a pamphlet now rare, pub- 
lished in 1856. David Hoover was one of the earliest and best- 
known pioneers of Wayne county. The pamphlet contains an 
account of the first Old Settlers' Meeting of Wayne county, held 
in September 1855. Mr. Julian thinks this was the first of these 
meetings held in the State. If any reader of this knows of a 
previous one we will be glad to be informed. 

•Simon Poka|(on, an educated Indian, was the last of the Pottawattomie chiefs in 
this part of the country. He and his band remained in Michigan. 



The Indiana Magazine of History 

VOL. I Fourth Quarter, 1905 no. 4 

Folk-Speech in Indiana 

By Paui, L. Haworth and O. G. S. 

[The following, published in The Indianapolis News for August is, 
I9oo» is by far the best study we have seen of this interesting subject, and 
as such we here give it space] 

IN the cities of our State, the schoolmaster, the newspaper and 
the railroad have long since wrought such changes from the 
Indiana of Edward Eggleston, that the English heard in Indi- 
anapolis or Port Wayne differs but little from the English of New 
York or Philadelphia. But this can not be said of our mral 
districts, for there the forces that tend to produce uniformity of 
speech operate much more slowly. 

Yet even in the countr}*^ there has really been much change 
in the language spoken; and, in view of the rapid extension of 
electric lines, the growth of better schools, and the increased 
reading of books and newspapers, it is probable that the change 
will be much more rapid in the future. If the old Hoosier dialect 
is ever to be studied and the results recorded, the work must be 
done soon; even now it is almost too late. 

The Hoosier dialect has never been uniform the State over. 
There have always been local variations, not only in peculiar 
expressions, but in accent. Occasionally there are slight difier- 
ences even between adjoining counties. 

Particularly marked is the dissimilarity between the folk- 
speech of the northern part of the State and that of the southern 
part. The settlers in the north came mainly from New England, 
Pennsylvania, New York and northern Ohio, and, in consequence, 
there exists in the north a strong Yankee twang. Those in the 

southern part came mainly from Virginia, Maryland, southern 
Ohio, the Carolinas, Kentucky and Tennessee; and the dialect 

shows the Southern influence, containing some points of similarity 

to the negro and the **poor white" or * 'cracker*' dialect. The 



- - ',in3 \Liipzine of Histofy 



» m the sentcBce: "He has a 
jora. * isanHrtatratifjaof thedsasimi! 



sorth. It » w<3rtli nocscn^ in this 
'.'^^ '^-cir. * -ji thesisaeof '"rciy.** » so cQch 
1:1 » :d le cGicsiiered by- some writers as a 
:r .5 js well descended as most English 
f will wake ri^fet eariT." 



• r 



** •i 



■• ■• 



.t 4r*-iC3rrcccaI bconds can not be gircn to the 

et*. It ^--^s- act end wita State lines. b«t extends 

•t*t t-.-j i-iftraac** Chiij. it:c!ii:^an and ininois. gradn- 

x. :p •** -tt*i xnd -roadrng^ j^ into ether dialects. Modi 

sii"^ n j e g^-ii ' i a: the other dialects eztending^ 

... J., r- u^cuesBh. jIso. m msmj States Either west tbete 

'.. ^-^ : :r32r?e.jnre»i H*A^ers where the dialect is spoken 

■^ :> fK^TTJ* larrf- while iH -Tver the United States 

^.Tsicr ?irdi hii'^ ■'^ecjme iijmiciled. 

*--,^ 1^. >^ t r-a- i^TTi"^ been trae. snd never more so than 

..^>^ .i-^?- t —u*.^ ^ mnttinicitictt xnd shifting popolatioa, 

, * '-: > -Tx: -mrttnt :t ili-^peech so liable to error as 

^^. . . r. ^-.r.* c^ ini::^ tc 1 word or phrase. Our local 

^^ ^ a, *^; ji- ~ :i: vATiI Ea-^'ish dialects from which we get 

, ^. . ^ .%• r*^ jmi 7ir:Kes. are pretty thoroaghly mixed. 

V. ■• c r.-^-; 't*: umiliiir w^jcd, 'tDte," a word which 

, ^ fr V n- -j-^; n la^iiina, ret which has become a 

. ^. . .\ cv-t jt:s'^;r: i^lesSw M^st pers*iiis* if qncstioaed 

V V ■ •'^- i.Txi'^ ~i t'":s w^jnL wjold doabtless connect 

• , * V v>< • ii*V' c^'tiin :t ::> that the negro — especially the 

^v* ^' 'v-^ — »c>e$ the w:>rd freelv. As a matter of 

. ^ ^ *v * *• * fcj^ -3 cse in Virginia at least as eariv 

^ V ■ *v^ *^'^ vcr times more white bond-senrants 

.v-^ • v^ t^^re are old, abandoned postage roads 






* V V »v^v • v"^ ^^"^ u-n-known. that went by the name 
V. •! * K-^Ti^ re. the word 'tote" was a common 
V I -^ . X ^v^rteenth century. The conclusion 
^ s, V . V vx: 5< not of African origin, nor is its 
\ v* '*''v^ * V*^ negroes are found. 
.,s.v X ..tv'/v >ftord ot^en met with in Hoosier 



A 

V V 



\ s >> 



Folk- Speech in Indiana 165 

dialect, but by no means confined to the narrow bounds of our 
State. Thackeray speaks of a ''cantankerous humor.** Charles 
Egbert Craddock (Miss Murfree), in her story, **The Casting 
Vote,'* puts into the mouth of the coroner the sentence: **He's 
ez hard-headed, an* tjrrannical, an* perverse, an* cantankerous a 
critter ez ever lived.** Even Chaucer makes use of the word 
•*conteke,** from which * 'cantankerous'* is probably derived. 

So wide, indeed, is the geographical distribution of most folk- 
words and phrases that, while taking the United States over, 
one can collect great numbers of colloquialisms, it is extremely 
difficult to find words or phrases that are confined to a single 
dialect. The fact is, the mixing process has been so effective 
that most provincialisms have ceased to be provincial. The 
writers of this article are compelled to confess, and they take no 
shame to themselves for so doing, that, in spite of considerable 
search, they have been unable to find a single provincialism 
which they would be willing to assert is at present confined to 
Indiana alone. 

**Waots out** and * 'wants in,** in such sentences as **the dog 
wants out,** that is, ** wants to go out,** have been pointed out 
as peculiar to our State. Possibly so, but the elision occurs in 
other phrases, e. g., **they let me in for a nickel,** **the hired 
man wants off,** and is so simple and useful that its use is 
probably wide-spread. 

A native of Massachusetts once asked one of the writers about 
the word **ornary ,*' saying he had never heard it out of Hoosier- 
dom. The word is a simple and natural variation of * 'ordinary*' 
through the shortened pronunciation of **ord*nary,** and its 
present meaning has become, through successive steps, common, 
mean, low-down. Its use is by no means confined to Indiana. 

The word **mosey,*' frequently heard in such expressions as 
**He moseyed off down the crick,** has the Hoosier stamp, but 
it is met with elsewhere. The dictionaries which define it are 
curiously in error as regards its meaning. According to them it 
means to move off quickly, to get out, to light out, to hustle. 
But in central Indiana, at least, it means to saunter along, to 
walk slowly along, as if with no particular destination in view, 
and is rarely or never used in the sense given by the dictionaries. 
Most accounts of its derivation are equally erroneous. One 



i64 

expr' 

The 

but 

coir 

USt 

w 

1 






SB 



Folk-Speech in Indiana 167 

aversation and informal writing. **Ain't/* **shan*t,** etc., are 
.xl considered bad. 

Notwithstanding the admonitions of the grammer-makers, 
if people in large majority insist on using *'lay" instead of lie. 
.ore than this, the word can be found so used by good writers. 
.s a very recent example, let me quote from Bret Harte's **A 
ack and Jill of the Sierras" (McClure's for July, 1900): **Then 
very man laid down again, as if trying to erase himself.'* 
Chaucer uses it in the prologue. Robert I/>uis Stevenson more 
than once uses "eat" (pronunciation et) instead of ate. Addison 
says **I lit my pipe with paper." **It*s me," or **it is me," is 
coming to be universally used instead of '*it is I," and the usage 
is sanctioned by such an authority as Barrett Wendell, of Harvard. 
The truth is, easy and convenient expressions, despite gram- 
matical rules and the ravings of purists, are like Banquo's ghost; 
they will not down. 

Most persons have heard their illiterate neighbors use such 
seeming contortions as **becaise" (because), **j*ine" (join), **bile" 
(boil), **seed" (saw), **deaf* (like leaQ. **jist" or **jest*- G^O, 
••shet** (shut), **chaw" (chew) and **techy'* (touchy). At first 
blush these seem hopelessly bad, yet in reality they are but the 
older forms of the equivalent words now in use. Pepys quotes a 
letter written by the Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth's favorite, 
concerning the sudden death of Amy Robsart, in which the form 
**becaise'* occurs. Johnson says in his dictionary: **Bile; this 
is generally spelt boil, but, I think, less properly.** Pope and 
Dry den rhyme **join*' with **line," or some such word: 

** ^Tis not enough taste, judgment, learning join; 
In all you spesak let truth and candmir shine.** 

In fact, **jine" was at one time considered the best pronun- 
ciation. Shakespeare uses ** tetchy" three times. **Kiver," 
**deaf" and **chaw" are good old English words. Concerning 
the last, Scheie de Vere quotes the following from a private letter: 

**The late eloquent Watkins Leigh was asked by a friend 
what he thought of James Buchanan (the President), and 
answered that he had one serious objection to him, and {when 
pressed to name it, said that once, when he and Mr. Buchanan 
were sitting together in the United States Senate, the latter 



i68 The Indiana Magazine of History 

asked him for a chew of tobacco instead of a chaw.*' Evidently 
Mr. Buchanan **pat on a little too much dog" to suit his con- 
frere. The use of chewing-gum threatens to make chew the 
universal term, though the old form still prevails among those 
who now and then take a '*chaw of tobacco." 

Numerous other expressions have a better justification than 
most people would guess. The Bible gives us **with the skin 
of my teeth/' Job, XVIII, 20; **clean gone,** Psalms, 77, 8; a 
**howling wilderness,** Deuteronomy 32, 10. **Gumption** and 
* *hustle* * are both of ancient use. Shakespeare speaks of a * *deck 
of cards,** and uses **fire** in the sense of to thrust out. Gower 
uses **to let slide**; Ben Jonson, * 'to swop,'* and * 'bulldoze** occurs 
in Scott. The "them** in such expressions as "them books" is 
a survival from the old dative plural, "thaem bocum.** Fielding 
uses *iimb*' for "leg.** 

A frequent source of error is the use of a good word in a wrong 
sense. Judged by the standard of the Queen's English, "mad," 
"scholar** and "fix** are words often misused in Indiana. Very 
often we hear a person utter such an expression as "I was mad 
at him." If the speaker means to say that he was so enraged as 
to be well-nigh insane, "mad" is the word to use; but if the 
feeling was of a milder sort, he should say, "I was angry at him." 
It should be observed, however, that "mad" in the sense of 
angry occurs in the Bible and elsewhere. "Scholar" is by 
many people used interchangeably with student or pupil, but, 
strictly speaking, while all scholars are students and some are 
pupils, the vast majority of students and pupils are not scholars. 
Scholar is more properly used to designate a person of high 
intellectual attainments. "The teacher sent all the scholars 
home** is incorrect. "To fix,** which means to fasten or make 
permanent, is often misused in the sense of to mend or repair, as 
in the sentence, "I have just fixed the fence" — i. e., "I have 
just repaired the fence." "Smart," in the sense of intellectual, 
e.g., "He's a real smart boy"; "clever," in the sense of good- 
natured or kindly, e. g., "He's been mighty clever to me," and 
"mean," in the sense of bad or wicked, e. g., "He's awfully 
mean to her,'* are also colloquialisms frequently heard in 
Indiana. 

Persons who have lived in the rural districts of the State will 



Folk-Speech in Indiana 169 

recognize the following very common expressions: ** All-git-out,** 
as in **It*s a-rainin* to beat all-git-out"; **passel,** as in 
**TheyYe jist a passel of fools"; "hump your stumps/* as in 
*'Hump your stumps, old woman, and git me up a snack"; 
* 'galluses/' for suspenders; **fixins/' as in ''pie, an* cake, an' 
chicken, an' sich fixings** (said to be common in Pennsylvania); 
"mitten, »♦ to give the "sack** or the "hooks**; "sculdugery,** 
i e., trickery; "piece of calico,** i. e., a woman; "finicky,** i. e., 
finical; "slather,** as in "He just slathers away and says any- 
thing**; "shenanigan,** to cheat; "thing-a-majig,** as in "What 
kind of a thing-a-majig have you got there?** 

"Socdolager,*' an expression frequently heard in some locali- 
ties, is said to be connected in its derivation with doxology. 
The doxology comes near the end of a "meeting,** and when a 
man or. a boy gives another a "socdolager** ( the similarity in 
sound must be apparent ), the end of the fight is at hand. " 

A student of Indiana folk-speech meets with many striking 
and forcible expressions. "He's rich, he has heaps of money," 
is used by persons in some rural districts to convey the idea of 
wealth. Others substitute "sights" or "gobs" for "heaps." 
Yet others use a ranker word still: "He*s rich, he jist has gaums 
of money,** as though the gold were smeared over the person of 
the fortunate possessor. 

''Between you and me and the gatepost'* is a formula used in 
impressing the necessity of secrecy. "When he gits a dollar 
it*s got home." is an admirable description of a stingy man. "1*11 
sure git there or bust a biler*' is a forcible expression! to say the 
least. An old woman from the hills of Brown county once ex- 
pressively described to one of the writers the feelings experienced 
after a night spent in dancing by saying: '*When I'uz goin' home 
in the momin,' both sides of the road 'u*d belong to me.** 

An examination of some of the folk-words and phrases that 
have been current in Indiana will reveal many things of historical 
interest. Think, for example, of the testimony on former 
economic conditions contained in the expression **sharp bit.** In 
the early days there was but little or no small change in the 
country, nor was it convenient for traders coming from New 
Orleans and elsewhere to bring with them any other than the 



1 



1 70 The Indiana Magazine of History 

larger coins. In order to make smaller change, the settlers cut 
tbese coins into pieces* and these pieces were known as "sharp 
bits.** The demand for words and expressions to relieve over- 
wrought feeling seems to be felt by all humanity — Hoosier 
humanity as well as otherwise. 

The blood of the Hoosier is less easily heated than that of his 

neighbor across the Ohio. Yet, if one is to judge from the 

number of swear words and exclamations in use in our State, it 

would seem that even we occasionally feel their need. Of the 

following list of exclamatory expressions, all are considered in 

good form on certain occasions, at least, in some parts of the 

State: * Jerusalem crickets,*' **shucks.** **byjing,** **by cracky/' 

♦•dinged if I don*t»** **jeeminy-criminny-whi2,*' **gosh danged/' 

**gosh a mighty/' **I swan/» '*gee whiz/' **gee whilliken," 

(formed on Jerusalem)* **by gravy,** •»by grab,** **dad zooks," 

••dad burn,** **by gum,** "great scott.** "all-fired,** "I'll be 

dogon*d,** or **dagon*d** (Barrie uses a similar form, "dagont" 

in "Sentimental Tommy"), "for the land's sakes,*' "my goodness/* 

* *oh, my , * ' * *the dickens, ' ' * *laws-a-mercy , * ' * *plague take it, * * 

**oh, foot," **oh, sugar.** Many of these phrases, apparently 

inoffensive, in reality mean much more than may appear at first' 

glance. Possibly the woman who said that the three authors 

she was accustomed to remember when she got her finger against 

the stove were, **Dickens, Howitt, Bums** was not aware that 

**dickens'* means little devil (it is a contraction of the old 

diminutive devilkins). Change the r in dam to m and you have 

the original of this word. **Dinged if I don't** means "damned 

if I don't/' while "gosh danged," **gosh a'mighty," etc., are 

stronger still. And so it goes. 

A few words concerning writers of Indiana dialect will perhaps 
not be out of place here. Of all these the two greatest are, of 
course, Edward Eggleston and James Whitcomb Riley — Eggles- 
ton in prose and Riley in verse. Of the two, Eggleston is more 
distinctively Hoosier than Riley. As most persons are aware, 
the dialect in Riley's poems is **doctored" somewhat to meet the 
exigencies of meter and rhythm ; he occasionally manufactures 
a phrase to slip off the tongue easily. Some harsh criticisms 
have been made of Riley on this score, but, we think, entirely 
without justification — certainly with none if there be such a 



Folk- Speech in Indiana 171 

thing as poetic license, or if success justifies means. 

Kggleston, to the other hand— despite some serious defects in 
his literary style — reproduces with remarkable fidelity the real 
Hoosier dialect of the southern part of the State. Of course, it 
may occasionally occur to some of his readers that the talk of 
such characters as Mrs. Means, or of the Rev. Mr. Bosaw, the 
hardshell Baptist, in * 'The Hoosier Schoolmaster, ' ' is overdrawn, 
but any one that is acquainted with even the Mrs. Meanses and 
the Bosaws of to-day knows that in this respect he **underdraws'* 
rather than overdraws. Kggleston does, however, overdraw some 
of his characters. In most cases he is moderately skilful in his 
use of the various methods by which a speaker may be made by 
the language he uses to betray his own character or to reveal 
that of another. Every one that has read *'The Hoosier School- 
master*' must have felt the effectiveness of the iteration and 
reiteration of '*no licldn*, no lamin', says I,'* by Pete Jones, and 
of **we*re all selfish akordin* to my teir* and **to be sure" by the 
basket maker, who ''fit'* the British at Lundy's lane. But, on 
the other hand, some have felt that an excessive use of such 
methods has often resulted in a caricature rather than a character. 

From the title one would naturally expect that the author of 
•'The Gentleman From Indiana" was a writer of Hoosier dialect. 
As a matter of fact, Tarkington is not to be so classed. "The 
Gentleman From Indiana,'' in the first place, is not a dialect 
story; and further, so far as the individuality of the dialect it does 
contain is concerned, the scene of the story might just as well 
have been laid in Illinois, or Ohio, or even Kansas. The book 
has numerous excellent qualities, but they are not such as come 
from a skilful use of dialect. Certainly if the author possesses a 
tithe of the knowledge of folk -speech possessed by Riley or 
Kggleston, he has not displayed it. To a genuine Hoosier, "The 
Gentleman From Indiana" is unreal. Such an one much prefers 
the author's less labored and really delightful story, "Monsieur 
Beaucaire." 

Before closing, we quote the substance of some ver>' pertinent 
remarks bearing on the subject of Hoosier dialect in literature. 
recently made to one of the writers by Dr. Weatherly, of the 
State University. "A few months ago," said he, **I met a 



172 The Indiana Magazine of History 

typical Hoosier in New York city. He was perfectly natural, 
perfectly individual; but you will not find him in any of the 
books, for, the truth is, no one has yet succeeded in getting: a 
real, live Hoosier into a book. Eggleston has given us his talk, 
and Riley has occasionally given us some delightful and promising 
mirror-like glimpses, but neither has quite succeeded. If we 
look long enough, we see that the man himself is not there. A 
certain indefinable something is wanting." 

Doubtless many persons have had much the same feeling. 
Some moderately good Hoosrer dialect stories there undoubtedly 
are, but the characters in them have too often been either cari- 
catures or else mere automatons. 

[Ben^ Sulgrove, speaking with authority on this subject (see History 
of Indianapolis and Marion County^ p. 89), credits the young poet Riley 
(this was more than twenty years ago) with presenting the old patois "more 
fairly than any other delineator'*, but speaks of a distinguishing radnefls 
and quaintness, with a tone and turn of humor similar to that of the Low- 
land Scotch dialect, that had measureably disappeared before Mr. Riley's 
day. Among other expressions he cites "stobbed" for stabbed, "daunsy** 
for stupid, and "hone," to long for, still retained in our slang. Another 
word once in vogue but now wholly forgotten, and not given by the above 
writers, was "gostrate.** To gostrate, as nearly as we can learn, was to 
talk windily and superfluously, as, for example, a certain type of orator 
does. This style of talking not being yet obsolete, and no term in the 
received vocabulary quite fitting it, "gostrate*' should have been preserved. 

It should be noted that the so-called "Hoosier dialect," especially at the 
present day, is more or less in the imagination of writers who are seeking 
the picturesque. In a word, something more than 15,000 school teachers at 
work in 10,000 schools, and nearly a thousand local newspapers that reach 
almost every home, along with numerous other educational forces, such as 
institutes, societies and many kinds of meetings, have very decidedly modi- 
fied speech as well as general intelligence. Purthermore, what passes as 
Hoosier speech is not only the rural language elsewhere, but it by no 
means has the distinctiveness and fixity of the Yankee or Southern speech. 
For example, a Yankee, particularly of the rural tjrpe, may be known 
anywnere and always, by his cyow or hyouse for cow or house; the South- 
erner by his antipathy to the letter r, but the Hoosier can not be identified 
by any such peculiarity — Ed.'\ 



Reminiscences of James Shoemaker 173 

Reminiscences of James Shoemaker 

[The following reminiscences were contained in a manuscript left by 
James Shoemaker, of Putnam county, now dead some years. In a some- 
what altered form it was published in The Indiana Farmer, Dec. lo, 1898.] 

MY parents, Evan and Eve Shoemaker, moved from East 
Tennessee about the year 1809, and settled in Salisbury, a 
small village midway between where Centerville and Richmond 
now are, in Wayne county. There I was bom July 30, 18 12. 
My parents remained in the vicinity of Salisbury until after the 
ratification of peace between the United States and Great Britain 
in 1 81 5. In the fall of 1816 my father, in company with three 
or four other pioneer famalies, settled in what is now Randoph 
county. They pitched their tents in an almost impenetrable 
wilderness, surrounded by wild beasts and savage Indians. The 
nearest white man's cabin on the north was 60 or 70 miles (at 
Fort Wayne); the nearest settlement on the east was 15 or 20 
miles. All w^st belonged to the Indians. 

Our pioneer fathers had all their provisions (except meat) to 
procure in the old settlement, until they could raise the same at 
home, and that could not be done until they cleared, fenced and 
cultivated their ground. The roads over which they had to 
convey their provisions I will not describe, for they had none. 
The west line of my father's land was the dividing line between 
the old and the new purchase. Here (in the new purchase) the 
Indians were the bonafide owners of the soil, not having as yet 
ceded their lands to the United States. Notwithstanding the 
Indians professed friendship and came daily either to beg or 
exchange baskets, moccasins, leggings or different kinds of 
embroiderj' for salt, meat, tobacco, meal, flour, or anything you 
had to dispose of, yet they viewed each white person with jealousy 
and wished for an opportunity to do an injury. I recollect one 
day an Indian chief came to my father's house in his absence. 
He wanted some milk and butter. He had a deer skin keg to 
put his milk in. After getting his milk, he wanted a saucer to 
carry his butter in. Mother refused to let him have the saucer, 
whereupon he became very angry, brandished his tomahawk and 
swor^ he wished it would be war again, so that he could get to 
scalp my mother and a man named Jordan. 



174 The Indiana Magazine of History 

At that time (1816) the Indians had a stake or post, arotmd 
which they burned their prisoners, in the adjoining county of 
Delaware. It was then near where Munde now is. I saw this 
post in 1833. It was considerably burned and charred for several 
feet above the ground, and a rise or mound of 18 or 20 inches 
around the post was overgrown with blue grass. It was then a 
standing monument of savage cruelty.* 

When I was a lad six or seven years old I would go to the In- 
dian camps and play with the young Indians. Sometimes I would 
find them at their favorite sport — shooting with bows and arrows. 
At other ^times there would be a score or more young Indians 
lying in their camps, or in the shady grove, in a state of perfect 
nudity. In the morning the adult Indians would take guns, 
tomahawks and butcher knives, the younger class their bows and 
arrows, and start in pursuit of game, leaving the old squaws to 
perform the drudgery of the camp. They always went armed. 
From noon until dark the hunters would keep strolling in ; one 
with a deer lashed on his hack, another with a turkey, a third 
with a ham or shoulder- of meat, or hog with the hair on, and 
still another with a raccoon, oppossum, porcupine, ground-hog, etc. 

The Indian men, women, and children, and the dogs would 
occupy the same tent. The dogs generally slept on the meal 
sacks as they made them a nice soft bed. I have seen them bake 
their bread in this manner. They would first bum a brush pile, 
then rake off the coals and ashes, then roll out their dough, lay 
it down on the hot ground and cover it up with hot embers and 
coals, and it would soon bake, and the dog hairs would keep it 
from crumbling or falling to pieces. 

If I were to tell you how annoying the horseflies and mos- 
quitoes were in the summer and fall seasons, you would not 
believe me, therefore I will not tell you. Wild animals such as 
the bear, panther, wolf, catamount and wild cat were numerous 
and anno3nng. The settlers had to pen their hogs and she^ in 
their door yards around their cabins every night, and even then 
the wolves and wild cats would often carry off the pigs and lambs, 
and even young calves, notwithstanding each settler was provided 
with a good rifle and fix)m one to three dogs. The cows were 
belled and turned out to range, the horses were belled and hobbled 

♦See article on Torture SUke is Delaware County. 



Reminiscences of James Shoemaker 175 

Each settler could identify the peculiar tinkle of his bells among 
20 others. In the spring of the year we had different kinds of 
tea — tolbit, spicewood, sassafras, and the chips of the sycamore, 
all which made excellent tea for the spring of the year. While 
home-made sugar lasted, store tea, sugar and coffee were not in 
common use. From 181 5 to 1823 there was many a young 
housewife who could spin, weave, cut out, and make her husband 
a decent suit of clothes that did not know how to make a cup of 
store tea or coffee. * ♦ ♦ ♦ When I was a boy six or seven 
years old I heard my uncle say that after dancing with a large 
Dutch girl the night before, he took a seat on a three legged stool 
and invited her to take a seat on his knee. She did so. ' He 
gently laid his arm around her shoulder, when she turned her 
head and looked him full in the face. Half affrighted and half 
delighted she said: "You hug mine mamma; she is bigger as I.** 
I will now give another instance where the lady thought she 
was big enough, but the change was lacking. One morning Esq. 
Jones saw a young gent ride up with a young lady behind him. 
They dismounted; he hitched his horse and they made for the 
house and were invited to be seated. After waiting a few minutes 
the young man asked if he was the * squire. He informed him 
that he was. He then asked the *squire what he charged for 
tieing the knot. "You mean for marrying you?** "Yes sir.** 
"One dollar,** says the 'squire. "Will you take it in trade?** 
"What kind of trade?" "Beeswax.** "Bring it in.'* The young 
man went to where the horse was tied and brought in the 
beeswax, but it lacked 40 cents of being enough to pay the bill. 
After sitting pensive for some minutes the young man went to 
the door and said, "Well, Sal, let's be going." Sal slowly 
followed to the door, when turning to the justice, with an 
entreating look, she said: "Well *Squire, can't you tie the knot 
as far as the beeswax goes anyhow, * * and so he did, and they 
were married 

I moved Jo Putnam county October 25, 1839. At that time 
Floyd township was as thickly settled, except in Groveland, as 
at present. There were then (1839) 240 taxpayers; now there 
are 262 in the township. ♦ ♦ ♦ * When we commenced 
growing wheat it was sown in the com among the standing trees 






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Torture Post in Delaware County 177 

By inquiring through the columns of the Indiana Farmer, the 
present writer elicited three communications that contained 
considerable interesting information touching the all but forgotten 
tradition of the old torture post, and these we reproduce in the 
order in which they appeared in the Farmer. 

Mr. Cartwright. 

At the suggestion of friend George S. Cottman, of Irvington, I 
would with your permission add my testimony in regard to that 
old Indian stake in Delaware county. Sometime in the summer 
of 1 841 or '42 father, mother and myself visited relatives then 
living in Yorktown, a small village about five or six miles west of 
Muncie. On our return home, then in Union county, Indiana, 
we were accompanied by Israel Shoemaker, brother of the late 
James Shoemaker before referred to, who was well acquainted in 
the viciuity, and when about half way from Yorktown to Muncie 
he pointed out to us the historic place now under consideration. 
The surrounding grounds were to some extent grown up with 
timber and underbrush, leaving a space of some 25 or 30 feet in 
diameter destitute of any growth except a little grass. The 
stake or post had been about seven or eight feet high and about 
16 or 18 inches in diameter, but had rotted off at the top of the 
ground and fallen down. A much used path led from the road 
to the post. There is no betrayal of memory in the above 
statement. Although many are the years that have come and 
gone, my recollection of the scene is as vivid as those of yesterday. 
As to how late this post was used I am up able to state. 

Isaac Cartwright. 

Fillmore, fnd. 

Mr. Eddy. 

At your request for information about the old Indiana torture 
stake in Delaware county, I will give you and your readers the 
facts as I saw them in the year 1842. In the fall of that year, in 
company with my father and uncle, I journeyed to Delaware 
county from Fayette county. As we arrived within three or four 
miles south from Muncie my father asked me if I wished to take 
a look at the torture stake where the Indians used to torture their 
prisoners. As I was anxious to do so we left the team in care of 
my uncle and walked a short distance south from the main road 
through a beautiful grove of wild plum trees and underbrush. 
No doubt this was the same path that friend Isaac Cartwright 
speaks of. We found the circle with a carpet of fine blue grass 
growing over the ground. The post was lying on the ground in 
the center of the circle on a heap of fine coals. The post I should 
suppose had been about eight feet high from the ground. About 



i8o The Indiana Magazine of History 

Historic Houses and Personages of Centerville 

By Mrs. Hblbn V. Austin 

i^From papert of the Wayne County Historical Society) 
WHITBWATBR COLLBGB. 

THE history of Whitewater College, founded by the Methodist 
Episcopal church in 1853, might fill a volume, but it can 
only be given mere mention here. It was a great school, and 
many prominent men were teachers here, among them Dr. Cyrus 

Nutt, George B. Joslyn, Dr. Edwards, H. N. Barnes and Prof. 
A. C. Shortridge. 

Previous to the establishment of the college, a county semi- 
nary occupied the ground. In 1827 the west wing was built and 
in 1842, when more room was needed, an east wing was added. 
The two buildings were connected by a covered passage way. 
Afterwards, when the college took the place of the seminary, the 
central part of the college occupied the passage way, with the 
former seminary buildings as west and east wings. Rev. Samuel 
K. Houshour taught in the old seminary in the west wing. 
Among the teachers in the east wing, were Miss Mary Thorp, 
Miss Sarah Dickenson and Rawson Vaile. Among the pupils of 
after fame was Lew Wallace, and there are those who remember 
how the future soldier, diplomat and author was once roundly 
flogged by Mr. Hoshour. After the decline of the college, the 
building was sold, in 1870, to the school trustees and became the 
public school building. It was destroyed by fire in 1891 and was 
succeeded by the present fine public school house. At the foot 
of Main Cross Street stands the ruins of a brick school house 
where many of the older citizens received a part of their 
education. 

CHURCHBS. 

The first church organization here was the Methodist Episcopal. 
When the county seat was pulled up by the roots at Salisbury 
and transplanted at Centerville, the Methodist church came with 
it. There * had been no church building at Salisbury, the 
congregation having met in the court house, and prior to the 
building of a meeting house here the congregation met at the 
houses of members. 



Historic Houses of Centerville i8i 

In 1828 a frame church was built. It was situated east of 
where the Christian church now stands and fronted on the east. 
Mr. N. Pdrrott*s stable now occupies the spot where the church 
stood. There was a street north of the county buildings, where 
there is now an alley, which led to the church from the west. 
The parsonage was on the church grounds, west of the church, 
and stood there after the church was torn away. It was moved 
to Walnut street and is now the home of Mr. Dearth. In 1834 
the conference, then comprising the entire State, was held in this 
church, the venerable Bishop Roberts presiding. In the year 
1842 the present brick church was completed. It was at that 
time not only the finest Methodist church in the State, but the 
finest one in the State belonging to any church organization. 
Upon the completion of the new church in 1842 conference was 
again held here. Bishop Simpson dedicated the church and 
presided at the conference. In 1882 the building underwent 
repairs and was re-dedicated by the Rev. A. Marine. 

It must be remembered that although the Friends were not 
the first to form a society in the town, they were the first religious 
society in the the township and organized the West Grove 
meeting in 1813, three miles north west of Centerville, and built 
a log meeting house. Thus the leaven of the old church at 
West Grove, has been leavening ever since. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian church was organized in 1842, 
Rev. LeRoy Woods, officiating. Mr. Woods was the pastor for 
several years and was succeeded by Klam McCord. A Sunday- 
school was organized in connection with the church. For some 
time after the organization, meetings were held in the Methodist 
church. In 1849 the cangregation built a church on the west 
side of north Main Cross Street, which is now the Knights of 
Pythias hall. 

The Disciples or Christian church was organized about 1832. 
A Baptist church had existed earlier. The old meeting house 
was situated some distance north of where the railroad station 
now is. About 1837 the baptist organization disbanded and a 
greater part of the members united with the Christian church. 
The present Christian church was erected in 1878. 

The Presbyterian church was organized in 1866. The first 
services were held in Snider Hall, the present town hall. In 



1 82 The Indiana Magazine of History 

1868 the congregation erected the brick church on south Main 
Cross street. Chief among the zealous members of the church 
was Mrs. Rate U. Johnson, wife of Judge Nemrod Johnson and 
the mother of Henry U. and Robert U. Johnson, and it was 
through her efforts as a solicitor and contributor that the church 
was built. After the removal of the county seat and the decline 
of the town, the church was purchased by the Friends and is 
now their house of worship. 

PUBI^IC HOUSES. 

The early hotels or taverns were important institutions in 
their early days. Rachel Neal is said to have been the first inn- 
keeper. There are people now living who remember Mrs. Neal, 
but where her inn was situated I have not been able to learn. 

The old Major Gay tavern opposite the public square, where 
there is now a livery stable, was fitted up in 1834, by Thomas 
G. Noble, and occupied by him for several years. General 
Samuel DeLong succeeded Mr. Noble for several years. 

In 1830 William Elliott built the frame hotel on the south- 
east comer of the public square, and occupied it until 1835. 
John Hutchinson succeeded Mr. Elliott and kept an excellent 
house. In 1838 Daniel Lashley, with his mother and younger 
brother Alfred, purchased the tavern. Among all the hotel 
keepers of Wayne county none were more favorably known than 
the Lashleys. They continued in the business, in the same 
house, for many years. It was headquarters for many of the 
prominent men of the legal profession. Judge Perry, of Rich- 
mond, always made it his home when attending court. It was 
a home-like, well ordered, excellent hotel. Mr. Lashley was the 
best of hosts. The Lashley house was moved from the public 
square some years ago, to where it now stands, a few squares 
east of the old location. A fine brick residence occupies the site. 
This was built for the sheriff's house, and is now the residence 
of the Frazier brothers and Miss Frazier. The old Lashley 
house is now a private residence. John King was the last to 
keep it as a hotel. In 1833 John Dorsey fitted up the large 
frame building nearly opposite the bank, for a hotel and occupied 
it for some time. He was succeeded by John Allison, Abbott 
W. Bowers and John Winders. Solomon Brumfield bought the 



I 
I 



Historic Houses of Centerville 183 

property and occupied it. Under bis management it was well 
kept. 

In 1837 Henry Rowan fitted up a small tavern east of the 
public square and kept it several years. He afterwards erected 
a tbree-story botel building adjoining, which is now the residence 
of Lloyd K. Hill. 

Samuel Hannah kept the American house, on the south-west 
comer of Main street. He was a merchant, also, and had his 
store in the comer room. Later, the American House was kept 
by Emsley Hamm, T. L. Rowan and others. The building is 
now owned by Simon McConaha. 

The Jones House is the last in the line of the old hostelries. 
The south half was built by Emsley Hamm. The north half 
was built by Daniel Shank. Subsequently Mr. Hamm bought 
the north part from Mr. Shank, and kept a hotel for some years. 
He afterwards sold the house to Dr. C. J. Woods and moved to 
Economy, and upon his retum to Centerville kept the American 
House for two years. Norris Jones who succeeded Mr. Hamm 
gave the name to the house and for several years kept an excel- 
lent, though small hotel. 

Samuel Hannah, although at one time a hotel keeper and 
merchant filled many important places. He was a man of dis- 
tinction. The young people who compiled a Who- When- What 
book,* had some trouble not to confuse him with the other 
Samuel Hanna of Indiana, who lived at Ft. Wayne. There is a 
diflference in the spelling of the name. The Who-When-What 
book gives a brief sketch of our Samuel Hannah: *'A pioneer of 
Wayne county ; member of the Society of Friends ; conspicuous 
for opposition to the collection of the fines from Quakers who 
refused to do military duty. A native of Delaware, bom De- 
cember I, 1789, Mr. Hannah came Indiana as a young man; 
served as sheriff of Wayne county ; amember of the Legislature ; 
was Justice of the Peace and member of the county board ; was 
appointed Post master of Centerville by John Quincy Adams and 
removed by Andrew Jackson, in pursuance of the Marcy 
proclamation, **To the victors belong the spoils.** He was one 
of the commissioners appointed to locate the Michigan road, the 
great highway authorized from Lake Michigan to the Ohio 

*A book of brief biographies compiled by the lndianat>oiis Pifss some years ago. 



184 The Indiana Magazine of History 

river; also a commissionier to sdect the lands to be ceded to the 
State by an Indian treaty. Afterward Mr. Hanna was a member 
of the Legislature and Treasurer of the State; removed to Indi- 
anapolis in 1847 f became interested in railroad construction and 
improvements; was first treasurer of the Indiana Central Rail- 
road Company. He died September 8, 1869. Mr. Hannah 
possessed the rugged elements of strength and manhood which 
qualify men for frontier life; for developing the material resources 
and building a commonwealth on justice and liberty.'* 

The red brick school house opposite to Mr. Lashley's was the 
home of Judge John C. Kibbey, who was so well known here 
and at Richmond. The place is now the home of Mr. Andrew 
Dunbar. 

The brick house on the comer west of the Trumbull residence 
was built by Rawson Vaile, a teacher in the old seminary and 
also a teacher in Richmond. He was a brother of Dr. Joel Vaile, 
of Richmond, a prominent physician and public school trustee, 
after whom one of the school houses of Richmond is named. 

Judge Nimrod Johnson bought the Vaile property and this 
was the Johnson homestead for many years. Here Henry U. 
and Robert U. Johnson spent their boyhood. Judge Johnson 
was not only eminent in the legal profession, but he was a man 
of vast literary knowledge. Mrs. Johnson was Miss Kate Under- 
wood and was a native of Washington D. C. 

The quaint old house, now the home of Mrs. Jennie Savage, 
was in the old time, the Doughty home. Samuel Doughty was 
a merchant. His store was where Jacob Wolfe's is now. Mr. 
Doughty had his home in Richmond in later years, and died 
there about a year ago. 

The house where Mrs. Gibson lives, on Walnut street, was 
the Dill home. It is an old-time place, with colonial pillars to 
the portico. Mr. Dill was a cabinet maker, and went to Rich- 
mond many years ago. 

The large white brick house on north Main Cross street, 
known as the Pritchett property, was built by Judge Williams, or 
rather the south end was, Judge John S. Newman built the north 
end. This was a grand mansion in its day. Judge Newman 
was a Quaker lawyer and for ten years a partner of Jessie Sid- 
dall. He was of the Hoover stock. His wife was Eliza, daughter 



Historic Houses of Centerville 185 

of Samuel Hannah; his daughter, Gertrude, married Ingram 
Fletcher, of Indianapolis. He was the first president of the In- 
diana Central railroad and held many other responsible positions. 
He removed to Indianapolis in i860. Dr. Pritchett bought the 
house of Judge Newman. It was the Pritchett homestead for 
many years. Here Dr. Pritchett and his estimable wife passed 
their declining years. The house was inherited by the daughter. 
Miss Mary Pritchett. 

Opposite the Pritchett house, on the east, is a frame house 
where Jeremiah Wayne Swafford lived the last thirty years of 
his life, and where he peacefully died last summer, at the age of 
eighty-four. Mr. Swafford was a pioneer of Wayne county and 
Justice of the Peace nearly all his life and up to the time of his 
death. He was widely known as a business man in Wayne and 
adjoining counties. 

In the early days, before this large house was built, there 
were two small frame dwellings on the lot. One was the home 
of Rev. Mr. Rupe the father of attorney John Rupe, of Richmond. 
The other frame building was the home for awhile of Dr. Rose. 
His wife Henrietta Rose was a lady of attainment and a writer of 
some note. She was the author of a small volume entitled 
**Nora Wilmot; a Tale of Temperance and Woman's Rights,'* 
published in 1858. The frontispiece is a quaint old wood cut — 
* 'The Ladies' Knitting Party at Tradewells Saloon. ' ' The thread 
of the story runs through that period when Indiana had a 
prohibitory liquor law, which was declared unconstitutional by 
Judge Perkins of the Supreme Court of Indiana. 

James Rariden, one of the eminent men of his time, lived 
where Mrs. James M. Hill now lives. The grounds included 
the lot where the Chirstian Church now stands. A summer 
house covered with vines and flowers and shubbery gave the spot 
an air of rural retreaL But this lovely spot was too much retired 
and Mr. Rariden moved into a brick house on west Main street. 
It was in this house that Mr. Rariden entertained Henry Clay 
when he made his tour through Indiana. A reception was held 
in the evening for the great Kentuckian. The children as well 
as the older people attended. Mr. Clay was very fond of children 
and kissed them all. Mrs. Ensley was then little Sarah Hamm 
and remembers being kissed. Mr. Clay said to little Gertrude 



i86 The Indiana Magazine of History 

Newman, now Mrs. Ingram Fletcher: **My dear, you have a very 
pretty name, but it ought to be pronounced Jertrude." And to 
a boy he said: **You have a very large mouth, but that does not 
matter in a boy." As Mr. Clay had a large mouth this remark 
caused a hearty laugh all round. It was in this house that Mr. 
Clay authorized a committee to offer freedom to his body servant, 
the petted slave Charlie, who decUned to leave his master. The 
house has changed owners several times in recent years and it is 
at present the home of Mr. and Mrs. Joshua Eliason. After Mr. 
Rariden left the rural retreat Rosswell Elmer and wife occupied 
It. They were the parents of Charles N. Elmer and Mrs. James 

Forkner. 

John Finley. the poet, and for many years the Mayor of 

Richmond, when clerk of Wayne county court resided in a small 

house on Plum street, near the Elmer home. The cottage and 

extensive gardens of Mr. E. Y. Teas, the well known florist, was 

for years the home of Henry Noble, who now lives in Indianapolis. 

Two houses on an elevation north of the railroad, always 

attracting attention of travelers, are notable mansions of the olden 

time. The one on- the west was built by Samuel Hannnah. 

James Forkner improved it and occupied it until he removed to 

Richmond. It is now the property of C. L. Porter, and 

the home of Thomas Clark. On the east of this is the mansion 

built by Daniel Strattan. He was a tanner by trade and a 

prominent citizen. Beautiful for situation is the fine old mansion 

south of the railroad, built by Jacob B. Julian. It was the family 

residence previous to his removal to Irvington. On the west of 

Mr. Seaton was the home of Jesse Stevens, a pioneer of Center- 

viile. Mrs. John Paige, of Richmond, and Mrs. Henry Noble, 

olf Indianapolis, were daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Stevens. The 

house is now the home of Mrs. Nichols. A large brick house on 

the south side of Main street, the home of Jesse Brumfield, was 

built by Martin Homish, a shoe-maker and a prosperous citizen. 

Judge Stitt lived where H. H. Peelle now lives, and next, on the 

east, was the home of Judge Jesse Siddall. Farther east on Main 

street is a substantial brick house built by George W. Julian, 

which was the family residence for many years previous to removal 

to Irvington. Dr. Silas H. Kersey bought the property, and 

made it his family residence for several years. It was in this 



Historic Houses of Centerville 187 

house that Dr. Kersey died. It is now the residence of I. L. 
Houck. Opposite, on the north, on the site of the residence of 
George Sanders, stood one of the oldest houses of Centerville. 
Mrs. Rebecca Julian lived there at one time. Her husband, Isaac 
Julian, died arid left her a widow with a family of children. She 
was a sister of Judge David Hoover, a pioneer of Wayne county, 
and the mother of George W. Julian. Across the street to the 
east is the brick house that was long the home of Dr. William F. 
King, deceased. He was an eminent physician and prominent 
citizen. The hotise is now the residence of his daughter, Miss 
Emilie King. North east, on the same square is an old frame 
house, one of the oldest now standing in Centerville. It .was the 
residence of James B. Ray, afterwards Governor of Indiana. C. 
Cooney now resides there. 

On west Main street, where H. C. Means now lives, was the 
residence of Martin M. Ray, a brother to Governor Ray. He 
was a lawyer and a merchant as well. His store was in the 
comer building occupied now by Tillson's drug store. Frederick 
Snider, a merchant, had his store where Mr. King now has a 
restaurant. On west Main street where Bert Homer now lives, 
is the house built by Thomas Gentry, a tanner and one of the 
substantial citizens. Lot Bloomfield built the house where Isaac 
Jenkins now lives. He was a merchant of the place. His wife 
was Blizabeth Talbot, a sister to Mrs. Hamm and Mrs. Dr. 
Pritchett. The Simon McConaha home was built by Dr. Pritch- 
ett, who occupied it before he bought the Judge Newman place. 
The old house with dormer windows, now the residence of Alfred 
Lashley, in the old time was the residence of Henry Beitzell. 
The old Burbank home was on the south side of Main street 
opposite the court house. The house was partially destroyed by 
fire in later years. Mr. Burbank was a merchant. The parlors 
and family apartments were up stairs over the store. The 
Burbank young people were well educated and were prominent 
in social circles. It was in this home that Oliver P. Morton was 
married to Lucinda Burbank. 

Ambrpse Bumside, afterwards a lawyer at Liberty, Union 
County, and a General of renown in the Union army, worked at 
the tailor trade in a building adjoining, and on the site of Dr. 
Gable's residence and oflBce once stood a large hatter's shop 



1 88 The Indiana Magazine of History 

where the boy, Oliver P. Morton, learned his trade. Morton was 
bom at Salisbury. He was left an orphan and brought by bis 
aunts to Centerville when a child, where he learned the trade 
with an older brother. Early in life he attended the seminary 
here and Miami University, at Oxford, Ohio, and was always a 
profound student. The early years of Morton's married life were 
passed in a frame house on the north-east comer of south Main 
Cross street. The homestead known as the Morton mansion, on 
west Main street, was built by Jacob B. Julian. Mr. Julian was 
a tree planter, and his lawn was a landscape garden, where na- 
ture was permitted to rule. When Mr. Julian built his stately 
home near the railroad he sold this Eden spot to Oliver P. Morton. 
Here a liberal and unostentatious hospitality was dispensed by 
Morton and his amiable wife. It was while living in this house 
that Morton was elected Lieutenant Governor on the ticket with 
Henry S. Lane. Judge William A. Peelle bought the Morton 
mansion after his term as Secretary of State expired. Judge 
Peelle died there on July i, 1902. The house is now the home 
of his daughter, Miss Martha L. Peelle. 

Judge Charles H. Test lived on Main street where the town 
hall now stands. Mrs. James Rariden was his sister. It was 
considered that Judge Test, while eminent as a lawyer, was by 
nature preeminent and unequaled. He bore off the palm as the 
homeliest man in Indiana. Adjoining the school-house campus 
on the east is the old homestead of Stephen Crowe, one of the 
early blacksmiths of the place. Mr. Crowe sold the house to 
John Peele, an old settler, and Samuel Boyd, a retired farmer, 
bought the place from Mr. Peele and passed the remainder of his 
days there. The property is now the home of Mr. and Mrs. 
John Lashley. The house on the east, now the residence of 
J. A. Commons, was the home of Sylvester Johnson, now of 
Irvington, and a well-known horticulturist. 

Many do not know that the substantial brick building on the 
north-east comer of Main street was, in the palmy days of Cen- 
terville, the court-house of Wayne county. It is now the busi- 
ness house of T. G. Dunbar, while the extension to the north, 
where Mr. Dunbar resides, was once the sheriff's house and jail. 
The extension on the east was the county offices. 



The Richmond and Brookville Canal 189 

The Richmond and Brookville Canal 

By Jambs M. Millbr 

[As one travels the highway between Richmond and Brookville he may 
find at intervals almost obliterated evidences of an old canal ditch upon 
which no small labor was once expended. The history of this ditch is sunk 
in oblivion — is a chapter lost from the story of internal improvements in 
Indiana. It is not included among the works provided for by the internal 
improvement law of 1836, and ssems to have been taken up by the State 
as a sort of side work in connection with the more prominent "Whitewater 
Canal/' for in the subjoined sketch we are told that the Board of Internal 
Improvements was '*to use the local engineers then employed on the 
Whitewater Canal, and to incur no extra expense for the State. '* It should 
be understood that the said Whitewater Canal, which was completed and 
used, followed the West Fork of the Whitewater river, contributing ma- 
terially to the development of the valley, while the Richmond and Brook- 
ville Canal was to do the same service for the Bast Pork. 

So far as we know there is nowhere else any published account of this 
forgotten enterprise, and no record of the men who promoted it. At our 
suggestion some years ago Mr. James M. Miller, of Brookville, now de- 
ceased, undertook to rescue from various sources the information that he 
has embodied in his article. In this connection Mr. Miller himself is de- 
serving of a brief sketch. An invalid for the greater part of his life from 
ossified joints of the lower limbs, helpless, and dependent almost entirely 
upon the services of a devoted sister, his work of getting at obscure facts 
was sadly handicapped. It was a long and arduous process for him, and 
that he gathered together so much is a monument to his perseverance and 
patience — Ed. ] 

AMONG the first settlements in south-east Indiana were those 
along the fertile valley of the East Fork of Whitewater River 
and its tributaries. The settlers were a thrifty, energetic people, 
and their industry soon produced a surplus. At quite an early 
day flatboats were built at Dunlapsville and yuakertown and 
loaded with the products of the farms, and when a rise in the 
river occured were run out into the current and floated to New 
Orleans. I remember hearing my mother tell of seeing a flatboat, 
in the spring of 1819 or 1820, shoot Bassett's mill dam at Fairfield 
on its way to New Orleans, that had been built and loaded with 
provisions at Dunlapsville by George Newland, father of the 
blind musician of that name, long known in Indianapolis. 

Possessing the push and energy that they did it is no wonder 
that these people were among the first to advocate internal 



190 ^ The Indiana Magazine of History 

improvements. Such improvement was very early agitated and 
by 1834 the scheme for a canal down the Bast Fork began to 
assume form. On August 4 of that year, a meeting was held at 
Richmond to consider the practicability of constructing a canal 
from that city to intersect the proposed Whitewater Canal at or 
near Brookville. This was followed by a meeting in Brook- 
ville to consider the propriety of constructing a canal down the 
East Fork of the Whitewater river from a point in Darke county, 
Ohio, to connect with the Miami Canal at or near Dayton, Ohio. 
On September 12, 1836, a convention of delegates from Wayne 
and Franklin counties assembled at Dunlapsville in the interest 
of the proposed canal. On calling the roll the following delegates 
answered:' Robert Morrison, John Finley, Warner M. Leeds, John 
Ervin, Irwin Reed, Daniel P. Wiggins, James W. Borden, Wm. 
R. Foulke, Alexander Stakes, Basil Brightwell, Achilles Wil- 
liams, Mark Reeves and W. B. Smith, of Richmond; Smith 
Hunt, Frederick Black, W. J. Matchett, Col. E. Rialsback, Jacob 
Hender, Thomas J. Larsh and William Clerick, of Abington; 
William Watt, James Lamb, William Youse, Jesse Starr, T. H. 
Harding, J. F. Chapman, Ladis Walling, Jacob Imel and (xreen- 
bury Beels, of Brownville; George Newland, John Templeton, 
J. W. Scott, Matthew Hughes, Hugh McCoUough, Israel Kirk 
and Bennett Osbom, of Dunlapsville; Redin Osbom and James 
Wright, of Fairfield; Abner McCarty, Samuel Goodwin, William 
T. Beeks, George Kimble, John Ryman, John M. Johnson and 
George Holland, of Brookville. A permanent organization 
was effected. Committees of three from each delegation were 
appointed to correspond with parties residing on the line of 
the proposed canal and notify them of future meetings, and give 
any other information in regard to the enterprise. 

January 27, 1837, the legislature of Indiana directed the Board 
of Internal Improvements to survey and locate early the ensuing 
summer a canal from Richmond to Brookville, to intersect the 
Whitewater Canal at or near the latter place. They were to use 
the local engineers then employed on the Whitewater Canal, and 
to incur no extra expense for the State. Accordingly Colonel 
Simpson Torbet was employed as engineer-in-chief and Colonel 
John H. Farquhar, Thomas Noell, Elisha Long, J. C. Moore and 
M. Dewey, who had been employed on the Whitewater, I presume, 



The Richmond and Brookville Canal 191 

formed the engineering corps of the Richmond and Brookville 
Canal. December 2, 1837, Colonel Torbet made his report to 
the State Board of Internal Improvements, stating that he had 
completed the ''survey and location of a canal down the Bast 
Fork of the Whitewater river, beginning at Richmond, in Wayne 
county, and terminating at Brookville, in Franklin county.*' 

The canal was to be 33^ miles long, 26 feet wide on the 
bottom, and 40 feet at the surface, and to have a depth of 4 feet 
of water. There would be 3^ miles of slack water and 3 miles 
of bluff, requiring riprapping or loose stone protection. There 
was a fall of 273 >^ feet, requiring the following mechanical 
structures: 2 guard locks, 2 aqueducts, 7 culverts, 2 water 
weirs with gates, 16 road bridges, 2 towpath bridges over the 
Hast Pork, 5 dams, and 31 lift locks. The dams were to be 
located at the following points: Dam No. i, one- half mile from* 
Richmond, at the National road, 160 feet long; Dam No. 2, 160 
feet long, 5^ miles from Richmond, near Larsh's mill; Dam No. 
3, 170 feet long, 11^ miles from from Richmond, near Ottis' 
mills; Dam No. 4, 180 feet long, above Fairfield, and 23 >^ miles 
from Richmond; Dam No. 5, 200 feet long, above Brookville 
and 32 miles from Richmond. The locks, each 90 feet long 
by 15 feet wide, were to be located at the following places: No. 
I, one-half mile from Richmond, at the National road bridge; 
No. 2, at Bancroft's factory; No. 3, at Siddle's mills; No. 4, 
McFadden's saw mill; No. 5, Rue*s mill; No. 6, Henderson's 
farm; No. 7, Henderson's saw mill; No. 8, Colonel Hunt's lands; 
No. 9, at Shroyer's farm; No. 10, at Abington; No. 11, at 
Schwisher*s house; No. 12, guard lock where the canal crossed 
the river; Nos. 13 and 14, in Brownsville; No. 15, at Aschenbury's 
saw mill; Nos. 16 and 17, at Adney's lands; No. 18, at Silver 
creek; No. 19, at Newland's, near Dunlapsville; No. 20, at J. F. 
Templeton's lands; No. 21, at Hanna's creek; No. 22, above 
Fairfield; Nos. 23 and 24, at Wolf creek; No. 25, at Robert 
Templeton's farm; No. 26, at John Logan's lands; No. 27, at 
McCarty's farm; No. 28, on school section; No. 29, at Butler's 
land; Nos. 30 and 31, in Brookville. 

The line of the canal followed down the right (east) bank of 
the river for a distance of 1 1 ^ miles, when it crossed over to the 
left (west) bank at Dam No. 3, and followed that side of the 



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The Richmond and Brook ville Canal 193 

of a company was approved, and two committees were appointed, 
one to correspond with our representatives in the ligislature, re- 
questing their influence in behalf of the charter, and the other to 
communicate \^^th towns along the line of the proposed canal. 
In the same month a meeting was also held at Fairfield, of which 
James Osbom was chairman, and Messrs. James L. Andrews, 
James McManus, George W. Thompson and Nathaniel Bassett 
were appointed commissioners, as required in the charter. In 
February of 1839 Warner M. Leeds, secretary of the company, 
published the following notice: 

''Richmond and Brookville Canal Stock Subscription. Books 
for subscription of stock in the Richmond and Brookville Canal 
will be opened by the commissioners on the first day of April, 
1839, and kept open twenty-one days, agreeable to the charter, 
at the following places, viz: Richmond, Abingtoo, Brownsville, 
Dunlapsville, Fairfield and Brookville. The following commis- 
sioners were authorized to have special charge of said books, one 
of whom will attend to each of the following places for the pur- 
pose of receiving subscriptions: — Robert Morrison, Richmond; 
Col. Smith Hunt, Abington; John Rider, Brownsville; Jajmes 
Osbom and James Andrews, Fairfield, and Samuel Goodwin, 
Brookville.*' 

The Richmond Palladium of April 27, 1839, states that 
Franklin, Union and Wayne counties had taken $215,000 worth 
of stock, of which $50,000 was taken by Richmond, the follow- 
ing citizens of that place taking stock: William Dewey, Warner 
M. Leeds, Benjamin Fulgum, James King, Andress S. Wiggins, 
Charles Paulson, John Ogan, Dennis McMullen, Henry Moor- 
man, Caleb Sheren, Irwin Reed, Joseph M. Gilbert, Benjamin 
Strattan, William Owen, Cornelius Ratliff, William Kenworthy, 
John Sufferin, Benjamin Mason, Basil Brightwell, Benjamin 
Pierce, Isaac Jones, Benjamin Strawbridge, Armstrong Grimes, 
Solomon Homey, jr., Jacob J. Keefer. Reuben M. Worth, Wil- 
liam Meek, William S. Watt, John M. Laws, Isaac Beeson, Kas- 
son Brookins, Henry HoUingsworth, James W. Salter, Hugh S. 
Hamilton, Thomas Newman, William B. Smith, Oliver Kinsey, 
Clayton Hunt and Samuel E. Perkins. For the names of the 
stockholders I am indebted to Joseph C. Ratliff, of Richmond. 

Undoubtedly Brookville and Franklin county did their duty 



194 'I'he Indiana Magazine of History 

and were as generous as Wajrne and Union counties or any of 
the towns along the line of "the canal, but after great exertion I 
have learned of but two in the county who took stock in the 
canal. These were Graham Hanna and James Wright. 

In September of 1839 Richmond and Brookville papers con- 
tained advertisements calling for bids for constructing sections 
I, 2 and 3, near Richmond; 13, near Abington; 20, near Browns- 
ville; 40, near Fairfield, and 52, near Brookville. The adver- 
tisement states that the sections to be let '^embrace a number of 
mechanical structures, consisting principally of dams and locks, 
with some heavy bluff excavations." Specifications of the work 
were to be posted at Dr. Matchett's tavern in Abington, Dr. 
Mulford's tavern in Brownsville, Abijah DuBois' tavern in Fair- 
field, D. Hoffman's tavern in Brookville, and ^ at the company's 
office in Richmond. The lettings took place as advertised, ex- 
cept section 52, near Brookville, which, owing to the heavy 
excavations, was not let. I cannot learn of any work done near 
Brookville, but on section 40, near Fairfield, the contractors, 
Henry and Harvey Pierce, excavated about one-and-a-half miles 
of the canal down the east side of the river to the farm now 
owned by Misses Sallie and Missouri Hanna. Traces of excava- 
tion can also be plainly seen on the farm of James Blew. Sec- 
tions I, 2 and 3, near Richmond, were let, and from a mile and a 
half to two miles of excavation made. No use of these exca- 
vated portions was ever%made until i860, when Leroy Larsh 
erected a grist mill on the portion near Richmond, which is yet 
in operation. 

At the "breaking of ground" for the Whitewater Canal John 
Finley, editor of the Richmond Palladium, quoting Moore's 
'^Meeting of the Waters," with changes to suit the occasion, 
said: "The last picayune shall depart bom my fob ere the Bast 
and the West Forks relinquish the job." Whether the last 
picayune departed from the editor's fob or not the present writer 
can not say, but undoubtedly the East Fork relinquished the 
job, and Richmond failed to become the "Pittsburg of Indiana." 



Recollections of Early Brookville 195 

Recollections of Early Brookville 

MS, 0/ John M, Johnson 

[These interesting reminiscences of early Brookville and notable per- 
sonages residing there three-quarters of a century ago are from a manu- 
script submitted to us by Mr. John Johnson, of Irvington, Indianapolis, 
who found it among the papers of his father, John M. Johnson, now de- 
ceased. The latter was for many years a resident of Brookville, and long 
in public life in that city. The manuscript seems to have been written 
about a quarter of a century ago.] 

IT has been fifty years since I crossed the beautiful Ohio river 
and stood upon the soil of Indiana. I pass over my peregri- 
nations until I arrived at the then famed town of Brookville — 
the great town of the State and the residence of its great men. 
The fii:st residence I stopped at in Brookville was that of 
James Noble, then U. S. Senator. His residence was on the street 
west of the public square. It was an humble-looking one-and-a- 
half story log house weather boarded and painted white. Before 
the parlor room door was a portico. The parlor floor was covered 
with a red Turkey carpet (the only imported carpet then in town 
except perhaps at Judge Test's). Before the hearth was a 
handsome rug with the figure of a deer lying down on it. When 
you entered the parlor you met a fine-looking lady above the 
medium size, with a ruffled cap, who attended to the receptions 
at the senatorial mansion — a worthy partner of Senator Noble. 
Mary Noble, Hannah Gallion and Betsy McCarty were among 
the excellent ladies who then resided in Brookville, and who, in 
the exercise of **women*s rights,'* milked their own cows, 
churned their own butter and made their own brooms. 

The old brick court house (which occupied the site of the 
present one) was a square building in the center of which ran up 
a cupola. On the top of the steeple was the carved representa- 
tion of an eagle with spreading wings. Through the court-room 
below ran the bar, made -tight, with two gates to enter. The 
inside was for the lawyers, and the outside, paved with brick, 
was the lobby for the people who came to hear the lawyers plead. 
On the inside were the Grand and Petit Jury boxes. On the 
west side was the judge's bench, raised nearly up to the ceiling. 



196 The Indiana Magazine of History 

A winding stairs ran up in one comer to the upper story, where 
were the Grand and Petit Jury rooms. In the cupc^a was then 
placed a triangle, put up by William Hoyt, an ingenious me- 
chanic, to perform the office of a bell by means of hammers 
striking on the base of the triangle. It gave forth a clear, sharp 
sound which could be heard farther than the sound of a belL 

A little east of the south-east comer of the court house stood 
the old log jail. This necessary edifice encroached near the resi- 
dence of one of the citizens; hence, upon a dark night a number 
of his friends and **divers other persons to the Grand Jurors un- 
known'* concluded they would abate it as a nuisance; hence, in 
the moming not one log was left upon another. Another log 
jail, however, was built near where now stands your **Bumett 
House,** and which afterward performed the office of Grass- 
muck*s stable. This jail was celebrated for having been the 
residence of Fields, an old Revolutionary soldier, who was con- 
victed of murder and pardoned under the gallows by Governor 
Ray, to the great disappointment of a large concourse of people 
who had assembled to witness his execution. No man was ever 
hung in Franklin county. An amusing occurrence of **jail de- 
livery'* took place whilst Robert John was sheriff and jailor. A 
man was confined in jail on a charge of horse stealing. His 
wife visited him and remained with him over night. In the 
moming the prisoner, dressed in his wife's clothes, mounted her 
horse and made his escape. It was afterward found, to the 
amusement of the people, that it was the man who rode away 
and the woman who was left imprisoned. 

The public square was not fenced in except the'* 'stray pen,** 
on the south-east comer. The public well was a little south of 
the south-east comer of the court house. It was over ninety 
feet deep. The water was drawn by means of a windlass. An 
old man whom the people called Death drew water for the pub- 
lic. He was, indeed, the picture of death. 

On the south-east comer of the square, on Main Burgess 
street, stood the '*Brookville Hotel,** the leading tavem for 
many years. Mine host, Robert John then and there catered 
to the way-worn traveler, and if any man could cheer his guests 
by conversation, he was the man. On the comer south of 
the public square was standing the ** Yellow Tavem/* which 



Recollections of Early Brookville 197 

had been built at an early day by James Knight. It was then 
kept by William Campbell, a tall, portly man. The tavern, 
while kept by him, was a place of great resort. He was a 
hospitable man, generous to a fault, and never turned off a 
traveler because he was destitute of money. In the upper part 
of town was J. Adder's tavern, with the sign of the green tree, 
which was a familiar object to the vision of the passers-by for 
many years. This tavern was a great stopping place for wagoners 
and drivers. John Adder was a tall, dark-complected man, and 
universally esteemed. He was once recorder of the county. This 
tavern, when I first came to town, was kept by Dr. Haynes, who 
also taught school in it. 

The newspaper then published in the town was, I believe, 
called the Brookville Inquirer, Robert John was the editor, and 
subsequently there was associated with him I. N. Hanna, a 
sprightly and talented young man. The edit(»^, however, soon 
got at loggerheads. During the ensuii^g presidential canvass 
Robert John was for John Quincy Adams, and I. N. Hanna for 
Henry Clay. An editorial would therefore come out for Adams 
followed by another, signed "Jtmior Editor,*' for Clay; which 
created considerable sensation among the politicians of Brook- 
ville — and, indeed, all the citizens were politicians. 

The old M. E. church was a brick building standing on the 
bluff in tlie northern part of town, and was the only meeting- 
house in town, it was once partly blown down and repaired, 
and is still standing as a monument of olden times. The Rev. 
Agustus Jocelyn, a Methodist preacher, ministered to the people 
in godly things at this church. He was a man of no ordinary 
talents. He was a tall man, about six feet high, bald-headed, 
but wore a wig. ' He had cultivated oratory and had graceful 
gestures, with distinct articulation. His figures were grand, and 
he illustrated his sermons by philosophy, politics and history as 
well as from the Bible. He had generally among his auditors 
the most enlightened citizens of Brookville. He preached the 
sermon at the time Fields wasn't hung. He was also a school- 
teacher and an editor. 

The college at which I graduated was an hnmble frame build- 
ing in the east bottom, which had been a residence and is still 
standing. Dr. Isaac G. John was then the teacher. The old 



198 The Indiana Magazine of History 






teachers that the citizens still talked of and whose memory they 
revered were Judge Laughlin and Solomon Allen. Dr. John 1 

afterwards became a promising physician, but died in the morn- 
ing of life. 

The land office at that time was at Brookville for the sale of 
the U. S. lands in the New Purchase, and the land sales were 
then going on. Gen. Robert Hanna was register. He resided 
in the large brick house in the northern part of town (called 
**Tinker Town*') in which Dr. Berry now resides. His office 
was immediately opposite him on the west side of the street* 
Gen. Hanna in stature was a little below medium size; was a 
man of talents and a good electioneerer; dressed plain, frequently 
on election day appearing with moccasins and hunting-shirt. He 
was a delegate to the convention that framed the Constitution in 
1 8 16, and was the first sherifiF under the Territorial and State 
governments.* When the land office was taken to Indianapolis 
he removed there, and afterward held several official stations with 
credit. He continued to reside at or near Indianapolis until he 
met with his melancholy death by a railroad car. 

Lazarus Noble was the receiver of public monies. His office 
was in the large brick building immediately east of the court 
house, which belonged to the Masonic lodge. He was a tall, 
handsome man, with agreeable manners, and a brother of Sena- 
tor James Noble. He married Margaret Vance, the accomplished 
daughter of Capt. Samuel Vance, of Lawrenceburg. When the 
land office was removed he died, on his way to Indianapolis, at 
Judge Mount*s, about ten miles from Brookville.f 






I 



MILES KGGLESTON. 

When you entered the old brick court house which I have 
described the first objects that struck your attention were three *j 

men on the elevated judges* bench. In the center you beheld a 
good-looking gentleman, rather below the middle size, with a 
good head, leaning a little to one side; with ruffles protruding 
out of his bosom; well-dressed but a little disposed to slovenliness. 
This was Miles C. Eggleston, President Judge of the Third Ju- 
dicial Circuit. He was appointed President Judge at the organic 

*The fir^ sheriff of Franklin county, Mr. Johnson doubtless means. 

tAt the town of Metamors. , 



I 
I 



Recollections of Early Brookville 199 

zation of the State government, and held the office for over 
twenty-one years. He was a Virginian, and migrated to Brook- 
ville during the territorial government. He had a liberal educa- 
tion, was a good Latin scholar, and indulged the habit of quoting 
Latin among the bar. He was admitted to the bar under the 
territorial government. He was not a great advocate before a 
jury but was eminently qualified for a judge. 

On either side of the President sat a plain- looking farmer 
(we then had two associate judges) — on his right hand David 
Mount, and on his left John Hanna. They had such implicit 
confidence in the legal abilities of Judge Eggleston that they 
scarcely ever differed with him in opinion. Judge Hanna, how- 
ever, sometimes took the responsibility of differing with him. 
When he did so he always cited Judge Grimke, of South Carolina 
(Judge Hanna being from that State). Judge Eggleston was 
justly regarded as one of the best judges of the State. His 
charges to the jury were clear and clothed in fine language, and 
were listened to with the utmost attention by them. He was as 
pure and upright a judge as Lord Hale. The people of the 
county had such confidence in him that they would quote his 
decisions before those of the Supreme Court. He was looked to 
in those days with the same veneration as the late Judge Mc* 
Donald during the present. He presided in a number of prose- 
cutions for murder in which were engaged the most eminent 
cotmsel of the day, and his decisions were regarded with the 
highest respect. 

Judge Eggleston was a man of fine literary attainments. He 
wrote well. He once delivered a Pourth-of-July oration at 
Brookville which was published and considered by the literary 
men of the day as a fine specimen of eloquence. He never en- 
gaged in politics. When off the bench he enjoyed himself among 
his friends, was excellent company and enjoyed a good joke. He 
was kind and indulgent to the young members of the bar, and 
seemed to court their society, and they would try a case with 
great confidence before him, even when opposed by old attorneys. 
He observed the utmost decorum and impartiality in court. He 
made the lawyers keep their places. There was no slipping to 
the judge and holding a private conversation — no leading lawyers 
leaning on the judges' seat. The attorneys had to address the 



4 

200 The Indiana Magazine of History 

judges publicly from their places at the bar. 

ENOCH M'CARTY. 

In front of the judges* bench stood a large table, and at this 
table sat Enoch McCarty, clerk of the Franklin Circuit Court. 
He had been clerk under the territorial government, was re-elect- 
ed upon the organization of the State government, and continued 
to serve for three successive terms of seven years each. He was 
regarded as the best clerk in the State. I was his deputy for 
several years. He was in stature about the medium size; a plain 
man; dressed plain; was easily approached, and was popular 
with the masses. He was familiarly called **'Nuch" McCarty. 
He was a man of good information, had read Blackstone, under- 
stood the general principles of the law, and was well versed in 
the statutes. The people, consequently, called on him for ad* 
vice. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 
1816. After retiring from the clerk's office he served as associate 
(judge?), and senator and representative to the State legislature. 
He died at a good old age, beloved by the people of the county^ 
on his farm below Brookville. 

NOAH NOBLE. 

At the righl of the clerk, below the * 'judgment seat,'' sat at 
a 9tand a talU fine-looking man» dressed in black cloth, with a 
white neckerchief tied behind, rising gracefully, occasionally, to 
call Richard Roe and dispense orders to his bailifis, Alex. Gard- 
ner, Jo. Grentry and others. He was fascinating in his manners, 
had a talismanic shake of the hand and was personally one of the 
best electioneereis in the couaty. Indeed, it was a common say- 
ing that whenever he shook hands with a man he had hinCi — I 
might say a woman too. He would be a great electioneerer if 
he were living when the women vote. He wrote such an illegible 1 

hand that he couldn't read it himself when it got dry. A man 1 

once brought in a letter he had written to him for him to read. 
He couldn't read it till he fotuid out what subject it was on. 
The man I have described was Noah Noble, sheriff of Franklin 
county afterward Governor of the State of Indiana. He also 
filled the offices of Representative to the State Legislature, I 

Receiver of Public Moneys at Indianapolis, and Canal Commis- 
sioner. He died in the city of Indianapolis, much beloved. 






An Eacrly Cnbmnal Case 201 

An Early Griminal Case— Samuel Fields 

By Jambs M. Miller 

[In the article immediately preceding reference is made to '*Fiel4a, an 
old Revolutienary soldier,*' who was condemned to death for murder but 
was pardoned on the gallows by Govemor James B. kay. The case was 
once a well-known one in sonth-eastem Indiana. The following account 
of it, and the graphic description of the scene at the gallows was written , at 
our instance, by James M. Miller of Brookville («ee introductory note to 
"The Richmond and BnxAville Canal.*') It afibrds gUmpae^ of early-day 
customs and of local persona^pes. The crime, trial and pardon on the 
S^ows occurred between November of 1824 and May of iSis—Ed,} 

IN November of 1824, an affidavit was fikd againat one Samud 
Kields, an old Revolutionary soldier residing in Bath township, 
charging him with aasault, and the warrant was placed in the 
hands of a young cosstabte named Robert Murphy. When 
Murphy went to serve the warrant Fields refused to accompany 
bim, but said he would appear the next morning, and on 
returning home without aialdng the arrest Robert was criticised 
by his father, 'Squire Samuel Murphy, who urged that this was 
bis first official act, and the fiailure to do his duty would at once 
lay him open to the charge of cowardice and inefficiency. 
Influenced by this argument Robert returned to Fiekl's home, 
accompanied by several neighbors. Meanwhile Fields*, apparently 
expecting that he would return, whetted a large butcherkniie 
and stuck it in a crack of the log wall just inside the door. 
When he saw Murphy said bis companions coming, he appeared 
at the door, warning them to keep away. The constaUe, 
however, continued to advance, talking persuasively to the (Ad 
nan, who still warned htm off. Just as he set his foot on the 
puncheon, which formed the doorstep. Fields snatched the knife 
from the logs where it was sticking and plunged it into Mtuphy's 
left side, after which be slammed the door to. Murphy fdl, 
mortally hurt. Ten days later he died,, to the tmiversal sorrow 
of his neighbors, who esteen^d him highly. 

The Grand Jury, consisting of James Osbom, David Watacm, 
Joseph Schooncver, Henry Pay, Andrew Jackson, James Jones. 
Nathan Springer, Henry Slater, John Blue, Matthew Karr, Allen 
Simpson, John Ewing, John Halberstadt, Charles CoUett and 
Thomas Hemdon met and found the following indictment : 



202 The Indiana Magazine of History 

'*We find that the said Samuel Fields, not having the fear of 
God before his eyes, but being moved and seduced by the insti- 
gations of the devil, did then and there, on the third day of 
November, eighteen hundred and twenty-four, with a butcher- 
knife, worth the sum of twenty-five cents, in his own right hand, 
thrust, stab, etc., the said Robert Murphy, causing the death of 



same.** 



Field's trial came off in March of 1825, in the Franklin 
County Circuit Court, of the judicial district. Judge Miles C. 
Hggleston presiding, with John Hanna and David Mount as asso- 
ciate judges. Oliver H. Smith was prosecutor, and William T. 
Morris and John T. McKinney attorneys for the defense. The 
jury consisted of Thomas G. Noble, Abraham Hollingsworth, 
John Caldwell, Elijah Carben, Bradberry Cottrell,(?) David 
Moore, Solomon Allen, Enoch Abraham, John Davis, Lemuel 
Snow, Matthew Gray and Henry Berry — some of the best men 
in the county. The most damaging testimony against the de- 
fendant was by his own daughter, a Mrs. Thompson, who testi- 
fied with tears running down her cheeks. The verdict brought 
in was ''Murder in the first degree," and Judge Eggleston sentenc- 
ed Fields to be hanged, appointing Friday, May 27, as the date. 
There was a remarkable division of sentiment about Fields. No 
one denied his criminality, and the community where Murphy 
had lived, made up of settlers from New Jersey, who were bound 
closely together in their sympathies, were very bitter toward the 
murderer; but the fact that he was a soldier of the Revolution 
made a strong feeling in his favor, and many wished for his 
pardon by the Governor. 

On the day of the hanging Brookville was full of people to 
witness the execution. My mother, then thirteen .years old, was 
in this crowd, and she has described to me the incidents of the 
day. The gallows was a large sycamore tree, that stood on the 
river bank at the foot of Main street, and from which all obstruct- 
ing branches had been lopped away, leaving one large horizontal 
limb for the rope. One other feature was the running-gears of a 
wagon, mounted with a kind of platform. This was to be drawn 
from under the prisoner at the proper time. The grave was dug 
a short distance from this tree. Robert John, father of the well- 
known Dr. J. P. D. John, was the sheriff. With twenty-five 



An Early Criminal Case 203 

deputies armed with flint-lock muskets, and with bands of red 
flannel on their right arms as insignia of authority, he marched 
to the old log jail that stood east of the town hall, brought out 
Fields> placed him on a chair on the platform of the wagon, with 
his coffin beside him, and so conducted him to the place of ex- 
ecution, the deputies forming a guard around the wagon. As 
they took their place beneath the tree the crowd closed in, and 
my mother, who was in the heart of it, was forced up against the 
hind wheel of the wagon, and, though she turned deathly sick 
at the thought of what she was about witness, she could not stir 
from the spot. 

The minister, John Bofflnan,* preached the funeral sermon, 
and one of the hymns sung was *'Show Pity, Lord! Oh, For- 
give!". Then the sheriff pinioiied the arms of the prisoner, 
placed the noose around his neck and the black cap on, ready to 
be drawn down, and, with tears running down his cheeks, as- 
cended a ladder to the limb above and fastened the rope. When 
he came down he took his station beside Fields, with his watch 
in his hand, and solemnly prodaipied that the condemned man 
had twenty-three minutes to live« A man named Walter Rolf 
had charge of the horses that were hitched to the wagon. At 
the expiration of the time he arose, drew the lines and cracked 
his whip, and the horses surged fon^'ard, causing the wagon to 
move a little, which tightened the rope, drawing the prisoner up 
until he sat erect. 

Just then there was a shout that a man was coming down the 
hill, and all attention was drawn in that direction* It proved to 
be Governor Ray who, dressed in the uniform of a general of the 
Indiana militia, had ridden on horseback all the way from Indi* 
anapolis. Making his way through the crowd he ascended the 
platform and placed a roll of paper in Fields' hand, sa3ring: 
•'Here, I give you your life.** 

Amid shouts of approval from some and execrations fix>m 
others Fields decended from the wagon and was taken in charge 
by his friends. He left the county, going first to a place near 
Hamilton, O., and finally to Crawfordsville, Ind«, where he died 
a few years later. 

•John M. JohnaoB, on p. 197, amy Angustns Jocelyn ptrmched tttla semioii. Btoc 
where, we believe, Mr. MiUer spenks more drcnmiUntUilljrof Boflbinn a« the preacher. 



2P4 The Indiana Magazine of History 

The Whitewater Valley 

THE Whitewater region, with which the four preceding arti* 
cles are concerned, comprising the valley of the Whitewater 
river with its two branches, extends from the Ohio river north- 
ward for nearly half the length of the State, with a width vary- 
ing from twelve to twenty-five miles. In pioneer times it was 
familiarly known as '*The Whitewater," and the frequency with 
which it is alluded to in the local literature of those days reveals 
its then importance. 

This territory has, indeed, claims to distinction. There, it 
may be said, Indiana practically had her beginnings. There lay 
the first strip of land that marked, in Indiana, the oncoming 
tide of the white man's progress westward— the first overlap 
from Ohio, which grew, cession by cession, west and north. 
There sprang up some of our most important early centers of 
population — Lawrenceburg, Brookville, Connersville, Richmond, 
and others; there resided, at one time or another, a remarkable 
number of men who have made their impress upon the State's 
history or on the world at large, and thence came waves of mi- 
gration that have spread over the State. This immigration has 
supplied an important element of the population in not a few 
localities. Indianapolis, for example, in her first days was so 
nearly made up of people from Whitewater and Kentucky that 
a political division, it is said, sprang up along the sectional line, 
and these two classes were arrayed against each other in the first 
local campaign, with Whitewater leading. Long after that they 
continued to come from the cities mentioned above and interven- 
ing localities, and the number at the capital to-day who look 
back to the Whitewater as their old home is surprisingly large. 
Madison, also, in her growing, hopeful days, drew good blood 
from this center, and over the State generally, and beyond its 
borders, the same is true. 

Of the men of mark who have hailed from the Whitewater 
Brookville and Franklin county alone lay claim to perhaps half- 
a-hundred, the most notable of whom I find named and classified 
as follows in the columns of a Brookville paper: 

GovBRNORS — ^James B. Ray, Noah Noble, William Wallace 



The Whitewater Valley 205 

and Abraham Hammond, Governors of Indiana; Will Cumback, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Indiana; Lew Wallace, Governor of New 
Mexico; John P. St. John, Governor of Kansas; Stephen S. 
Harding, Governor of Utah; J. Wallace, Governor of Wyoming. 
Nominated for Governor of Indiana, but defeated: J. A. Matson, 
Whig, and C. C. Matson, Democrat, father and son. 

United States Senators — ^Jesse B. Thomas, from Illinois; 
James Noble and Robert Hanna, from Indiana; John Henderson, 
from Mississippi. 

Cabinet Officers and Foreign Ministers, etc.— James 
N. Tyner, Postmaster General; James S. Clarkson, Assistant 
Postmaster General; Lew Wallace, Minister to Turkey; Edwin 
Terrell, Minister to Belgium; George Hitt, Vice-Consul to Lon- 
don; L. T. Mitchener, Attorney -General of Indiana. 

Supreme Judges — Isaac Blackford, John T. McKinney and 
Stephen C.Stephens. It is cited as the. most remarkable in- 
stance on record that in these three men Brookville had at one 
time, the entire Supreme Bench of Indiana. 

Writers Educators and Ministers^— Lew Wallace, 
Maurice Thompson (bom in the county), Joaquin Miller (bom 
in the county), and a dozen or more of local, fame; J. P. D. John, 
(formerly) President DePauw University, Wm. M. Dailey, Presi- 
dent Indiana University, L. B. Potter, President Glendale Col- 
lege, R. B. Abbott, President Albert Lea College, Charles N. 
Sims, Chancellor Syracuse University, S. A. Lattimore, Professor 
Chemistry Rochester University, E. A. Barber, Professor in Uni- 
versity of Nebraska, C. W. Hargitt, Professor in Syracuse Uni- 
versity, Francis A. Shoup, Professor in University of Mississippi, 
J. H. Martin, President Moore's Hill College; Rev. T. A. Good- 
win, Rev. Charles N. Sims, and Rev. Francis A. Shoup. 

Art — William M. Chase, painter; Hiram Powers, sculptor. 

Science — James B. Eads, civil engineer, constructor of the 
great bridge at St. Louis, and of the jetties at the mouth of the 
Mississippi river; Amos W. Butler, omithologist and ethnologist 
now Secretary of the State Board of Charities. 

Military and Naval Officers — Gen. Lew Wallace, 
Gen. Ambrose E. Bumside, Gen. Francis A. Shoup, Gen. Jos. 
E. Johnson, Gen. P. A. Hackleman; Oliver H. Glisson^ rear ad- 
miral, and William L. Hemdon, commander, U. S. N. 



2o6 The Indiana Magazine of History 

A few of the above, perhaps, had but slight relations with 
this region, but allowing for this the output of able men is still 
remarkably large. If, from Franklin county, we look northw^ard 
to Connersville, Centerville and Richmond, we find other men 
whose services and fame are well known within the State, and, 
in not a few instances, far beyond its borders. In this galaxy are 
Oliver P. Morton, George W. Julian, Oliver H. Smith. Caleb B. 
Smith, Charles H. Test, James Rariden, Samuel W. Parker, 
Samuel K. Hoshour, and other men notable for calibre. Many 
of these were gathered at Centerville during the time it was the 
seat of justice of Wa3me county, but with the removal of the 
courts to Richmond they dispersed, a goodly proportion of them 
finding their way to Indianapolis, beckoned thither, doubtless, by 
the promise of a larger field for their talents. 

The shiftings of the prominent men to and from the White* 
water are, indeed, something of an index to its fluctuating for- 
tunes. Thus, many of the more notable names of Brookville 
were identified with it only during brief eras of prosperity in- 
duced by extraneous causes, and when these lapsed those who 
were on the track of opportunities sought pastures new. For 
example, one of the most flourishing periods in the history of the 
town began in 1820, when the lands in the interior of the State 
as far north as the Wabash were thrown open and the land office 
established at Brookville. As all purchasers of lands in this vast 
new tract visited the land office not only with their purchase 
money but with the presumable surplus of travelers^ the great 
impetus to the town's prosperity and growth may easily be con- 
ceived. For five years, fed by the visiting thousands, the place 
throve, and the men who were drawn thither made it a political 
and intellectual center. Then the question of removing the 
office to Indianapolis, as a more central location, was agitated. 
It was bitterly opposed by Brookville citizens, who had an un- 
concealed contempt for the little, insignificant * 'capital in the 
woods," buried in miasmatic solitude and surrounded, as James 
Brown Ray said in one of his pompous speeches, by "a boundless 
contiguity of shade." Nevertheless, the despised and ague- 
ridden capital got the land office; the fortune-seekers of Brook- 
ville betook themselves elsewhere like migrating birds, and then 
followed a period of sorry decadence, during which houses over 



The Whitewater Valley 207 

town stood vacant and dilapidated; all business languished; 
money became all but extinct, and there was a reversion to the 
communistic method of exchanging goods for goods, or goods 
for labor. 

This paralysis lay on Brookville and the surrounding country 
until the schemes for internal improvement, agitated throughout 
the twenties and for one-half of the third decade, began to take 
definite and practical shape. About 1833, according to Mr. T. 
A. Goodwin, there was a revival of life in the Whitewater; people 
began to paint their houses and mend their fences, and deserted 
houses began to fill up. The internal improvement act of 1836 
provided for the construction of **the Whitewater Canal, com- 
mencing on the west branch of the Whitewater river, at the 
crossing of the National road, thence passing down the valley of 
the same to the Ohio river, at Lawrenceburg, and extending up 
the said west branch of the Whitewater above the National road 
as far as may be practicable. ' ' This was a promise of commercial 
prosperity and a new lease of life to the Whitewater region. The 
day that the contracts were let at Brookville for building the 
various sections of the canal there was a grand jollification- - 
speechmaking, dinner, toasts and all the rest; and a like enthu- 
siasm prevailed in all the valley. Towns sprang up along the 
proposed route and lay in wait, and as the canal, crawling north- 
ward, reached them successively, making one and then another 
the head of navigation, each flourished and had its day, drawing 
to itself the wheat and hogs and other agricultural exports from 
the inlying country for many miles east, north aUd west. This 
great trade, of c^^urse, always sought the nearest point of 
shipment, and so Brookville, Metamora, Laurel, Connersville and 
Cambridge City were, in turn, receiving ports and reaped the 
benefits of traffic. The people on the east branch, not to be out- 
done by their neighbors on the west, also strove energetically 
for a canal between Brookville and Richmond that should pro- 
mote the development of this valley, and, though the work was 
never completed, much labor and money was expended upon it.* 

The old canal days are a distinct era in the history of our 
State. The younger generation knows little about them, but 
many a reminiscence might be picked up of the merchant fleets 
of the Whitewater and the idyllic journeyings up and down the 

•See article in this number on the Richmond and Brookville CanaL 



2o8 The Indiana Magazine of History 

beautiful valley by packet. This order of things, which continued 

for about thirty years, was maintained in the face of serious 

discouragements, for the Whitewater river, one of the swiftest 

streams in the State, is subject to violent freshets, and these have 

repeatedly damaged the canal, effectually stopping traffic and 

entailing heavy expenses in repairs. The great flood of 1847 all 

but ruined the ditch, and scarcely was this recovered from when 

another proved almost as disastrous. Besides these checks on 

traffic untold thousands of dollars have been lost by the sweeping 

away of mills and other property, and, in the opinion of many 

old citizens, these disheartening losses has caused much of the 

exodus away from the valley. 

The lower part of the Whitewater valley, with Brook vi lie as 

its center, lies today aloof from the trunk railway lines that have 

been the great determining factor in the development of the 

country. But if it lacks the bustle and growth of some other, 

newer sections of the State, it has another and a different attrac 

tion that is rare in Indiana — the attraction of great natural beauty 

of landscape combined with quiet idyllic charm and pleasing re- 

minders of the past. The disused bed of the old Whitewater 

Canal and its crumbling stone locks are grown with grass. Grass 

grows in the peaceful thoroughfares in and about the villages of 

Laurel and Metamora, and in these villages and in Brook ville 

quaint and weather-worn houses speak of a past generation of 

builders. Our artists have already discovered the picturesque- 

ness of the region, and some of Indiana's abundant literary talent 

might well find inspiration here before it is too late. Before it is 

too late, we say, for in the new era that is coining in, when the 

power of swift rivers is to be transformed into the mechanical 

powers of progress, is it not possible that history may repeat 

itself along the rushing Whitewater, and that the electric-driven 

mill and factory and electric transportation may restore to the 

valley much of its old-time standing? 

G. S. C 



The Beginning of Brookville 209 

The Beginning of Brookville 

[In the many newspaper ardclea about Brookville (a kind of history 
that is far from reliable, but which, unfortunately, is almost the only kind 
we have of this famous town), there are various and discrepant statements 
as to the founding of the place. The following, written for us by Mr. 
Amo< W. butler, grandson of the principal founder, we submit as the most 
reliable account procurable — Ed.] 

AMOS Butler, a young Quaker from Chester county, Penn- 
sylvania, came to Lawrenceburg in 1803. He selected some 
land in the **Big Bottoms,** near Elizabeth town. The next 
spring, upon his return from Pennsylvania, he fotmd his chosen 
homestead under water. In the course of his prospecting in the 
summer of 1804 he made his way along the Indian trail up the 
Whitewater river to the site of the present town of Brookville. 
Greatly pleased with the beautiful region at the forks of the 
river he selected the southeast quarter of section 20, being influ- 
enced by the fact that it had little large timber on it. The sec- 
ond growth was doubtless that which occupied an old Indian 
clearing. This land was entered at the land office at Cincinnati, 
December 4, 1804, beings the first entry of land within the limits 
of the future town of Brookville, and Amos Butler was the first 
settler of that town. That winter he busied himself with plans 
for developing the new region. He and Jesse B. Thomas, of 
Lawrenceburg, afterwards a U. S. Senator from Illinois, and the 
author of the historic "Missouri Compromise," were associated 
together in the plan to form a new town. July 3, 1805, they 
entered the north-west quarter of section 29. For this Mr. But- 
ler paid the greater part of the purchase money, but Thomas 
succeeded in having the patent issued in his name. On this land 
the original plat of the town of Brookville was laid out August 
8, 1808. The sale of the lots was deferred through legal pro- 
ceedings taken by Amos Butler. He later agreed to a compro- 
mise settlement by which he was deeded part of the land in 
consideration of the payments he had made. The first lot in this 
addition was sold March 7, 1811. In the meantime John Allen, 
on July 6, 1805, entered the quarter -section east, and Amos But- 
ler, on March 18. 1806, entered the quarter-section north of the 
original plat. Both these settlers laid out additions to the town, 
and both these additions are dated May 26, 18 12. 

Mr. Butler remained at Brookville until 18 18, when he re- 
moved to Hanover, Jefferson county, and there, in a little old 
graveyard, is buried Brookville*s first settler. 

Amos W. Butler. 



2IO The Indiana Magazine of History 

Beecher's Indianapolis Church 

^ I ^HIS building, which stood until recent years on the north- 
^ west comer of Circle and Market streets, Indianapolis, was 
the last of the earlier church buildings of the city. In its latter 
days it was given over to diverse and secular uses, the varied 
small industries in its dingy cubby-hole rooms sharing the parti- 
tioned interior with an art school and a school of music. To the 
younger generation it was familiarly known as **Circle Hall," 
and most of the heedless multitude did not know that the old 
relic had been intimately identified with the pastorate of the 
most brilliant and famous preacher connected with the history of 
the town — that for seven years those venerable walls had echoed 
to the ringing messages of the most eloquent of modem divines. 

Henry Ward Beecher came to Indianapolis from Lawrence- 
burg in 1839, in response to the call of a newly- formed congre- 
gation that had withdrawn from the First Presbyterian church 
of this city.* The young pastor preached in the county semi- 
nary for something more than a year, or until the new church 
built a home for itself. This was the building we are speaking 
of, which, on October 4, 1840, was dedicated as the Second Pres- 
byterian church of Indianapolis. Here Mr. Beecher preached 
until September of 1847, when he removed to Brooklyn, N. Y. 

According to a newspaper sketch written when the building 
was razed, the cost of the church and ground was $10,000. The 
church was built by Ephriam Colestock for $8,800 — a stracture 
of some pretentions at that day, when the population of the city 
numbered only 2,692. It is described as having, originally, 
lofty pillars in the front and a cupola — features that were re- 
moved when it ceased to be a church. 

After Mr. Beecher* s day the pulpit was occupied by the fol- 
lowing pastors: The Rev. Clement E. Babb, May 7, 1848 until 
January i, 1853; the Rev. Thornton A. Mills, January i, 1854 
until February 9, 1857; the Rev. George P. Tindall, August 6, 
1857 until September 27, 1863; the Rev. Hanford A. Edson, 
January 17, 1864 until removal, in 1867. 

^he founders of the Second Presbsrterian churcfa, fifteen in number, are given as 
Bethuel P. Morris, Daniel Yandes, Luke Munsell, Lawrence M. Vance, BCary J. Vance, 
Sidney Bates, William Bckert, Alexander H. Davidson, Robert Mitcfaell, J. P. Holt, 
M. R. Holt, John L. Ketcham, Jane Ketcham, Wm. S. Hubbard and Catherine Merrill. 



Beechers Indianapolis Church 21 x 

After the removal of the church to its new edifice on the 

comer of Vermont and Pennsj'lvania streets the old building was 

used for the housing of the city's high school, then in its first 

days, and it thus served for about three years, or until the new 
high school building was erected on Pennsylvania street. 

Mr. William S. Hubbard, one of the first members of Mr. 
Beecher's congregation gives the following reminiscences of the 
famous pastor and the old church. '1 was one of the organizers 
of the church," he says, **and I boarded with Mr. Beecher in 
1840, when he lived in a ode-story brick cottage at the southeast 
comer of New York and Pennsylvania streets, .the Mte afterward 
known as Govemor Morton's residence. More than that, in the 
early days of the church, I lived next door to it, and carried the 
key to the belfry, for there was a bell in the old pepper-box 
steeple, which was not only rung to call people to church, but 
to sound the alarm of fire. That was in the days of the volunteer 
fire department, and the Marion engine company, of which I was 
a member, had its engine-house, within the Circle, across from 
the church. During the Morgan raid, persons came to my house 
to get the keys to ring the old bell and alarm the citizens as to 
the approaching raiders, but it was then badly cracked, and it 
was not rung. I remember the baptism of Gen. T. A. Morris. 
It was in 1842, and took place in White river. Several others 
were baptized at the time, and Mr. Beecher gave choice of three 
modes — immersion, sprinkling or pouring.'* 

The late Simon Yandes said of Beecher: '*He was admirably 
adapted to western life, entering into all the social life and en- 
gagements of the little town. He had a special talent for con- 
versation, was full of wit and fun, and always had his faculties 
in immediate command. It was but a little while after his com-^ 
ing until he knew everybody here. It is greatly to be doubted 
if he improved in his oratorical style when he became older — ^he 
was probably at his best here in Indianapolis. My recollection 
is that among his varied accomplishments he included that of 
being a good shot with the nfle. 



2IO The Indiana Magazine of History 



A Word from the Publisher 

THIS nutnber completes the first volume of the Indiana 
Quarterly Magazinb of History. It was launched one 
year ago as an experiment/ and was prefaced by an article setting 
forth good reasons why the experiment should be made. The 
need of a publication which should preserve material and aim to 
promote interest in local history was unquestionable, but whether 
such a publication would meet a **felt want" was a thing to be 
determined at some risk and sacrifice. The undersigned, encour- 
aged by the friendly and disinterested co-operation of Mr. W. E. 
Henry, the State Librarian, assumed that risk. 

The magazine has been maintained thus far at no financial 
profit and in the face of difficulties that made impossible the 
editorial care that should have been bestowed upon it ; hence it 
has been, mainly, an omnium gatherum of scattered matter that 
seemed worthy of preservation. On the other hand it has started 
as auspiciously, perhaps as could have been expected. It has 
gained some warm, friends who think, with the publisher, that its 
existence is amply justified, and that its possibilities warrant its 
maintenance, even though it gain recognition slowly. Henoe, 
it will be continued. Its usefulness and the enlargement of its 
sphere will be in proportion to the support that is necessat^ to 
all service that requires labor and application. The publisher 
asks your co-operation to the extent of one or more subscriptions. 
With a variety of interesting unpublished matter in the way of 
old documents and special historical studies promised him he 
feels safe in saying that Volume II will be well worth the dollar 
asked for it. As the expenses of publication have to be met 
promptly, prompt remittance from subscribers will be greatly 
appreciated. 

Mr. Henry's name will no longer be connected ^th the 

magazine and all communication^, both business and editbrial, 

may be addressed as below. 

Georgb S. Cottman. 

J36 North Riiter Ave,, 

Indianapolis, Ind, 



INDEX 

Indiana Quatierly Mi^axime of History^ VoL I 

Anderson, John B. (Bdncator) — Emma Carteiam 8i 

Artist, Barly (George Winter) iii 

Asbory College, Baxly Da3r8 at ai 

Beecher's Church in Indianapolis 210 

Biography: John Brown Dillon, 4; John B«. Anderson, Sx; 
George Winter, iii; Prances Siocum, 118. 

Bibliography: Works on Indiana History, 3^ Indiana 
Newspapers in State Library, ^; An Indiana Bibliog- 
raphy, 103; The Howe Collection, 134. 

Book Notices : The New Harmony Movement, 157J Address 
on the Pottawattomie Indians, 160; L. Maaonkuckee, 
161 ; David Hoover Pamphlet, 1^. 

Brookville, Recollections of Eariy 195 

Brookville, Criminal Case at«-8amuel Fields aoi 

Brookville, Notable Men of 20$ 

Canals: Wabash, 126; Richmond and BrookriUe, 189; 
Whitewater, 207. 

Centerville, Historic Houses of^Mrs. Htien^ V, AmHn .... 180 

Dillon, John Brown (with Portrait) 4 

Eggleston, Miles (Sketch of) 198 

Fields, Samuel (description of gallows scene) ...... . . aoi 

Polk-Speech in Indiana— Am/ L. Hawotih and O, G, S. ... 163 

Games of Moccasin and Bullet 17 

Gibson, John, Some Letters of 128 

Godfh>y, Gabriel, Story from 19 

History : Works on Indiana^ 3(S: On the Teaching of, 46; 
Local Historical Societies, 98. 

Hoosier: Two Pictures (poems by John Pinley and J. W. 
Kiley), 56; Ori^ or the Word (J. P. Dunn*s theory)> 
86; The Primitive Hoosier '.humorously described). 96. 

Howe Collection, The 134 

Indiana: Laws of^ 27; Libiary of, 33; Works on, 36; News- 
papers of in State Library, 42; Bibliof^phy of, 103; 
Betsy Ross Descentants in, 136; Revolutionary Soldiers 
in, 138; Seal of, 151; Polk-speech in, 163. 

Indiana University Forty Years Ago— />^. Amzi Atwaier . . . 140 

Indianians, Some Self-made 153 

Indians: Towns of in Marion County, 15; Games of Moc- 
casin and Bullet, 17; Story from GaSriel Godfrov, lo; 
Frances Siocum — Description of, 115. Sketch o^ 118; 
Removal of the Pottawattomies, 160; Torture Post, 176. 

Journal of John Tipton (Commissioner to locate Capital) . . 9 and 74 

Library of the SUte— »^. ^. /^^fy 33 

Laws of Indiana— 19^. W. ThcmUm 27 

Lake Steamer of 1852 15^ 



Majdnkuckee Lake, the Name of i6i 

McCarty, Bnocb (Sketch of) aoo 

Monistown, a Pleasing Custom of 150 

Noble, Noah (Sketch of) 300 

Owen, Robert Dale, Memorial to iqS 

Old Settler's Meeting, the First 169 

Putnam County, Revolutionary Soldiers in 68 

Relics the SUte Should Own 133 

Reminiscences by^ohn W. Ray, 31; Joseph P. Brown. 23; 
BUzabeth McClay, 107; Prof. Amd Atwater, 140; Jas. 
Shoemaker, 173; John M. Johnson, 195. 

Revolutionary Soldiers in Putnam County 68 

Revolutionary Soldiers in Indiana ... 138 

Richmond and BrookviUe Canal 189 

Ross, Betsy, Descendants of in Indiana 139 

Seal of Indiana, The 151 

Secession of Dixie (story) 52 

Self-Made Indianians, Some 153 

Shoemaker, John, Reminiscences of ...... ; 173 

Sketches of BrookviUe Men i97-3cx> 

Slocum, Prances, Description of . . 115 

Slocum, Prances, Sketch of 118 

Tipton, John, Journal of ( 1820) 9 and 74 

Taverns, Barly 79 

Torture Post, Indian, in Delaware County 176 

Wabash, The, and Its Valley 59 and 123 

Wajrne, Anthony, Exhuming of 67 

Whitewater Valley, The .... 204 

Winter, George, Barly Artist (with Portrait) iii 



THE INDIANA QUARTERLY 
MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 



VOLUME II 
1906 



CBO. S. COTTMAN 

BIHTOR AMD PUBUSHBR 

imXAMAPOUS 




ed by the Ute Ignatius Brown. 



THE INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Voi„ II MARCH, 1906 No. 1 

THE OLD INDIAN TRADERS OF INDIANA 

BV CHARLES B. LASSELLE 

[This av nt of the early traders of Indiana was written nearly fifty 
years ag'o by Charles B. Lasselle, of Lo^ansport, now eighty-five years 
old. He is of a French family of traders that has been identified with the 
Wabash ralley for more than one hundred and twenty-five years, and has 
himself been a life-loug* student of the earlier history of the valley and a 
collector of documents bearing* upon the same; hence he speaks as an au- 
thority upon this all-but-forgotten early trade. — Editor.] 

OF the early pioneers of our State, there is no class whose his- 
tory, if known, would be more interesting than that of the 
old Indian traders. Far in advance of the progress, changes and 
improvements of civilization, they beheld our country in all the 
wildness, grandeur and solitude in which the Grod of nature 
placed it; and they commingled freely and familiarly with the 
aboriginal owners who have forever disappeared from its face. 
In point of time, they were among the first, if not themselves 
the first, of the explorers of the country, and are known to have 
visited and traded with the Indians within our borders about a 
century previous to our Revolutionary War. They have always 
occupied a prominent position in the early historical events of 
the country, as a controlling medium in the relations between 
the whites and Indians. But although — whether French, 
English or Americans — they have generally been men of educa- 
tion and generarintelligence, yet such have been the peculiar 
nature and vicissitudes of their calling, that they have left us 
very few records of their experience. 

The earliest traders were French, and came mostly from Mont- 
real, in Canada. From this place they transported their mer- 
chandise up the St. Lawrence and across the shores of the Lakes, 
to their posts in the West, by means of the simple canoe. At 
first, and before the introduction of horses, the difficulties of 
passing Niagara Falls and the portage between the head waters 



2 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

of the streams running into the Lakes and the Mississippi were 
surmounted by carrying the canoes and merchandise by means of 
the men employed in the voyage. The Normandy horse, whose 
descendents have long been known as the Canadian and Indian 
ponies, having been introduced into Canada, was afterwards, and 
probably about 1720, brought to the West, and made to serve as 
pack-horses for all land transportation. And such were the 
principal modes of transportation in the West, at least in Indiana, 
from about 1680 to about 1812. The Canadian cart, samples of 
which are yet to be seen about the old French settlements, had 
indeed been used about the villages in the early day; but there 
being no roads of any length, other than the narrow Indian 
trail, they could not be used for distant transportation. 

We can scarcely realize, at this day, the extent to which the 
Indian trade was carried on, both in the amount of goods sold, 
and the furs and the peltries received in exchange. When the 
country was first visited by the traders, the animals affording 
these commodities were found in gre^t abundance. The Buffalo 
ranged in large numbers over the prairies of Illinois and those 
of our own State bordering on the Wabash, as well as in the 
forests in the vicinity of the salt springs. The Beaver, the re- 
mains of whose dams are yet to be found in many parts of the 
State, especially in the northern portion, was to be found in 
many of the northern streams. The Beax, Elk, Deer, Panther, 
Otter, Wolf, Wildcat, Fox and Raccoon, were also to be found 
in considerable numbers in various portions of the State. The 
Indians not having any weapons with which to take these ani- 
mals but the simple stone-headed arrow, nor any clothing but 
the rude elk or deer skin, the introduction of the gun and mer- 
chandise by the traders, soon afforded both parties a rich har- 
vest. And although the amount of furs produced was after- 
wards very much diminished by the destruction of game, yet it 
still continued large for a long time; and the trade yet yielded 
the traders large gains so late as about the year 1838, when the 
principal body of the Pottawattamie tribe of Indians emigrated 
west of the Mississippi. 

It is perhaps impossible to state, at this distance of time, who 
was the first trader within the limits of our State, or when or 
where he traded. It is quite probable, however, that the northern 



INDIAN TRADERS OF INDIANA 3 

portion was traversed by some of their clerks, called ^'^ couriers 
des bais*^ (woods rangers,) between the years 1660-70; and it 
is certain that some of La Salle's men traded in the vicinity of 
the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, in the year 1680. But the 
first of whom we have any definite account was the Sieur 
Juchereau, Lieutenant General of Montreal, who, we are told, 
established a trading post *'on the Wabash," in the name of a 
company, for the collection of buffalo skins. There has indeed 
been some doubt as to the locality of this spot; but, coinciding 
with Judge Law in his address to the Vincennes Histofical 
Society, 1839, for the reasons therein given, together with 
others, and especially the coincidence of its date of settlement 
with that of Vincennes, as given by its ancient inhabitants,* 
the writer deems it conclusive that the town of Vinceiines is the 
site of this trading post. 

The Sieur Juchereau arrived at this spot, at the head of thir- 
ty-four Canadians, on the 28th of October, 1702, for the purpose, 
as mentioned, of trafficking for buffalo skins, and such was his 
success in the trade that in a little over two years afterwards 
there were collected at the post, at one time, upwards of thir- 
teen thousand of those skins, t How many had been collected in 
the meantime and shipped off, is unknown. The establishment, 
however, soon met with disasters. Juchereau died; and, al- 
though he was succeeded by another, a Mr. Lambert, yet the 
hostilities of the Indians forced them to abandon it as a trading 
post, and Lambert with forty men descended to Mobile — then the 
headquarters of Louisiana — in the winter of 1705. The above 
mentioned number of skins having been left at that post, they 
were neglected by the agents of that company, and were event- 
ually lost.t 

For a long while after Juchereau's settlement at Vincennes, 
we have no particular account of any other; although there 
must have been traders soon afterwards — at least by 1721 
— at the village of St. Joseph, § Ke-ki-ong-a, We-ah-ta-non 
and Vincennes; as the three former places were well known to 

•DiUoD's Hittorieal Notes, p. 100. 

'fCertoinly a Tery interesting statement, in Tlew of oor meager knowledge of the boilalo 
in Indiana.— iMOor. 

tLa Harpe*s Historical Joomal, pik 75, 88-89. 
ONear the i>resent town of Sonth Bend. 



4 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

the early French writers,* and the latter had also become a mili- 
tary post in I7l6.t 

Of those who traded at the above named and other points, 
from Juchereau^s time until the date of Governor Harrison*s list 
of 1801-2, the following only are known to the writer: — 

At ViNCENNES, Antoine Drouet de Richardville traded previ- 
ous to the year 1764; but how long before is unknown. He had 
also traded, many years before, at Kaskaskia; and a promissory 
note, in the possession of the writer, which was given to him in 
the manner of those times, might be produced here as an ancient 
writing, and as the earliest specimen of the commercial paper of 
of the West, known, it is believed, to the public. It reads thus: 

*'I, the undersigned, under my ordinary mark, owe to Sir 
de Drouet Richardville the sum of thirteen livres in beaver or 
other peltries, which I promise to pay in the course of the year 
seventeen hundred and thirty-nine. At Kaskaskia, April 21, 
1738. his 

Witness: Dbla X Vigoibr. 

M. P. Beaubien." mark. 

John Bt. Bosseron traded at the same place (Vincennes) 
about 1760 to 1780; Francis Bosseron and Ambrose Dagenet 
from about 1775 to about 1790, and John M. P. Legralle, 
Adhemer St. Martin and Lawrence Bazadone, at times embraced 
in the latter periods. Two of these traders. Major Francis 
Bosseron and Col. J. M. P. Legralle (usually spelled Legras), 
also took a prominent part in the Revolutionary scenes about 
Vincennes in 1778-9, and rendered very valuable services in the 
American cause. There was a Piankashaw village adjoining 
this place, but the trade also extended to other tribes. 

At KE-Ki-ONG-A,t Joseph Drouet de Richardville, the father 
of the late Chief of the tribe, traded from about 1750 to about 
1770; Peter F. La Fontain traded from about 1775 to 
1795; John Beaubien traded during the same period; James 
Lasselle traded from 1776 to 1780. This individual having been 
an officer in the Canadian militia, was appointed to the superin- 
tendency of this '*post" as an agent of Indian affairs, and re- 

•Charlevoix, p. 189. 
fLa Harpe, p. 123. 
tWhere Ft. Wayne stands 



INDIAN TRADERS OF INDIANA 5 

sided here with his family; but he was forced to abandon it pre- 
cipitately on La Balme^s expedition in the fall of 1780. David 
Gray, as one of a company, also traded here about the year 1786. 

At Wb-ah-ta-non, Francis, Peter and Nicholas Berthelet, 
three brothers, traded from about 1776 to 1780. A Mr. Piett 
also traded here at an early period, but the precise time is un- 
known. This place is said to have been a very early trading 
point, and Captain Croghan, who visited it in 1765, says of it in 
his journal, that *Hhe great plenty of furs taken in this country, 
induced the French to establish this post, which was the first on 
the Wabash; and by a very advantageous trade, they have been 
richly recompensed for their labor." 

At KE-NA-PE-KA-BfB-KONG-A, or EJel River town, an old Miami 
village on Eel River, about six miles above the present town of 
Logansport, there were also traders at an early period. But the 
only one now known was James Grodfrey (father of the late 
War Chief of the tribe), who traded from about 1775 to 1791, 
when the village was destroyed by General Wilkinson. 

Besides those above mentioned there were many other traders 
at these and other places, and at other periods of time; but per- 
haps the above meager list is all that can now be furnished of the 
individuals. 

TRADERS LICENSED BY GOVERNOR HARRISON. 

I have in my possession a list of Indian traders that were 
licensed by Governor Harrison in 1801-2. The original docu- 
ment is in the handwriting of John Rice Jones, who acted as 
amanuensis for John Gibson, then Secretary of the Territory. 

Nearly all in this list had traded with the Indians previous to 
this date and continued to do so afterwards. They are as fol- 
lows, as given in the original: 

Licenses granted by the Governor to Indian traders: 

1801 — November — . One to Todd to trade with the 

Delawares on Blue River, where the road to Louisville crosses 
that river, (Note 1). 

20th. One to Ambrose Dagenet to trade with the Miami na- 
tion at their town of Terrehaute, (2). 

26th. One to L'Espagnol to trade with the Delaware 

nation at their town of Packangahelis, (3). 



6 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

27th. One to Henry Mayrans to trade with the Miami nation 
at their town of Terrehaute. 

27th. One to Le Claire to trade with the Kickapoo na- 
tion of Indians at their town, (4). 

27th. One to Francis Bonins to trade with the Potawatimie 
nation at their town of Quinquiqui, (S). 

27th. One to Thos. Lusby to trade with the Kikapoes at 
their town. 

27th. One to Jno. Bt. Petrimean to trade with the Delaware 
nation at their town of Mississippi, (6). 

27th. One to Francis Lafantazie to trade with the Potawat- 
imie nation at their town of Chipaille, (7). 

28th. One to William Morrison to trade with the Indians in 
the neighborhood of Kaskaskia, (8). 

30th. One to Etienne Bisayon to trade with the Delaware 
nation at their town of Telipockshy, (9). 

30th. One to Antoine Lasselle to trade with the Delaware 
nation at their town of Nantico, (10). 

30th. One to Antoine Lasselle to trade with the Delaware 
nation at their town of Grand Marias, (iO). 

30th. One to Louis Boure to trade with the Potawatimie 
nation at their town of Coeur de Serf, (11). 

30th. One to Hyacinth Lasselle to trade with the Miami 
nation at their town of Massissinoui, (12). 

30th. One to Baptiste Boismier to trade with the Delaware 
nation at their town of Chatagnier, (13). 

30th. One to Benoit Besayon to trade with the Potawatimie 
nation at their town of EJel Creek, (14). 

30th. One to John and William Conner to trade with the 
Delaware nation at their town of Petchepencues, (IS). 

30th. One to John and William Conner to trade with the 
Delaware nation at their town of Buckengelaus, (15). 

December 4th. One to Baptiste Bino to trade with the Pota- 
watimie nation at their town of Tippiconon, (16). 

4th. One to Baptiste Toupin to trade with the Kikapoe 
nation at their town. 

4th. One to Francis Meilleur to trade with the Kikapoe 
nation at their town of Vermillion. 

5th. One to Charles Johnson to trade with the Miami nation 
at their town of Terrehaute. 



INDIAN TRADERS OF INDIANA 7 

8th. One to Peter Thorn to trade with the Delaware nation 
at their town on the Ohio river, opposite the town of Henderson, 
in the State of Kentucky. 

12th. One to Frederick Fisher to trade with the Delaware 
nation at their town of Buckengelis. 

12th. One to Frederick Fisher to trade with the Shawnee 
nation at their Old Town, (17). 

12th. One to Samuel Harrison to trade with the Cherokee 
nation at their town of Massac, (18). 

12tlu One to Michael Brouillet to trade with the Miami 
nation at their town of Renaud, (19). 

12th. One to Louis Severs to trade with the Miami nation 
at their town of Little Wabash, (20). 

12th. One with Jos. Dumaj to trade with the Delaware na- 
tion at their town of White River Ferry. 

15th. One to Germain Charbonneau to trade with the Miami 
nation at their town of Chipaille. 

15th. One to Jannet Pillet to trade with the Delaware nation 
at their town of White River. 

1&02 — ^January 7th. One to Joseph Numonville to trade with 
the Ottowa nation at their town of Machekigon, (21). 

7th. One to Joseph Bailey, to trade with the Ottowa nation 
at their town on the Grand River, (22). 

7th. One to Joseph Pirigaure, to trade with the Potawatimie 
nation at their town of Kiakiki, (23). 

7th. One to Joseph Machard, to trade with the Potawatimie 
nation at their town of Kiakiki, (24). 

7th. One to Joseph Ricard, to trade with the Ottowa nation 
at their town of Grand River, (24). 

7th. One to Etienne Lamorandiere to trade with the Pota- 
watimie nation at their town Kickalimazo, (24). 

7th. One to Peter Prejan, to trade with the Potawatimie and 
Ottowa nations at their town on the River St. Joseph, (25). 

7th. One to John Griffin to trade with the Potawatimie na- 
tion at their town of Kiakiki, (25). 

The above list comprises the most of those who traded within 
the present limits of the State, for some years previous to its ter- 
ritorial date and until the commencement of hostilities in 1811; al- 
thoug'h there were some others afterwards licensed by Grovemor 



8 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Harrison and by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs at Detroit. 
The war of course put a stop to the trade during* its continuance; 
but on its close in 1815, it was resumed — generally by new traders 
— to a much less extent. The old traders, as before remarked, 
having* with great unanimity taken up arms for the protection 
of the frontiers ag'ainst the Indians, the survivors had too 
much lost the confidence of the Indians to make it pleasant or 
profitable to resume the business. 

At Port Harrison it was resumed in 1815, mostly with the Del- 
awares, Pottawattamies, Shawnees and Kickapoos, and wils con- 
tinued at that point until about 1820. The principal traders here 
at that period were Pierre La Plante, Etienne Bisayon, Wal- 
lace, Anthony Lafons, Gilbert, Rollon and Michael 

Brouillet. About this period the Shawnees, Kickapoos and Del- 
awares removed from the limits of the State, except a few of the 
latter near the eastern boundary, leaving* only the Pottawattamies 
and Miamis, with whom the trade was continued in the north- 
ern portion of the State — the former mostly inhabiting the coun- 
try on the Tippecanoe, the Kankakee and the St. Joseph rivers; 
the latter that on the Wabash, Eel, the little St. Joseph and the 
the St. Mary rivers. 

John B. Richardville, the late Chief of the Miamis, traded 
with that tribe, at Fort Wayne, from about 1815 to 1836. 

David Conner traded mostly with the same tribe, at the village 
on the Mississinnewa, from about 1^15 to 1846. 

Alexis Coquillard and John E. Swartz traded with the Miamis 
and Pottawattamies, on the Little St. Joseph, about forty miles 
from Ft. Wayne, from 1817 to 1821. 

Coquillard and Francis Comparet traded — the former at South 
Bend with the Pottawattamies; the latter at Ft. Wayne with the 
Miamis— from 1821 to 1835. 

John B. Duret, as agent of the American Fur Company, trad- 
ed, mostly with the Pottawattamies, at a spot on the southern 
bank of the Wabash, a short distance above the mouth of Rock 
Creek, in Carroll county, from 1820 to 1823. 

(^eorge Cicott traded with the Pottawattamies, at a villag'e of 
that tribe on the north bank of the Wabash, nearly opposite the 
last named place, from 1820 to 1823, and then till 1827 on his re- 
serve near Georgetown. 



INDIAN TRADERS OF INDIANA ? 

EJdward McCartney traded with both tribes, on the north and 
south banks of the Wabash, about a mile below the present 
town of Logunsport, from about 1820 to 1828. 

Hollister and Hunt traded, mostly with the Miamis, at Ft. 
Wayne, from about 1820 to 1828. 

John B. Godfrey and James Peltier traded at the same place, 
during* about the same period, as the last named. 

William G. and Georg^e W. Ewing, brothers, traded at the 
same place, from 1822 to 1828, and continued the trade after- 
wards — the former at Fort Wayne till 1845, and the latter at 
Log'ansport till 1838. 

John D. Doure traded at Fort Wayne from 1822 to 1838. 

Barnet and Hanna traded at the same place from 1824 to 1828. 

Hanna and Hamilton traded at the same place from 1825 to 
1830. 

John B. Jutrace traded with the Pottawattamies at a spot about 
three miles southwardly of the present town of Plymouth, from 
about 1825 to about 1835. 

David Burr traded, mostly with the Miamis, at the site of the 
present town of Wabash, from 1826 to 1839. 

John McGregor, with the same tribe, at Miamisport, near the 
present town of Peru, from 1827 to 1834. 

Jesse Vermilya, with the same tribe, at the river Aboite, in 
Allen county, from 1827 to 1844. 

Hugh B. McKeen, with both tribes, at the present town of Lo- 
gunsport, from 1827 to 1828. 

Antoine Gamelin and Richard Chabert, mostly with the Pot- 
tawattamies, about a mile below the same place, on the north 
bank of the Wabash, during about the same period. 

Joseph Barron, mostly with the same tribe, a short distance 
below Logansport, from 1827 to 1838. This trader had com- 
menced life among* the Indians on the Wabash, mostly as a clerk 
for the traders at an early day, and acted as an able interpreter for 
the Grovemment for a period of more than forty years. He was 
one of the interpreters at the celebrated council at Vincennes, 
in 1810, between Tecumseh and Governor Harrison, and is said 
to have contributed much to their reconciliation by correctly 
giving the langtiag'e of Tecumseh, which had been misinter- 
preted by another. His biography alone, if fully written, would 



10 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

furnish a very interesting* chapter in the history of the country, 
as would indeed many of those already named; but a brief ref- 
erence, only, can be made of them in this short sketch. 

Chauncy Carter traded with both tribes at Logunsport from 
1828 to 1830. 

Francis D. Lasselle traded with the Miamis on White River, 
and at Ft. Wayne, from 1828 to 1836. 

Allen Hamilton and Cyrus Taber — the former at Fort Wayne, 
the latter at Logansport — traded with both tribes from about 
1828 to 1838. This firm, and that of W. G. & G. W. Ewing, above 
mentioned, carried on the trade much more extensively than 
any other of the modem traders, and by means of its profits 
and dealings in lands amassed much wealth. 

Charles Conway traded with the Miamis, at Miamisport, 
near the present site of Peru, from 1829 to 1832. 

Henry Ossem and Richard Chabret traded with the Potta- 
wattamies at Turkey-creek Prairie, in Kosciusko county, from 
1830 to 1835. 

William S. Edsall, with the Miamis, at Huntington, from 
1834 to 1837. 

Alexander Wilson with the same tribe, at Peru, from 1834 to 
1845. 

Daniel R. Bearss, with the same tribe, at the same place, from 
1834 to 1857. 

Moses Folk, with the same tribe, at the same place, from 1839 
to 1857. 

James T. Miller, with the same tribe, at the same place, from 
1836 to 1857. 

The Pottawattamies having been removed to the west of the 
Mississippi, in the year 1838, and the main part of the Miamis 
in 1845, the trade has been gradually diminishing since the for- 
mer period, so that now it is confined in a limited extent to the 
Miamis, who inhabit their reservations in the country lying 
south of the Wabash, between the towns of Peru and Fort 
Wayne. Indeed it may be said that the Indian trade proper, 
that is, the traffic with them for furs and peltries, has ceased to 
exist since the part removal of the Miamis, — a tribe which, as 
they were the first known inhabitants of the country embraced 
within the limits of the State, are the latest survivors of all 



INDIAN TRADERS OF INDIANA 11 

their red cotemporaries, and which, by their general good char- 
acter and condition, bear testimony that they have not materially 
degenerated by a long intercourse with their ancient friends and 
patrons, the old Indian Traders. 

NOTES. 

1. Nothing known of this trader. The locality of his trad- 
ing place would be in Washington county, near the town of 
Fredericksburg. 

2. This Terrehaute was inhabited by the Weah branch of 
the Miamis, and was situated near the present town of Terre 
Haute, which was named after it. 

3. Properly Buck-ong-a-he-las, so called after the chief of 
the Delawares, on the head waters of White river, and probably 
near the present town of Muncietown. The true name of this 
trader is believed to be Simon; that of L'Espagnol [Span- 
iard] being a nickname. 

4. Nothing known of this trader. The Kickapoos had several 
villages on and near the Vermillion rivers in Vermillion county. 
This was probably the principal one, in which the Chief resided, 
who was called by the traders Jose Renard [Joe the Fox], the 
same who led the attack on Ft. Harrison in 1812. 

5. Kankakee, on the river of that name; but its location 
unknown. 

6. This place is supposed to have been on the Mississippi, in 
Lower Illinois, as the Delawares also inhabited that part of the 
country. This trader afterwards traded at Chepaille. 

7. This trader continued to trade here until his death in 1806. 
This place, pronounced Shepoy, was on the Wabash river, in 
Warren county, about a mile above the present town of Indepen- 
dence. 

8. Kaskaskia, Illinois. 

9. The locality of this place is unknown. He afterwards 
traded at Fort Harrison in 1815-20. 

10. An old trader on the Miami of the Lake. These places 
were in Ohio. 

11. This trader afterwards (from about 1803 to 1809) traded 
at Ft. Wayne, and kept pack horses and a warehouse for the de- 
posit and transportation of merchandise and peltries in transit 
at the portage between the Miami and the Wabash. The local- 



12 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

ity of Coeur de Serf, properly Coeur de Cerf [elk's heart], was 
on the Elkhart river. 

12. This trader (late Gen. H. L., of Logansport), was bom 
at the village of Ke-ki-ong-a in 1777, from which, as before men- 
tioned, his father was obliged to flee on La Balme's expedition 
in 1780. He returned to the Wabash in 1795, and traded at Che- 
paille, at the mouth of the Little Vermillion, at Mississinnewa, 
and at Vincennes. This trading place (Mississinnewa) was at 
the settlement or village of the late Chief Godfrey, a few miles 
above Peru. 

13. This trader and his trading place are both unknown to 
the writer. 

14. An old trader; he also traded with the Miamis in 1807. 
When the hostilities commenced with the Indians in 1811, nearly 
all the traders offered their valuable services as scouts or soldiers 
in the defense of the country. Mr. Besayon, having with others 
joined Colonel Hopkin's expedition up the Wabash in 1812, was 
in the detachment of about seventy mounted men which fell into 
the ambuscade of about 500 Indians in the ravines of the Wild 
Cat, called by the survivors '*Spur's Defeat" (about seven miles 
northeastwardly from the present town of Lafayette). He was 
captured in the retreat by the Indians, who, well knowing him, 
and regarding him as a kind of traitor to them, condemned him 
at once to the most cruel of deaths — the faggot and stake. 
They bound him to a tree, piled combustible material about him, 
to which they set fire, and were proceeding to enact the scenes of 
triumph and torture usual upon such occasions; but a young war- 
rior who yet regarded him with affection, and desiring to relieve 
him from so horrid a fate, hastily snatched up a rifle and shot 
him dead. Eel creek, on which he traded, is now the Eel river 
which empties into White river, but the locality of his trading 
place is unknown. 

15. John and William Conner, brothers, were old traders, and 
were prominent men in their day. William, especially, rendered 
much service as interpreter and otherwise at several treaties 
with the Indians. Petchepencues was probably intended for 
IVnceaupichou, or, as sometimes called, Ponce-passu, the old 
name of Wild Cat creek, on the head waters of which some of 



WILD ANIMALS OF INDIANA 13 

the Dela wares lived.* The other village is, properly, Buck-ong* 
a-he-las, before mentioned. 

16. This village of Tippecanoe was on the Wabash, a few 
miles below the mouth of the Tippecanoe river. 

17. The site of the present Shawneetown, on the Ohio, in 
Illinois. 

18. In Massac county, Illinois. 

19. This trader traded in 1804 with the Kickapoos on the 
Vermillion, and at Fort Harrison after the war. It is suggested 
that the name of this trading place thus given is a mistake, 
and should read Renard, a Kickapoo village, so called after their 
Chief, [Note 4.] 

20. Nothing known of this trader. His trading place was 
on what is now called Little river, a head stream of the Wabash. 

21. In the present State of Michigan. 

22. Also in Michigan. 

23. Kankakee. 

24. In Michigan. 

25. The St. Joseph of Lake Michigan. 



WILD ANIMALS OF INDIANA. 

Apropos to Mr. Lasselle*s article on the old fur traders, the 
editor recalls a small account book and a number of other papers 
that came to his notice some time since. These records, dated 
1859, were left by A. B. Cole, of Noblesville, an agent who pur- 
chased of local trappers and transferred his peltries to the 
Ewing fur company, of Port Wayne. What animals contrib- 
uted to this branch of commerce, together with their compara- 
tive numbers and values, is shown by these old leaflets, of which 
the following is a sample: 

Invoice of furs and peltries sold Bwing, Walker & Co., by 
Conner, Stevenson & Cole: 

*Mr. LasMlle em here. The Cooner trading poet wae on White riTer, four milee below 
the praeent site of Nobleerille.— iPciitor. 



14 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

2795 First lot raccoon skills $1,871 00 

184 Second lot raccoon skins 89 00 

259 Third lot raccoon skins 46 62 

102 First lot fox skins 76 50 

18 Second lot fox skins 7 00 

48 First lot wildcat skins 36 00 

3 First lot wolf skins 1 50 

943 First lot deer skins 707 25 

112 Winter and towhead skins 35 00 

75 Spotted fawn skins 15 00 

802 First lot mink skins 601 50 

182 Second lot mink skins 68 25 

142 Third lot mink skins 17 75 

1 Cub bear skin , 2 50 

1 Second quality fisher skin 1 00 

13 Otter (best) skins 104 00 

Total $3,679 87 

According to this invoice, raccoon, deer and mink skins were 
considerably in excess of any other kind. The deer hair was of 
little use, the value being in the skin, which was extensively 
utilized for wearing apparel and other purposes. The raccoon 
and similar furs were largely made into felt and used for a 
species of hat which went by the name of beaver. 

How abundantly our forests teemed with fur-bearing animals 
will be apparent when we reflect that for nearly a century and a 
half the fur trade, with its insatiable demands, invaded the ter- 
ritory and carried on the process of extermination. During the 
French occupancy pirogues of the Canadian wood-rangers car- 
ried hence untold thousands of bales of skins. After them the 
Mackinaw Company, the American Fur Company and John 
Jacob Astor extended their traffic into this region, drawing to 
Detroit and Canada, by way of the Wabash, vast quantities of 
beaver, otter and other less valuable peltries. Yet later (in the 
twenties) the houses of G. W. and W. G. Ewing were estab- 
lished at Fort Wayne and Logansport, and these houses, extend- 
ing their agencies through the State, assumed considerable pro- 
portions. These two brothers are said to have amassed fortunes 
that aggregated about two million dollars. 

The persistency with which many of the native fauna clung 
to their once wild haunts long after civilization supplanted the 



WILD ANIMALS OF INDIANA 15 

wilderness is worthy of note. In Indiana wolves have been 
reported from various localities within the last few years; the 
Canadian lynx has been killed in Tippecanoe and Montgomery 
counties within the last twenty years; wildcats were occasionally 
seen in Franklin county as late as 1869, and doubtless much 
later in some parts of the State; a bear was found in LaGrange 
county in 1876, and deer have been seen much later. The same 
is true of the otter and the badger. The red fox is still hunted. 

The late George W. Pitts, of Indianapolis, who during the 
thirties and forties trapped and hunted extensively along White 
river, has stated to the writer that the larger and rarer animals 
were driven out of Marion county and the adjoining territory at 
a comparatively early date. Wolves, he said, had disappeared 
by 1835; the latest bear he knew of was seen in 1838; his father 
shot a catamount about 1828. The latter animal was very rare 
at that date, but wildcats remained until the early forties. Deer 
were shot as late as 1847; porcupines he remembered seeing in 
1835; beavers, once plentiful here, according to him, were ex- 
tinct by 1830. Beaver at that time led all other pelts in value, 
being worth from $6 to $10. Otter came next, bringing $2.50 to 
$3; but a decade or so later otter rose to $10 or $12, by reason of 
the Russian demand for our best furs. 

An odd and somewhat ludicrous wolf trap was described to the 
writer by Mr. Pitts. A hollow shell of a tree was selected and 
a hole large enough to admit a wolfs head cut three or four feet 
from the ground. From the hole downward a slot was made 
wide enough for the animal's neck to slip down. By way of bait, 
blood was smeared about the opening and a piece of meat placed 
in the hollow of the tree. The wolf, in his efforts to get at the 
meat, thrust his head in at the hole, and, his neck slipping down 
the slot, was held as if in a stanchion. The rearing up again 
with his head in the tree was a difficult if not impossible feat. 

Another trap, much used by the Indians, was made of such 
materials as the woods afforded, and was at once simple and 
effective. A number of sticks were driven in the ground to 
form a semi-circular pen, at the open end of which were placed 
two forks or crotches, one on either side. A pole was laid on 
these forks and another on the ground directly beneath, forming 
a kind of sill across the entrance to the pen. The next feature 



16 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

was a heavy pole, or small log, for a deadfall. This was sus^ 
pended from a piece of grapevine or strip of linden bark» which, 
passing up over the pole in the forks, was looped over a trigger. 
This trigger was simply a light stick, which reached down to a 
third small pole placed against the sides of the forked posts near 
the ground, which, preventing the weights from pulling the trig- 
ger over the top pole, was in turn held in place by the pressure 
of the trigger. The bait was placed in the pen. The game, 
venturing in at the entrance, his foot or body pressed down the 
small pole over which he must step; the trigger was released 
and the deadfall quickly pinned him to the sill on the ground. 
These traps would be made of any dimensions, and for all sizes 
of game, from rabbits to bears. 



SQUIRREL 'BURGOO.'' 



1'^HE following description of an old-time squirrel * 'burgoo" 
was gleaned by a newspaper reporter some years since from 
Samuel Corbaley, of Indianapolis: 

*'I was bom in Wayne township in 1834, and can remember 
when, in the early forties, the squirrels (black and gray) were 
so plentiful they almost destroyed the young com. I think it 
was the spring of *43 that my father's neighbors proposed to kill 
all the squirrels around his farm if he would furnish the bread 
for a burgoo. A day was appointed, and com bread enough 
for a small army baked by my mother and the neighbor women. 
Three large iron sugar kettles, filled with water, were hung up 
near a spring. Beverly Ballard, a Kentuckian, was appointed 
chief cook. The neighbors, with rifles, approached the farm 
from every direction, and there was a continuous fusillade until 
10 o'clock,, when, by agreement, the hunters met, and threw 
down not less than two hundred squirrels. As they were skin- 
ned and washed, they were handed over to the cook for boiling. 
Then followed a feast. Soup was served in tin cups; squirrels 
were taken out whole with pointed sticks, and com pone was 
served with soup made hot with home-raised pepper. 

* 'After dinner the targets were set up and there was a test as 
to the best shot ; and many times the center was hit at a dis- 
tance of twenty, forty and fifty yards." 



MEMOIR OF DAVID HOOVER 17 



MEMOIR OF DAVID HOOVER. 

{David Hoover was one of the first and best known of the pioneers of 
the npper Whitewater. As is related below, he penetrated to the spot 
where Richmond now stands and settled there in 1806; was the original 
surveyor of the town when it was founded, and gave the place its name. 
It may be added that he was a citixen of the county for sixty years, and 
occupied various public trusts, being successively justice of the peace, as- 
sociate judge of the Wayne County Circuit Court, and clerk of that court. 
The latter office he held nearly fourteen years. His memoir, not 'intended 
for publication originally, was printed in pamphlet form in 1857, by Mr. 
Isaac B. Julian. Very few of these pamphlets are now in existence and a 
special interest may attach to the reprinting of the memoir by reason of 
the centennial anniversary of the settlement of Wayne county, which oc- 
curs this spring. — Editor, \ 

I THINK it is Lawrence Sterne who says that — among* other 
things which he mentions— every person should write a book; 
and as I have not yet done that, I am now going to write one. 
As it has always been interesting to me to read biographical 
sketches, and historical reminiscences of bygone days, I have 
concluded that some information concerning myself and family, 
might, perhaps, amuse some of my descendants, at least. The 
name is pretty extensively scattered throughout this country; 
such information may therefore be of some interest to them, as 
it may enable them to trace back their genealogy to the original 
stock. 

I was bom on a small water-course, called Huwaree, a branch 
of the Yadkin river, in Randolph county, North Carolina, on the 
14th day of April, 1781; and am now in the seventy-third year 
of my age. It is customary, in personal sketches of this kind, 
to say something of one's parents and education. I can only say, 
that my parents were always considered very exemplary in all 
their walk through life. As to education, my opportunities were 
exceedingly limited; and had it not been for my inclination and 
perseverance, I should, in all probability, at this day be number- 
ed among those who can scarcely write their names, or perhaps 
should only be able to make a ''X,*' in placing my signature to 
a written instrument. In order to show the state of society in 
my early youth, as an evidence of the intelligence of the 



18 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

circle in which I was raised, I can say of a truth, that I never 
had an opportunity of reading a newspaper, nor did I ever see a 
bank-note, until after I was a man grown. 

As to my ancestors, I know but little. If my information is 
correct, my grandfather, Andrew Hoover, left Germany when a 
boy; married Margaret Fonts, in Pennsylvania; and settled on 
Pipe creek in Maryland. There my father was born; and from 
thence, now about one hundred years ago, he removed to North 
Carolina, then a new country. He left eight sons and five daugh- 
ters, all of whom had large families. Their descendants are 
mostly scattered through what we call the Western country. 
Rudolph Waymire, my grandfather on my mother's side, emigrat- 
ed from Hanover in Germany, after he had several children. 
He used to brag that he was a soldier under His Britannic Maj- 
esty, and that he was at the head of the battle of Dettingen in 
1743. He left one son and seven daughters by his first wife. 
Their descendants are also mostly to be found in this country. 

My father had a family of ten children, four sons and six 
daughters. In order to better our circumstances, he came to the 
conclusion of moving to a new country, and sold his possessions 
accordingly. He was then worth rising of two thousand dol- 
lars; which at that time, and in that country, was considered 
very considerably over an average in point of wealth. On the 
19th of September, 1802, we loaded our wagon, and wended our 
way toward that portion of what was then called the North- 
western Territory which constitutes the present State of Ohio. 

Here permit me to make a passing remark. I was then in the 
twenty-second year of my age. I had formed an acquaintance 
and brought myself into notice perhaps rather more extensively 
than falls to the lot of most country boys. Did language afford 
terms adequate to describe my sensations on shaking hands 
with my youthful compeers, and giving them a final farewell, I 
would gladly do so. SuflSce it to say, that those only who have 
been placed in like circumstances, can appreciate my feelings on 
that occasion. And although I have lived to be an old man, and 
experienced the various vicissitudes attendant on a journey 
through life thus far, I yet look back to that time as the most 
interesting scene through which I have passed. My mind at this 
day is carried back to my early associations and school-boy days, 



MEMOIR OF DA VID HOO VER 19 

to mj native hills and pine forests; and I can say that there is 
a kind of indescribable charm in the very name of my natal 
spot, very different from aught that pertains to any other place 
on the globe. 

After about five weeks' journeying, we crossed the Ohio river 
at Cincinnati, then a mere village, composed mostly of log 
houses. I think it was the day after an election had been held 
at that place for delegates to the convention to form a Constitu- 
tion; at any rate a Constitution was formed the following win- 
ter, which was amended only within the last few years. After 
crossing the river, we pushed on to Stillwater, about twelve 
miles north of Dayton, in what is now the county of Montgom- 
ery. A number of .our acquaintances had located themselves 
there the previous spring. There we encamped in the woods 
the first winter. The place had proved so unhealthy that we 
felt discouraged and much dissatisfied, and concluded not to 
locate there. My father then purchased two hundred acres of 
land, not far from Lebanon, in Warren county, as a home, until 
we could make further examinations. John Smith, afterward 
one of the proprietors of Richmond, purchased one hundred acres 
in the same neighborhood, with similar views. Our object was 
to find a suitable place for making a settlement, and where but 
few or no entries had been made. But a small portion of, the 
land lying west of the Great Miami, or east of the Little Miami, 
was settled at that time. We were hard to please. We Caro- 
linians would scarcely look at the best land where spring water 
was lacking. Among other considerations, we wished to get 
further south. We examined divers sections of the unsettled 
parts of Ohio, without finding any location that would please 
us. John Smith, Robert Hill and myself partially examined the 
country between the Falls of the Ohio and Vincennes, before 
there was a line run in that part of the Territory; and returned 
much discouraged, as we found nothing inviting in that quarter. 

Thus time passed on until the spring of 1806, when myself 
and four others, rather accidentally, took a section line some eight 
or ten miles north of Dayton, and traced it a distance of more 
than thirty miles, through an unbroken forest, to where I am 
now writing. It was the last of February, or the first of March, 
when I first saw Whitewater. On my return to my father's, I 



20 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

informed him that I thought I had found the cotmtry we had 
been in search of. Spring water, timber, and building rock 
appeared to be abundant, and the face of the country looked de- 
lightful. In about three weeks after this, my father, with sev- 
eral others, accompanied me to this *'land of promise." As a 
military man would say, we made a reconnaissance, but returned 
rather discouraged, as it appeared at that time too far from 
home. Were it necessary, I might here state some of our views 
at that time, which would show up our extreme ignorance of 
what has since taken place. On returning from this trip, we 
saw stakes sticking among the beech trees where Eaton now 
stands, which was among the nearest approaches of the white 
man to this place. With the exception of George Holman and 
a few others, who settled some miles south of this, in the 
spring of 1805, there were but few families within twenty miles 
of this place. 

It was not until the last of May or the first of June that the 
first entries were made. John Smith then entered south of 
Main street, where Richmond now stands, and several other 
tracts. My father entered the land upon which I now live, I hav- 
ing selected it on my first trip, and several other quarter sections. 
About harvest of this same year, Jeremiah Cox reached here 
from good old North Carolina, and purchased where the north 
part of Richmond now stands. If I mistake not, it had been 
previously entered by John Meek, the father of Jesse Meek, and 
had been transferred to Joseph Woodkirk, of whom J. Cox made 
the purchase. Said Cox also entered several other tracts. Jere- 
miah Cox, John Smith, and my father, were then looked upon as 
rather leaders in the Society of Friends. Their location here 
had a tendency of drawing others, and soon caused a great rush 
to Whitewater; a^d land that I thought would never be settled 
was rapidly taken up and improved. Had I a little more vanity, 
I might almost claim the credit (if credit it be) of having been 
the pioneer of the great body of Friends now to be found in this 
region; as I think it very doubtful whether three Yearly Meet- 
ings would convene in this county, had I not traced the line be- 
fore mentioned. 

I was now in the twenty-fifth year of my age, and thus far 
had been rather a wayfaring disciple, not doing much for my- 



MEMOIR OF DA VID HOO VER 21 

self or any other person. Having now selected a spot for a 
home, I thought the time had come to be up and doing. I there- 
fore married a girl named Catharine Yount, near the Great 
Miami; and on the last day of March, 1807, reached with our 
little plunder the hill where I am now living. It may not be 
uninteresting here to name some of the first settlers in the dif- 
ferent neighborhoods. On the East Fork were the Flemings, 
Irelands, Hills, Wassons, Maxwells, etc. At the mouth of Elk- 
horn were the Hunts, Whiteheads and Endsleys. In this neigh- 
borhood were the Smiths, Coxes, Wrights and Hoovers, several 
of whom commenced operations in the woods in the spring and 
summer of 1806. This may emphatically be said to have been 
the day of '*log-cabins" and log-rollings; and, although we were 
in an unbroken forest, without even a blazed pathway from one 
settlement to another, we yet enjoyed a friendship, and a neigh- 
borly interchange of kind offices, which are unknown at this 
time. Although we had to step on puncheon floors, and eat our 
corn-bread and venison, or turkey, oflf of broad pieces of split 
timber, and drive forks in one comer of our cabins, with cross 
timbers driven into the walls, for bedsteads, there was no 
grumbling or complaining of low markets and hard times. The 
questions of Tariflf and National Bank were truly * 'obsolete 
ideas" in those days. It was the first week in April before some 
of us commenced operations in the woods; but we mostly raised 
com enough to do us. There was, however, no mill to grind it, 
and for some weeks we grated all the meal we made use of. 
About Christmas, Charles Hunt started a mill, on a cheap scale, 
near the mouth of Elkhorn, which did our grinding until J. Cox 
established one near to where Richmond now stands, and which 
now belongs to Basil Brightwell. 

The Indian boundary was at this time about three miles west 
of us. The Indians lived on White river, and were frequently 
among us. They at one time packed oflf 400 bushels of shelled 
corn, which they purchased of John Smith. In 1809 a purchase 
was made, called the * 'Twelve Mile Purchase,"^ and a goodly 
number settled on it before it was surveyed; but the war of 1812 
coming on, the settlers mostly left their locations, and removed 
to places of more security. Those who remained built forts and 
**block houses." The settlers in this neighborhood mostly stood 



22 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

their ground/ but suffered considerably with fear. George 
Shug-art then lived where Newport now stands, some miles from 
any other inhabitant. In the language of the Friends, he *'did 
not feel clear" in leaving his home, and he manfully stood his 
ground unmolested, except by those whom we then styled the 
"Rangers," from whom he received some abuse for his boldness. 
The Indians took three scalps out of this county, and stole a 
number of horses. Candor, however, compels me to say that, 
as is usually the case, we Christians were the aggressors. After 
peace was made, in 1814, the twelve mile purchase settled very 
rapidly. 

It will not be amiss, at this stage of our narrative, to state 
that when we first settled here, the now State of Indiana was 
called Indiana Territory, and we belonged to Dearborn county, 
which embraced all the territory purchased from the Indians at 
the treaty of Greenville, extending from the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky river to Fort Recovery. The counties of Wayne and Frank- 
lin were afterwards formed out of the northern part of this ter- 
ritory. Although Governor Harrison had the appointing power, 
he gave the people the privilege of choosing their own officers. 
An election was accordingly held, when it was found that Peter 
Fleming, Jeremiah Meek and Aaron Martin were elected Judges, 
Greorge Hunt, Clerk, and John Turner, Sheriff. County courts 
were then held by three associate judges, and county business 
was done before them. One of the first courts held in this coun- 
ty, under the Territorial government, convened under the shade 
of a tree, on the premises then belonging to Richard Rue, Esq., 
Judge Park presiding and James Noble prosecutor. In order to 
show the legal knowledge we backwoodsmen were then in pos- 
session of, I will relate the following case. A boy was indicted 
for stealing a knife, a traverse jury was empaneled, and took 
their seats upon a log. The indictment was read, and, as usu- 
ual, set out that the offender, vnWi farce and arms, did feloniously 
steal, take, and carry away, etc. After hearing the case, the 
jury retired to another log to make up their verdict. Jeremiah 
Cox, one of the jurors, and afterwards a member of the conven- 
tion to frame a Constitution, and of the Legislature, concluded 
they must find the defendant guilty, but he thought the indict- 
ment ^^was rather too bad for so small an offense." I suppose he 



MEMOIR OF DA VID HOO VER 23 

thought the words **with force and arms" uncalled for, and 
thought rightly enough, too. 

Some further illustration of our legal knowledge and the spirit 
of our legislation at this time may be interesting. Although 
the Friends constituted a large portion of the inhabitants in this 
quarter, there were in other parts of the county men in whose 
craniums the military spirit was pretty strongly developed, be- 
fore the war of 1812 was declared. When that came on, this 
spirit manifested itself in all its rigor. The Friends were much 
harassed on account of their refusal to do military duty. Some 
were drafted, and had their property sacrificed, and at the next 
call were again drafted, and fined. Four young men were 
thrown into the county jail during the most inclement cold 
weather; fire was denied them until they should comply; and 
had it not been for the humane feeling of David F. Sackett, who 
handed them hot bricks through the grates, they must have suf- 
fered severely. Suits were subsequently brought against the 
oflScers for false imprisonment. The trials were had at Brook- 
ville, in Franklin county. They all recovered damages, but I 
have every reason to believe that the whole of the damages and 
costs was paid out of the moneys extorted from others of the 
Friends. To cap the climax of absurdity and outrage, the gen- 
tlemen officers arrested an old man named Jacob Elliott, and 
tried him by a court-martial, for treason, found him guilty, and 
sentenced him to be shot I but gave him a chance to run away 
in the dark, they firing off their guns at the same time. It would 
fill a considerable volume to give a detailed history of the noble 
patriots of those days, and of their wisdom and valorous exploits; 
but this must suffice. 

Connected with this subject, permit me a word respecting my 
own course. I think it is well known that from first to last I 
stood by the Friends like a brother (as I would again do under 
similar circumstances), and used my influence in their favor; yet 
from some cause, best known to themselves, I have apparently 
lost the confidence and friendship of a good number of them. 
The most serious charge which has yet reached me, is that I 
have not got "the true faith," and not that I have done any- 
thing wrong. Of this I do not complain; but must be permit- 
ted to say that their course towards me was rather gratuitous. 



24 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

I feel confident that they can not in truth say that they have 
at any time received aught but disinterested friendship from me; 
and if some of them can reconcile their course toward me with 
a sense of duty, and of doing* by me as I have at all times done 
by them, I shall therewith be content. 

In 1816 we elected delegates to the convention which formed 
our late Constitution, and named the State Indiana. On the 
third day of February following, I was elected Clerk of Wajme 
Circuit Court, and by favor of the voters of the county, held the 
oflSce nearly fourteen years. I was prevented from serving out 
my full constitutional term of office, by a deceptive ruling of the 
Court, which I have no fears will ever be hunted up as a prece- 
dent in a similar or any other case. 

I was almost the first man who set foot in this part of Wayne 
county, and have been an actor in it for more than forty years. 
It may not be out of place here for me to say, that I feel con- 
scious I often erred through ignorance, and perhaps through wil- 
fulness. Yet (and with gratitude be it spoken), it has fallen to 
the lot of few men to retain so long the standing which I think I 
still have among all classes of my fellow citizens. I believe it is 
a privilege conceded to old men to boast of what they have been, 
and what they have done. I shall therefore take the liberty of 
saying, that I have now seven commissions by me, for offices 
which I have held, besides having had a seat in the Senate of 
this State for six years. 

I will add, that in the employ and under the direction of John 
Smith and Jeremiah Cox, I laid oflf the city of Richmond, did all 
their clerking, wrote their deeds, etc. If I recollect rightly, it 
was first named Smithville, after one of the properietors; but 
that name did not give general satisfaction. Thomas Robbards, 
James Pegg, and myself, were then chosen to select a name for 
the place. Robbards proposed Waterford, Pegg, Plainfield, and 
I made choice of Richmond, which latter name received the pref- 
erence of the lot-holders. 

I have some fears that the preceding remarks may be looked 
upon as betraying the vanity of an old man; but I wish it dis- 
tinctly understood, that I ascribe the little favors which I have 
received, more to surrounding circumstances, and the partiality 
of my friends, than to any qualification or merits in myself. 



MEMOIR OF DA VID HOO VER 25 

There are several other subjects connected with the early his- 
tory of Wayne county, on which I could dwell at some length. 
I could refer to the first dominant party, their arbitrary proceed- 
ing- in fixing the county seat at Salisbury, the seven years' war 
and contention which followed, ending with the final location of 
the shiretown at Centreville.^ But as the rival parties in that 
contest have mostly left the stage, and the subject is almost 
forgotten, I think it unnecessary to disturb it. 

A lengthy chapter might be written on the improvements 
which have been made within the last fifty years in Wayne coun- 
ty (to say nothing of the rest of the world), in the arts and 
sciences generally, but as I do not feel myself competent to the 
task, I shall not attempt it. 

And now, in bringing this crude and undigested account of my 
experience to a close, short as it is, it gives rise to many serious 
reflections. WJien I look back upon the number of those who 
set out in life with me, full of hope, and who have fallen by the 
way, and gone to that bourne from whence there is no return- 
ing, with not even a rude stone to mark the spot where their 
mortal remains are deposited, language fails me, and indeed 
there is no language adequate to the expression of my feelings. 
I shall therefore drop the subject, leaving the reader to fill up 
the blank in his own way. 

^ In conclusion, let me say a word about my politics and re- 
ligion. In politics, I profess to belong to the Jeffersonian 
school. I view Thomas Jeflferson as decidedly the greatest 
statesman that America has yet produced. He was the chief 
apostle of both Political and Religious Liberty. My motto is 
taken from his first Inaugural: ''Equal and exact justice to all 
men" — and I will add — without calling in question their political 
or religious faith, country, or color. 

And here I wish it distinctly understood, and remembered, 
that I stood almost alone in this section of the State, in opposi- 
tion to our ruinous system of internal improvements, concocted 
and brought about at the sessions of the Legislature in the years 
1835 to 1836; which resulted in the creation of a State debt 
which the present generation will not see paid; and which has 
verified the text in the old Book to the very letter, which says 
that the iniquities of the fathers are visited upon their children 
to the third and fourth generations. 



26 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

As to religfion: 

Happy is he, the only happy man, 

Who, from choice^ does all the good he can. 

**The world is my country, and my religion is to do right." I 
am a firm believer in the Christian religion, though not as lived 
up to by most of its professors of the present day. In the language 
of Jefferson, I look upon the ^ ^Christian philosophy as the most 
sublime and benevolent, but most perverted system that ever 
shone on man." I have no use for the priesthood, nor can I 
abide the shackles of sectarian dogmas. I see no necessity for 
confessions of faith, creeds, forms and ceremonies. In the most 
comprehensive sense of the word, I am opposed to all wars, 
and to slavery; and trust the time is not far distant when they 
will be numbered among the things that were, and viewed as 
we now look back upon some of the doings of what we are 
pleased to style the dark ages. 

Note 1. — Among the first settlers of the twelve mile purchase, 
rather in the vicinity of Centreville, were Danial Noland, Henry 
Bryan, Isaac Julian, William Harvey, Nathan Overman, Greorge 
Grimes, etc. Other pioneers, whose names I can not now recall, 
were thinly scattered over other portions of the **purchase." — I. 
H. J. 

Note 2. — The county seat was finally established at Centre- 
ville in April, 1820. The first court held in Wayne county, as 
appears from the records, met at the home of Richard Rue, Feb- 
ruary, 1811. Wayne county was organized in November, 1810. 



JUDGE HOOVER'S RECORD AS TO LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE, PEACE 

AND FREEDOM. 

Appended to his Memoir, Judge Hoover copied the following 
Memorial and postscript, prepared and subscribed by him at an 
early period of our history, which he seemed to think should go 
with it, as showing more positively his position in regard to the 
matters referred to in the same. It may with propriety be add- 
ed, that at an early day in this county, Anti-Slavery and Peace 
Societies were formed, of which Judge Hoover, Elder David 
Purviance, and other prominent citizens in various parts of the 
county, were leading members: 



MEMOIR OF DA VID HOOVER 27 

To William Henry Harrison^ Governor of the Indiana Territory^ the 
Legislative Council^ and House of Representatives^ at Vincennes 
met: 

The Memorial of the Society of Friends of the said Territory 
re8i)ectfully represents: 

That few if any of the present members of the Legfislatore, 
we presume, are altog-ether unacquainted with the conscientious 
scruples of Friends against bearing arms, or acting in any man- 
ner as military men, ever since they became a religious society. 
And considering the penalties and sufferings they have hereto- 
fore been subject to on that account, there is no room left to 
suppose that their declining to act in that capacity proceeded 
from obstinacy, or a disregard to the laws of their country. 
They conceive that, notwithstanding they have always declined 
the use of the sword, they have not been useless citizens; and 
that the indulgence which has been granted to conscientious 
people in other governments, has not in any manner been prej- 
udicial to the real interest of those countries, but rather that 
it has been a means of inducing useful citizens to settle and im- 
prove various parts thereof. Nor does it admit of a doubt, that 
penal laws, designed to force people to act in violation of what 
they believe to be their duty to their Maker, never did and 
never will promote the true interest and safety of any country. 
And although heavy fines have heretofore in some cases been 
impressed for non-attendance of musters, and often doubled by 
unreasonable seizures, to the great distress of some poor families; 
yet it seems hardly probable that the public have been much, if 
at all, benefited by these extortions. Your memorialists, there- 
fore, can not suppose that it can be a desirable object with a 
free and enlightened people, to subject any denomination of 
Christians to penalties and sufferings, either in their persons or 
property, on account of their religious opinions, which can never 
be injurious to the country at large, or to any individual. All 
of which we submit to the Legislature, that they may make 
such amendment of the present militia laws as to them may seem 
reasonable and just. 

And your Memorialists, etc. 

P. S. — The laws subjecting the Quakers to fines for not mus- 
tering were repealed; but after the battle of Tippecanoe, they 
were re-enacted with a venceance. 



30 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

'*I am now situated on block 70, lot No. 2, in a little cabin, 
16 X 17 feet, belonging- to a Mr. Cap, of Cincinnati." 

It was here that my mother began the brief diary referred to. 
The persons most frequently mentioned in the diary are Mr. 
James Blake, Mr. and Mrs. Paxton, Dr. Coe, Mr. and Mrs. Now- 
land, Mrs. Bates, the Hawkins's, B. F. Morris, Dr. Dunlap, the 
Bradleys, the Yandes's, and Judge and Mrs. Wick. 

These are the religious data I have spoken of: 

* 'Sunday, Nov. 18, 1821. I attended prayer-meeting at Mr. 
Stevens'. 

'^Sunday, Nov. 25. I attended preaching at Mr. Hawkins', 
where I heard a very good sermon by a Newlight minister. The 
text was: *See that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools but as 
wise, redeeming the time, because the days are evil.' 

"Sunday, Dec* 30. I heard a sermon delivered by a Newlight 
minister which I did not think commendable, but we must al- 
low for it, as it has not been but about three months since he be- 
gan to speak in public. 

"Sunday, May 12, 1822. I attended preaching in the Gov- 
ernor's Circle. It was the first sermon ever delivered at that 
place. Rev. Mr. Proctor took his text from the 30th chapter of 
Proverbs, and 17th verse: *Her ways are ways of pleasantness, 
and all her paths are peace.' In the afternoon he delivered an- 
other sermon from Luke XV :7: 'I say unto you that likewise 
joy shall be in heaven over one sinner who repenteth.' The 
preacher is a Presbyterian and a very good orator. 

"Tuesday, 14th. In the morning it rained and in the afternoon 
it was clear but muddy. Mr. Fletcher attended preaching at 
the schoolhouse. The sermon was delivered by Mr. Proctor, 
who took for his text Ps. 42, 1st verse: 'As the hart panteth 
after the water brook, so panteth my soul after thee, O God I' 

"Monday, the 20th of May. Rainy and disagreeable. Rev. 
Mr. Proctor, Dr. Coe, Mr. Linton, Mr. Fletcher and myself all 
dined at Mr. Nowland's. 

"Tuesday, 21st. I rode (horseback) out in the country about 
two miles to Mr. Burton's with Mr. Paxton and Mrs. Nowland. 

May 28th. This day we moved into Mr. Blake's house* and 
took possession for one year. 

*On Washington street west of Illinois. 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 31 

•^Friday, 31st. This day Mr. Fletcher started on the circuit.* 
We arose early in the morning. It was quite pleasing- to hear 
the birds. How cheerfully they sung I Their notes were so 
mingled that a person could not distinguish one bird from an- 
other. This day Mr. Rice, a Presbyterian preacher, and Dr. 
Coe dined with Mr. Blake and myself. 

''Sunday, 9th June. Mrs. Wick and I attended Methodist 
preaching. 

''Sunday, 16th June. In the morning Mr. Blake went to Sab- 
bath school.f 

"Sunday, 12th July. This day attended Baptist preaching at 
the schoolhouse. ♦ * ♦ Camp meeting commenced the 13th 
day of September and held four days.^ 

"Sunday, April 15th, 1823. Our school commenced, which, I 
hope, will be of great benefit to the children of our town."§ 

I find three funerals recorded in my mother's journal, as fol- 
lows: 

"Sunday, March 24, 1822. Attended a funeral and a bur- 
ial. || I did not see a single tear shed in the whole assemblage, 
except by Mrs. Nowland, when she showed me where her child 
was buried. 

"Sunday, 12th of July, 1822. This day Mr. Jones departed 
this life, about 8 o'clock in the morning. ♦ ♦ ♦ He is to be 
buried this afternoon. 

"Monday, November 11, ('22). About two o'clock p. m. Mr< 
Nowland departed this life, and, it was said, very happily. He 
said he 'had made his peace with God, and was willing to go.' 

"Tuesday, November 12. Rev. Mr. Proctor delivered a very 
pathetic sermon on the occasion [of Mr. Nowland's burial]. 
His text was: 'It is better to go to the house of mourning than 
to the house of feasting.' " 

^Under the old oonstitntion, the president cironit jndge held oonrti orer an eztenaiTe 
territonr, and it waa a eostom of the lawyers to travel with him throughout the Judicial cir- 
cuit— JTdilor. 

-fThe first mention of a Sabbath school in Indianapolis.— J. C. F, 

tWas not this the first camp meeting held in Marion countyf— «r. C F. 

ffThia doubtless refers to the re-oommenoing of the Sundaj'School begun June 26, 1822.^ 
J, C. F. 

RWho the person buried was I have no means of knowing.— X C F. 



32 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

From the News of April 4, 

On the 8th of October, 1821, Indianapolis was to have her first 
great gathering. It was on that day that the sale of lots of the 
newly laid out capital took place. Carter's and Hawkins' tavern, 
Nowland's and other boarding houses were crowded. In her 
journal Mrs. Calvin Fletcher wrote: 

''October 8, 1821. The sale of lots commenced near our house. 
A large concourse of people were present." 

This could not have been far froni Washington and Missouri 
streets, as block 70, lot 2, is west of Missouri, on the south side 
of Washington. The sale, as my father once informed me, be- 
gan upon a day that was overcast and gloomy. The wind was 
high, and while the auctioneer was urging the bidding a limb 
was wrenched from its place in the trees overhead, and one of 
the bystanders came near being killed. The sales continued for 
a week, and no less than 313 lots were disposed of. The total 
which these slices of. Indianapolis amounted to was $35,596.25, 
but the cash payment received at the time by the agent was only 
20 per cent., the remaining four-fifths to be paid in four annual 
instalments. The average price of lots was about $113. The 
highest priced one was that on the northwest comer of Wash- 
ington and Delaware streets, which brought $500. It is probable 
that the price paid was owing to the fact that the court house 
was to be built on the opposite square and it would be valuable 
as a tavern or dram shop site.* 

In his journal, date of October 1, 1821, my father says: "I 
found the place very sickly," but it appears that after the week 
of the sale everything put on a better face. My mother speaks 
of the beauty of the Indian summer. Much of the bright foli- 
age, however, was not to be stripped by the blasts, for the woods 
were resounding with the stroke of the ax and the crash of 
falling trees. 

The favorite ax of those days was the * 'Collins ax," manufac- 
tured at Hartford, Conn. It seemad to me very strange in after 
years to find in the great valley of the Amazon that there was 
one American manufacture which Sheffield and Birmingham 
could not drive out. The Indian of the Amazon cleaves his way 
through matted jungles with a "machete" made by Collins & Co., 

^IgnatiiM Brown says |560 for this lot. The site has been for years and is now occupied 
by a mXooh,— Editor, 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 33 

while the knife and hatchet, and the instrument with which he 
grubs up the ipecacuanha, are all manufactured by the same 
house which, more than a half-century ago, furnished the axes 
that chopped down the trees in the streets of Indianapolis. 

Cabins arose as if by magic, and one man. Colonel Paxton, had 
the audacity to begin a frame house on the south side of Wash- 
ington street (near Illinois). This building, before it was finish- 
ed, was sold to Mr. James Blake. My father and mother were 
to be the first occupants, and here my brothers, Elijah and Miles, 
and myself were born. The main body of this magnificent resi- 
dence was one story high, and consisted of two rooms, neither of 
which could have been more than fifteen feet square, connected 
by a covered space with a kitchen. My mother in her journal 
speaks of moving from their smoky cabin to this frame house in 
May, 1822, while my father has left in his diary a copy of the 
agreement by which he rented the house from Mr. Blake. As it 
illustrates the prices of board and rent at that day I copy the 
contract. It sets forth that: 

'*The said Blake convenants and agrees to give to the said 
Fletcher possession of the frame house standing on block 67, lot 
12, as soon as it shall be fixed convenient for a family to dwell 
therein, together with the said lot, which the said Fletcher is to 
have and enjoy for the term of one year from and after the time 
he takes possession. In consideration of the above premises he, 
the said Fletcher, is to board the said Blake during the year, * 
♦ * and the said Blake is to give the said Fletcher ten bushels 
of com as a further consideration of board; and the said Blake 
is to have the privilege of the east room of said house in com- 
mon with said Fletcher, together with the stable and said lot." 

Colonel Blake was the first in Indianapolis to have a non-pro- 
fessional collection of miscellaneous works that might be called 
a library. My father and Mr. Merrill were next in the list with 
literary works, Mr. Merrill's collection being the larger. Gold- 
smith's * 'Animated Nature" and the ''Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainments" were the first books, except the Bible, read to me by 
my mother, that made an impression upon me. 

From the News of April 12. 

In October, 1821, there were three weeks of beautiful weath- 
er, and my mother says in her journal, under the date of Octo- 
ber 27: 



34 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

"This day is very pleasant and rather smoky. It appears 
like Indian summer. We have had very little rain in this plaCe 
for about three weeks. This has made it very favorable for 
those who have moved in and are building." 

Under such circumstances Indianapolis may be said to have 
begun her existence. The sale of more than three hundred lots, 
but few of which were purchas^ed on speculation, broug-ht hith- 
er those who were to be permanent settlers. There seemed to be 
a most kindly disposition on the part of the people toward each 
other. Visits were the order of the day and mutual aid was 
never withheld. There was not a capitalist in Indianapolis — 
but few were even with the world — and there was not a man or 
woman, however exalted their social position in the land whence 
they came, but put his or her hand to work in the frontier life 
of the New Purchase. In her journal I find my mother writing- 
on the 1st day of November, as follows. 

'*This day I was spinning wool at Mr. Mcllvain's." 

This Mr. Mcllvain was the earliest justice of the peace in 
Indianapolis. He was an upright. Christian man, who had been 
associate justice in Ohio and was afterward elected one of the 
associate judges for Marion county. His log cabin stood not far 
from the present site of the Second Presbyterian Church. One 
of my earliest recollections is that of a visit to Judge Mc- 
Ilvain's. He cultivated the ground that is around the church, 
and produced the usual crop of com and potatoes. He also was 
the first to raise poultry on an extended scale. There was one 
crop that was unusual, and which, I presume, he was the first 
and the last to raise in Indianapolis. My father informed me 
that when he first came here, in the summer of 1821, he found 
Judge James Mcllvain living at the place I have indicated, and 
that, amongst other things he had planted, was quite a large 
patch of cotton. This cotton came to maturity in the autumn, 
and served the purpose, when spun, of candle wicking. 

I spoke of the alacrity with which new Indianapolitans aided 
each other and turned their hands to everything. I give a few 
instances, quoting from my mother's journal: 

**November 5, 1821. Mr. Fletcher has been helping Mr. 
Blake husk com." Again: * 'Friday, December 7. We killed a 
beef. Mr. Paxton and Mr. Blake helped to butcher it." Again, 
under the date of November 24: "Mrs. Nowland was making a 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 35 

bonnet. She came to me to know whether I could make it. I 
did not understand it, but gave her all the instruction I possibly 
could." Other entries are: **I was very much engaged in try- 
ing out my tallow;" '*To-day I dipped candles;" '*To-day I 
^finished the 'Vicar of Wakefield';" and, **I commenced to read 
the Life of Washington." There was also an inkling of a sing- 
ing-school in '*I borrowed of Mr. Blake a singing book." There 
are afterwards notices of the singing-school, where all that 
could sing joined for mutual improvement. One of the leading 
singers was Henry Bradley, who was one of the early pillars 
of the Baptist church in Indianapolis. 

The reference in this journal to dinner parties, teas, quiltings, 
etc., are exceedingly numerous. Good feeling pervaded the 
whole community. While there was genuine western hospital- 
ity, there were some other motives at the bottom for such con- 
stant courtesy on the part of many of the new-comers toward the 
rank and file. There was to be an election of county officers in 
the spring and hence the endeavor on the side of certain gentle- 
men to win over by politeness and attention every voter and his 
wife. 

The first mention of any musical instrument in the journal is 
in an entry of December 27, 1821: 

'*! was sitting by the fire and Mr. Fletcher was reading Rob- 
ertson's history of America when the news came that Mr. Blake 
had returned from Corydon. Mr. F. has gone to see him, and 
when I write a few more lines I will go also, although I feel 
very much fatigued, for it is a long time since I have heard the 
fiddle played. I think it will seem very melodious, and I am 
just about to start to hear it." 

But while there were plenty of calls, visits, etc., the great 
social events of the winter were the Christmas and New Year's 
parties. The former was a '*stag" party, and the latter was a 
ball. My father's journal is more full in regard to Christmas, 
1821: 

**This day I got up at sunrise. I visited several of my neigh- 
bors, who all appeared friendly. About ten o'clock I went to the 
river" [on the banks of which there were then more cabins than 
elsewhere]. "I found at Mr. McGeorge's a large collection of 
men, principally the candidates for the new county offices. The 



36 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

county is just being laid off. McGeorge had the only barrel of 
cider in town. I suppose it to have cost him about seven dol- 
lars. In the liberality of the candidates the barrel was unhead- 
ed, and all promiscuously drank. But as the cider was frozen, 
the dog-irons were put red-hot into the barrel. After having 
drank heartily of the cider they took brandy, which soon pro- 
duced intoxication. A friend of mine, having in some way 
made a mistake as to its inebriating qualities, took too much. 
I therefore left the company and came home with him. I found 
a great degree of accommodation and courtesy used among all 
classes. The candidates led the concourse from one place to an- 
other till sundown." 

The ladies on that Christmas appeared to have had a very un- 
ostentatious time of it, for they spent the day in much quiet 
visiting. 

'•Tuesday, Christmas," writes my mother, '*Mrs. Bradley and 
Mrs. Paxton came and spent the day with me. They dined with 
me. Then Mrs. B. and I went to Mrs. Paxton's, where we both 
took tea. After remaining a. while I returned home, and then 
went to the Nowland's. I then came home again and read a 
chapter in the Bible, etc." 

The crowning social occasion of the season was a New Year's 
party given at Mr. Wyant's cabin, of which occasion Colonel 
Blake was the master, as he was of most public assemblies. 
I have now before me the invitation to that first party of a 
ceremonious kind ever given in the New Purchase. This is the 
first invitation of a formal nature ever penned here. There was 
no printing press at that time in Indianapolis, and there was 
evidently but very little writing paper. The paper is four by 
two and three-quarter inches, and the invitation, written in a 
clear hand, reads: 

*'The company of Mr. and Mrs. Fletcher is requested to a 
party at J. Wy ant's, Tuesday, the first day of January, 1822, at 
3 o'clock p. m. Managers, A. W. Russell, 

K. A. SCUDDER." 
**Indianapoli8, December 28, 1821.*' 

We can see how democratic were the hours in those primitive 

days. This party or ball began at three p. m. and concluded at 

midnight. 

[ To be conHmued.] 



SOME OLD INDIANAPOLIS DOCUMENTS 37 

SOME OLD INDIANAPOLIS DOCUMENTS. 

MR. ALBERT JOHNSON, of Irvingrton, has in his posses- 
sion a mass of papers dating back to the early twenties, 
and belonging originally to his father and grandfather, who 
came to Indianapolis soon after its founding. These are legal 
documents, receipts, orders and miscellaneous scraps, which, be- 
sides the many autographs, have an interest because of little 
sidelights they throw on the transactions and primitive business 
methods of our earlier days when money was scarce and a system 
of payment in commodities more or less necessary. The fol- 
lowing are samples: 

*'On demand, I promise to make for Jeremiah Johnson, or or- 
der, four pair of good shoes, two pair of coarse, strong shoes, 
two pair, if wished, fine shoes — (?) and bound. Witness my 
hand and seal, this 21st day of September, 1824. 

*'Samubl Johns." 

'*Mr. James Cooley please pay to Jeremiah Johnson, the 
bearer of this, ten pairs of coarse shoes agreeable to our agree- 
ment. * * * WiLUAM Kknnard." 

**June 21, 1822." 

*'Mr. William Bay — Sir: You will please to pay to Jeremiah 
Johnson 157 bushels of sound com on my account. 

*'JoHN E. Bary." 

**Ten days after date I promise to pay to Jeremiah Johnson 

100 pounds of good merchantable wheat flour. 

**IsAAc Cool." 

The following itemized bill gives an idea of the then market 
prices of various commodities: 

4 lbs. coffeek $1 00 

X lb. tea 31X 

4 lbs. sug'ar 50 

1 lb. wrought nails 31X 

200 segars 50 

50 lbs. biscuit 2 50 

1 bushel meal 25 

3 lbs. buUer 18J( 

Ipcck salt 25 

1 augur 50 

2 lbs. nail ,.... 25 

Cable (boat rope) 1 32 



38 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

The legal instruments and forms were pretty nearly as crude 
as those used in private business. The official reports of the 
county officers were written on ordinary sheets of writing* paper, 
distinguished only by a faint, half-legible seal, and the tax re- 
ceipts were on ragged scraps of sheets, printed, when printed at 
all, in a style that would, at the present day, excite the derision 
of an apprentice in a country office. A manuscript tax notice 
written by Jeremiah Johnson when he was collector for Marion 
county states that *'I will receive taxes at my house on Penn- 
sylvania street, in Indianapolis, until the first day of July next,** 
after which date **two per centum commission will be added to 
the amount of each person's tax." An interesting glimpse of 
the county revenue from taxables is given by a document which 
is worth giving in full: 

**The State of Indiana, Marion County. 

**This certifies to the treasurer of Marion county that Asa B. 
Strong, collector of the revenue of said county for the year 1833, 
is chargeable for county purposes with — 

1,740 polls at 37>i cents each $ 652 SO 

1,839 horses at Vl% cents each 229 87.5 

564 oxen at 6^ cents each 35 25 

86 silver watches 21 50 

4 gold watches 2 00 

25 brass clocks 12 50 

1 two-wheeled pleasure carriage 1 00 

4 four- wheeled pleasure carriages 6 00 

Stud horses 51 00 

Resident town lots 165 65.5 

Non-resident town lots 57 83 

6,325 82-100 acres first-rate (resident) land at (40). . 25 30.3 

80,132 80-100 acres second-rate (resident) land at (30) 204 39.8 

10,814 .06-100 acres third-rate (resident) land at (20) 21 62.8 
1,538 95-100 acres first-rate (non-resident) land 

at (40) 6 15.5 

26,694 78-100 acres second-rate (non-resident) land 

at (30) 80 08.02 

782 acres third-rate (non-resident) land at (20) 1 56.4 

Road tax on non-resident land 87 80.1 

Total $1,689 94.1 

"In testimony whereof, I, James M. Ray, clerk of the Marion 
Circuit Court, do hereunto set my hand and seal of office this 
May 15, A. D. 1833. Jambs M. Ray, Clerk:' 



REMINISCENSES OF AMOS HANWA Y 39 

An amusing sample from the collection is an invitation to a 
social function sent out by Grovernor Noah Noble. Typography 
as an esthetic art seems to have been unknown in the West in those 
days, and this, set up in big body type, is printed haphazard 
somewhere near the middle of a generous sheet out of all propor- 
tion as to size and margin. It evidently was an eatablished 
form with the GrOvemor,f or his name is affixed in type instead of 
chirography and the blanks left for date and hour are filled in 
by his hand. It reads: 

''Indianapolis, December 16, 1834. 
"Sir — You are requested to unite with gentlemen of the Leg- 
islature and ^others in a social party at my house on Wednesday 
evening, 5 o'clock. N. Noblk." 



REMINISCENCES OF AMOS HANWA Y* 

From Paper read before the Indiana Centennial Association^ July ^, igoo, 

I CAME to Indianapolis with my father's family on the 21st of 
June, 1821, being then a boy in my fifth year. The family 
had lived in Vincennes several years before that time. Our 
voyage here was in an Olean Point flatboat. We went down the 
Wabash to the mouth of White river and came up to Indianap- 
olis, the boat being poled along up the stream the entire way. 
I think, from what I have heard, that as much as three weeks 
were occupied in the journey from Vincennes. My father and 
Mr. Burke pushed the boat up-stream. 

There were eighteen houses here at that time, all cabins. 
They were built along the bank of White river, extending about 
from the place of our landing to a point near where the Vanda- 
lia railroad bridge is situated. Among these eighteen famlies I 
remember John and Michael and David Van Blaricum, Daniel 
Yandes, Dr. Isaac Coe, John McCormick, Isaac Wilson, a Mr. 
Concord, Bethuel Dunning, the ferryman, Obadiah Harris, a 
Mr. Frazier, Jeremiah Collins and a Mr. Keeler. 

The White river bridge was built in 1832 and 1833. The fine 
poplar timbers of this bridge where whip-sawed on the bank 



40 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

where the bridgfe was to be, on a frame, reaching- out from the 
bank there. The timber was got up the river eight miles and 
hewed about square, from a foot to three feet square, in the 
woods, and I rafted it down to the place where it was whip- 
sawed into proper shapes. 

I saw the Delaware and Miami tribes of Indians pass throug-h, 
going West. They camped by the river, and in the morningc 
all of them went in swimming. They said they never swam in 
the evening or at night. There was a large tribe of them, over 
a thousand, I think, all friendly. 

Camp meetings were held by the Methodists every year. The 
first one was south of town, on the Three-notch Line (now South 
Meridian street). It was on Kelly's farm, and a great crowd 
attended. The Methodist preachers were great enthusiasts, 
men of power, eloquence and earnestness. They did important 
work in bringing the people to the support of good government, 
morality and religion. Among the great men who preached 
there were John Strange, Edwin Ray, James Havens, Edwin 
Ames and James Armstrong. The next camp meetings were 
held for years on the Military Park ground, near the canal. 
Afterward the meeting was on the land occupied by the Deaf 
and Dumb Asylum, and next it was in the grove on the land at 
the then north end of Illinois street, at old First street. 

The National road was graded through Indianapolis in the 
year 1832, I believe, and some years after the grading the road 
from East street to Big Eagle creek, west of town, was macad- 
amized. The broken stone was put on in strata of three inches 
at a time, three times, nine inches in all. Each layer was set- 
tled by use for a time, and then the next was put on. After this 
little patch of macadam stone was put on, Jackson and Van 
Buren -vetoed all the National road bills, so it was a very bad 
road till the State gave it to a plank-road company, and the 
people soon rode on a plank floor, which was good till it rotted 
or wore out. 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 41 



THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF INDIANA. 

FROM THE PAPERS OF D. D. BANTA. 

[The most ambitious and best known work on education in Indiana is that 
by Prof. Richard G. Boone, which appeared in 1892. The same year, but 
prior to the printing of Mr* Boone's book, Judge D. D. Banta, then of the 
Indiana Unirersity Law School, an old-time resident of Johnson county, 
and author of a history of that county, published in The Indianapolis 
News a series of papers on this important subject. Judge Banta*s style of 
treatment and the ground he covers are so widely different from those of 
Professor Boone that it is so much new matter to one familiar with Boone. 
The articles, largely anecdotal and revealing an intimate knowledge of 
pioneer life and early happenings, give a graphic view of conditions 
not to be gleaned from a more formal work based wholly upon scholarship. 
They hare a value all their own, and should be of interest to all educators. 
The series contains too much matter to be reprinted entire in this maga- 
zine, but I have taken the liberty to presecve the substance of them and 
those parts that seem to me most valuable as real contributions to our 
school history. By the references given the reader who wishes can consult 
the original, to be found in files in either the State Library or the City 
Library in Indianapolis. There are ten of the articles, which appear in 
The News of 1892, under date of January 6, 13, 20, 27; February 3, 10, 17, 
24; March 16, ti. The articles will run in these pages throughout the 
year. — Editor. ] 

Educational Status of the Pioneers — First Schools in the State — Dis- 
tances to the School — Private Houses ^ Bams, Mills, etc,, as School- 
houses — Rudeness of the First Houses Built — Curious Sfyles of 
Building. 

THKRE is a class which entertains the belief that the early 
settlers of Indiana were not as well educated as were the 
early settlers of her sister States. I think this belief was quite 
generally entertained a half century ago, and, perhaps, e^en 
later by the people of these sister States. I do not know why 
this belief should be held by any one to-day. I know of no rea* 
son why the Indiana pioneef^ should not be considered as the 
equals in every respect of the pioneer settlers of any of the 
other States at that period. 



42 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

It is stated by Gilmore, in '*The Advance Guard of Western 
Civilization," that of the 256 settlers who moved in 1779-'80 to 
the after site of Nashville, all but one could write his name. 
Of thirty-six settlers on the north side of the Ohio, within the 
present boundaries of the State of Ohio, who signed the petition 
directed to Lieutenant-Colonel Harmer, in 1765, one only signed 
by his mark. Mr. Roosevelt, in writing" **The Winning of the 
West," had occasion to examine a great many documents written 
and signed by the pioneer Tennesseeans and Kentuckians, and 
he gives testimony as following: 

'*In examining original drafts of petitions and the like, signed 
by the hundreds of original settlers of Tennessee and Kentucky, 
I have been struck by the small proportion — not much over 
three or four per cent, at the outside — of men who made their 
mark instead of signing." 

I have no doubt that the same fact would appear from an 
examination on as large a scale of original documents siemed 
by the Indiana pioneers. I have done a little of that kind of 
work myself and have found the same result that Mr. Roosevelt 
did. 

Of course, all the schools of the pioneering period were infe- 
rior to the schools of to-day. In methods and appliances the 
schools of the two periods were as wide asunder as the poles, 
but in results, take it school for school and month for month, I 
am inclined to think the difference was not so very marked. 
Dr. Boone, in his ''History of Education in Indiana,"* does not, 
as I remember, discuss this question, but if he did he would 
hardly agree with me. Nevertheless, the evidence is abundant 
that the pioneer schoolmasters were, in general, fairly efiScieut 
workers in the schoolroom. 

However much or little of school training the Indiana pio- 
neers had, of two facts, I think, we may be assured: 1. They 
differed, as a class, in no respect as to their education, from the 
pioneer settlers of any other State of that period. 2. The sen- 
timent quite generally prevailed among them, as it did with the 
people of all other States, of an earnest desire that their chil- 
dren should enjoy far more excellent educational privileges than 

*Thi8 allusion is to Dr. Boone's MS. 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 43 

had fallen to their own lot. Or, in other words, they enter- 
tained, in common with all the United States people of their day, 
the American idea of the great value of school training. Of the 
truth of these two propositions I think there can be no doubt. 
Dr. Boone, in his history, makes it quite plain that later on in 
Indiana there came a time when there was a seeming indiffer- 
ence in educational affairs that was not at all creditable to the 
people of the State, but that charge can not in justice be laid to 
the door of the first comers. The truth is, that long before any 
steps had been taken in Massachusetts or New York, or anywhere 
else in the western world, looking to a free-school system to be sup- 
ported by the State, Indiana, in her organic law, had made pro- 
vision for a system of free education, commencing in the town- 
ship schools and ending in the State University, and but for the 
great poverty of the people, which rendered the scheme abso- 
lutely impracticable, there can be no doubt that there would 
have been a free-school system in active operation in this State 
twenty years or more before the first blundering steps were tak- 
en toward it in any other State. 

If one would take the time for it he might secure quite a 
varied and extensive assortment of "first schools" in the State. 
Mr. Randall Yarbro, who came to Clark county in 1810, said: 
"What was probably the first school in Indiana was opened in 
1811 in Jeffersonville, near the river bank." From a work en- 
titled "Indiana Methodism" I quote: "The firist school of any 
kind in the territory of Indiana was taught one and a half miles 
south of Charlestown, in 1803." In the summer of 1796 Volney 
visited Vincennes, and declared that nobody ever opened a school 
among the French there till it was done by the Abbe R. [Rivet], 
a missionary banished hither by the French Revolution; and he 
adds the further statement that "out of nine of the French scarce- 
ly six could read or write, whereas nine-tenths of the American 
emigrants from the east could do both." From the testimony of 
John Tipton, a capital-site commissioner, we are warranted in 
believing that a Frenchman taught school in an Indian village, 
situated on what is now the northwest comer of Johnson coimty, 
before M. Rivet's day.* 

*For what Tipton layi, fee VoL I, No. 1, p. IS, of this magaaine. 



44 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

The first school within the present borders of the State was 
a French school, probably at Vincennes, and the first Ang-lo- 
American school was taught in Clarksville, whose settlement 
was begun not later than 1785, and probably two or three years 
before that. At any rate, the place was a "small town** in 1789, 
and althoug'h it was never a place of more than a few log- houses, 
we mig'ht safely assume that schools of some sort were provided 
for the children of the settlement, for this would accord with 
what I believe to have been the unvarying American practice. 
After the peace of Greenville, in 1795, the Clark's Grant settle- 
ment naturally grew faster than it did before, and in 1800 its pop- 
ulation numbered 929. Surely there must have been schools 
maintained by this time. But we are not left to conjecture 
merely. From the old records of Clarksville, kept from the first, 
there are frequent entries relating to the schoolhouses and school- 
masters almost from the very first. 

The presumption is next to conclusive that a school was opened 
in Dearborn county prior to 1802. In the spring of 1796 six- 
teen families moved across the Big Miami and became the first 
settlers of Dearborn county. They had settled on the Ohio side 
of the Miami three years before, and during their three years' 
sojourn there they organized a school and brought in the first 
schoolmaster known to that part of the country, one Isaac Polk, 
who **was known far and near as Master Polk." What these six- 
teen families who moved on southeastern Indiana soil in the 
spring of 1796, and who were joined by four or five of the fami- 
lies of the Ohio neighborhood the same year, did in the matter 
of schools, the muse of history, unfortunately, has not seen fit 
to say. We are left to conjecture, but with the record made 
during the three years of their residence in Ohio, we may feel 
very confident that the year of their moving, or at farthest the 
following one, marked the advent of the schoolhouse in southern 
Indiana. 

From The News of January 20, 1892. 

Without further discussion, we may accept that in general, 
whenever and wherever a neighborhood contained enough chil- 
dren to warrant the enterprise, a schoolmaster was secured and 
u HI hool was opened. But it must be remembered that neighbor- 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 45 

hoods in the early days covered far wider reaches of country 
than is generally the case now. To that schoolhouse south of 
Charlestowfl referred to in the ''History of Methodism in Indi- 
ana,^' D. W. Daily, of Clark county, went when a small boy, 
walking a distance of three miles through the woods. Young 
Daily's school path, like thousands of others, was not very 
plain, and was sometimes crossed by wild and savage beasts. 
His devoted mother, realizing the dangers that beset her boy, 
went with him part of the way every looming, carrying her 
youngest bom in her arms, and every evening she met him on 
the way as he returned to his home. One of the first schools 
taught in Spencer county drew children to it from a distance of 
four miles in every direction; and it was by no means uncommon 
for school children to trudge, morning and evening, three and 
four and even more miles to attend their schools. 

In the beginning, houses were not built exclusively for school 
uses, if an unoccupied cabin or other place was found available 
for the purpose. The first school taught in Martinsville, certain 
chroniclers say, was a summer school on a gentleman's porch, 
by Dr. John Morrison. There are others, however, who insist 
that the first school was taught in a bam by James Conway. 
Bams were not infrequently turned into summer schoolhouses 
during the pioneer educational period. The first school taught 
in Newburg, Warrick county, was in John Sprinkle's bam, and 
many other bams were given up during part of the temperate 
season to the pedagogue and his pupils. Mills were also utilized 
on occasions. The first school ever taught in the English lan- 
guage in the town of Vevay was by John Wilson, a Baptist min- 
ister, in a horse mill. An early school in Waynesville, Barthol- 
omew county, was taught by a retired distiller in a blacksmith 
shop, which school, for reasons itot stated, was attended by 
yoimg men and boys only. In Spencer county a deserted tan- 
nery was utilized. In Knox, in Jackson, and perhaps elsewhere, 
the old forts, after the close of the Indian wars, were turned 
into schoolhouses. In the towns of Franklin, Brownstown, and 
some others, the log court-houses were occupied between courts. 
In Dubois county Simon Morgan, the county recorder, kept 
school for many years in the recorder's office. John Godlove, 



46 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

of Delaware county, taught one of the first schools in the pre- 
cincts of his own kitchen, while in every county south of the 
Wabash, and, doubtless, north of it also, abandoned cabins of 
one kind or another, were quite frequently used for school 
purposes.* 

The appropriating- of the mills and the forts, of the bams and 
old cabins for schools was, however, the exception and not the 
rule. The rule was that if a house of some kind was not found 
ready-made when the time for organizing a school came aroimd, 
those expecting to be its patrons usually made short work of build- 
ing one. The first were the plainest and cheapest form of log 
cabin. The neighbors of the Stotts settlement on White river, 
in Morgan county, began and finished ready for occupancy their 
schoolhouse in one day. Of course, it was the rudest of log cab- 
ins, but it may well be supposed that there were hundreds of not 
much if any better in Indiana from first to last. I have been 
told of one such that was built and occupied in White River 
township, in Jackson county, at a very early day. It was a pole 
cabin without window, floor or chimney. The fire was kindled 
on a raised clay platform or hearth in the center, and the sparks 
and smoke escaped through a large opening in the roof. The 
children sat on benches next the walls, facing the center, and 
studied their lessons by the light that came whence the smoke 
escaped. The house was modeled, evidently, after a hunters* 
camp. In another part of the same county, a first temple of 
learning was erected and finished without windows or openings 
for the light to come in save at the door and the wide throat of 
the enormous chimney. A similar one was a schoolhouse in 
Nashville, this State. We usually associate with the primitive 
schoolhouses the ''greased paper windows," but the truth is, 
"paper glass" marked a step in the process of the evolution of 
these structures. In the history of Spencer county the statement 
is made that the first schoolhouses had uncovered openings 
through which the light entered. There were first schoolhouses 
elsewhere in the State that were without windows. The paper 
covering, made translucent by a free use of hog's lard or bear's 

*Apropo8, it may be mentioned that HanoTer College had ite beginning in the litUe thie»- 
room residence of Dr. John Finley Crowe. When Mrs. Crowe's domestic duties made it 
necessary, the class of six boys repaired to the loom-house, a log structure of one room de- 
Toted to the family weaTing.— Editor. 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 47 

oil, had not yet been thought of, but was to come as an improve- 
ment and mark an era in the improvement of schoolhouse archi- 
tecture. The settlement of Spencer county was begun as early 
as about 1812, and the statement may well be true, for its 
earliest-built schoolhouse belonged to the first of the Territory. 
In Blue River township, Hancock county, the first one was 
built of logs and had five corners. It was not chinked and 
daubed, had no windows, and but one door. This must have 
been as late as 1830. The uncovered openings of the Spencer 
county houses are suggestive of the portholes in the blockhouses 
built during the early days as a protection against the Indians. 
It is a well-known fact that after the final cessation of Indian 
hostilities the old forts were in some instances converted into 
schoolhouses, and I find it recorded that a school was taught in 
1808 in the dwelling house of John Widner, * 'which house was 
almost a fort," having been constructed with special reference 
to making resistance against attacks of Indians. Indeed, there 
is direct authority for the statement that schoolhouses were con- 
structed in Washington county with portholes for shooting at 
the Indians, and if in Washington county, we have good reason 
to suppose that they were likewise so constructed elsewhere at 
the same time. I have not come across any record or tradition 
to show that a cabin full of school children was ever beleaguered 
in Indiana, or even that the schoolmasters of the State ever at any 
time carried rifles to their schools with which to defend their 
scholars in case of attack; but when we remember how very 
few of the specific acts of a man or of men, which belong to 
every-day life and are not required by some law to be entered of 
record, find their way into history books, we can see that school- 
masters may have gone armed to their schools here in Indiana, 
and the fact remain unknown; and I have no doubt they did. 

While the old schoolhouses were, whatever their dimensions, 
generally rectangular in shape, this was not always true. I 
find an account of two in Orange county, in Northwest and 
Southeast townships respectively, that seem to have been five- 
sided, one end being built "in the shape of a fence corner for 
a fireplace." This unique style of architecture may have been 
practiced elsewhere. In fact, a five-cornered schoolhouse was 
erected in Hancock county as late as 1830. 



48 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Can those who attended the old cabin scbooUipuses ever f or]get 
the total want of everything connected with them that was calr 
ciliated to cheer and comfort the youngster in his ascent of the 
hill of knowledge? No attempt, whatever, was ever made by 
the men who constructed these houses toward beautifying them 
in any degree, and, judged by the standards of to-day, not much 
was done with a view to securing the comfort of. the children. 

The following description of an old time schoolhouse and its 
furnishings is taken from * 'Recollections of the Early Settlement 
of the Wabash Valley," by Sanford C. Cox: 

*'The schoolhouse was generally a log cabin with puncheon 
floor, 'cat and clay' chimney, and a part of two logs chopped 
away on each side of the house for windows, over which greased 
newspapers or foolscap was pasted to admit the light and keep 
out the cold. The house was generally furnished with a split 
[splint] bottom chair for the teacher, and rude benches made out 
of slabs or puncheons for the children to sit upon, so arranged 
as to get the benefit of the huge log fire in the winter time, and 
the light from the windows. To these add a broom, a water- 
bucket, and a tin cup or gourd, and the furniture list will be 
complete." 

The writer omits one important adjunct, viz,, the writing*' 
table or bench, as it was in some schoolhouses not inappropriate- 
ly called. This usually consisted of a broad board, sawed or 
sometimes rived, nailed to stout pins driven into holes bored in 
the logs at a proper slant upward beneath the long window. 
Jn the absence of a suitable board, a puncheon hewn to a smooth 
face, or even a half->log so hewn and mounts upon pins driven 
into the wall or upon stakes driven into the earth, was made to 
serve the purpose of a lighter writing table. 

It would be a waste of words to point out the squalor and dis- 
comfort of the old cabin schoolhouses. Most of us, however, 
who caught glimpses of learning within their portals in our 
younger days, think we treasure very tender recollections of 
them, but I suspect the tender recollections are of the youthful 
friendships we- then formed, and of th^ surrounding woods 3>n4 
str^an^ that witnessed indulgence in all manner of lawful sports, 
without a shadow of fear of tre^assing. on the rights of others. 

[ To be continued,] 



INDIANA QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Gborgb S. Cottman, Editor and Proprietor, 

EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

THE RICHMOND CBNTBNNIAL. 

Just now there is, perhaps, more local history interest in Rich- 
mond and Wayne county than in any other part of the State, 
because of the centennial anniversary of the settlement of that 
locality. The following brief statement from Mr. Cyrus W. 
Hodgfin, president of the Centennial Association, will give an 
idea of the movement: 

*'The first white settlers on the site of Richmond came there 
in 1806. This year, 1906, is therefore the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the event. At its meeting in November, 1905, the 
Wayne County Historical Society appointed a committee to con- 
sult with the City Council and a number of other organizations 
concerning an appropriate celebration of the centennial of the 
beginning of the town. The Council approved, and appointed a 
cooperating committee. A Centennial Association has been 
organized, consisting of representatives chosen by nearly one 
hundred fraternal societies, churches, and literary, charitable 
and business organizations. A number of standing committees 
have been appointed to promote various phases of the plan, and 
the work of preparation for the event is now well under way. 

"There will be six days devoted to the celebration, beginning 
September 11, and closing on Sunday, the 16th. It will be a 
time of home-coming for former residents, and a program of ex- 
cellent variety and high character will be presented for the en- 
joyment of all. Old Richmondites are invited to send for an- 
noimcements." 

From this it will be seen that there is promise of a general 
awakening in Richmond along this line. Indeed, the editor will 
personally testify to this, for in a recent visit to '*The Queen of 
all the Hoosier Plain" he foimd not a few citizens deeply en- 
grossed in the past story of their commimity, and all available 
sources are being drawn upon. Old newspaper files are being 



so INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

bunted up, and the people are urged to ransack their chests and 
attics in search of papers and relics. The first Richmond direc- 
tory, published in 1857, contains a history of the place, by John 
T. Plummer, which, like Ignatius Brown's directory history of 
Indianapolis, is the one upon which all the subsequent histories 
have been based. If any one in or out of the county has one of 
those directories, now is the time to find a market for it. The 
press, particularly Tne Sun- Telegram^ is pushing the movement 
along with enthusiasm, and will be an effective instrument in 
promoting popular interest by its publication through the sum- 
mer of reminiscences and history papers gleaned from old res- 
idents and students of the earlier day. 

WHAT THBY AKE DOING IN IOWA. 

• 

Iowa is one of the States younger than Indiana where they 
have come to perceive the value of their own history and have 
taken steps to preserve it. In connection with their State Li- 
brary they have a Historical Department, and to these are de- 
voted a handsome edifice of imposing proportions. Moreover, 
from this Historical Department is issued a quarterly historical 
magazine (^Annals of Iowa) ^ which is one of the best of its kind 
published in the country. With the State support back of it, it 
is enabled to add to its letter-press many illustrations and charts 
— a very desirable feature which, so far, this inagazine has not 
been able to do, except in a very limited way. A letter to the 
editor of Annals, Mr. Charles Aldrich, relative to the local his- 
tory interest there, has elicited the following reply: 

"Your letter of the 28th ult., came yesterday. You asked me 
how I started this work. It was simply by giving a boy's auto- 
graph collection, and being obliged to come here and see that it 
was taken care of, where it would otherwise have been utterly 
wasted. In order to get a case for its reception, I had to 'hang 
around' the capitol some little time at my own expense. It did 
not seem that I could leave the collection unguarded without dan- 
ger of its destruction, so I stayed and stayed. A little investi- 
gation showed me that the State was doing nothing at that time 
to preserve the materials of its history, so in a small w^iy I be- 
gan to 'beg' files of newspapers, books, pamphlets and public 
documents which were out of print, and which were not other- 



*' *• ^ • ■ 



EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 51 

wise much esteemed, but which contained some of the materials 
that a State historian would require. I foimd that Wisconsin 
had the histories of seventy Iowa coimties, while our State Li- 
brary contained but half that number, with only one dilapidated 
volume on North American Indians, and on several tribes that 
had made their homes in what is now Iowa. 

^'Gradually, these ideas forced themselves upon me, and before 
I was hardly aware of it, I became a collector. I soon began to 
receive prehistoric stone implements, arms which were in use in 
the civil war, specimens of birds and animals, minerals, fossils, 
ancient implements and furniture, etc., etc. Seeing- what I was 
doing, the Legislature finally gave me the use of three vacant 
rooms in the basement of the capitol building. Looking back 
upon those days it seems an incomparably short time until the 
rooms were filled to overflowing. Then, gradually the idea of a 
building for this special purpose seemed to be evolved, and mat- 
ters progressed in the usual way until June 17, 1899, when the 
cornerstone of the present edifice was laid by Governor Shaw. 
Since then, our progress has been quite rapid. Our museum has 
developed until it has become an object of State-wide attrac- 
tion, not to the people of wealth and to those who travel 
widely, but to the common people of Iowa. 

"If I can do anything further to assist you, it will afford me 
very great pleasure." 

"P. S. I had almost forgotten to mention your admirable 
magazine. You are doing splendidly and it ought to command 
support. If you can continue it as you have started, it will be 
a great help to your other work. In fact, I am of the opinion 
that our Annals of Iowa has done more *to develop and expand 
this work than almost any other instrumentality except the 
museum. It brings to us exchanges with more than three hund- 
red newspapers and historical magazines, not only throughout 
the United States, but in foreign countries. It serves to preserve 
many of the materials of history, and we now have a constant 
demand for back numbers from schools, colleges and libraries, 
as well as individuals, all over the country. I have been com- 
pelled to reprint several numbers. I think I mentioned your 
magazine when it was first started, for I have a distinct recol- 
lection that it greatly pleased me.*' 



52 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

WORK OF THE MONROE COUNTY SOCIETY. 

The Monroe County Historical Society, org-anized but a year 
ago, has maintained the vigor with which it started out, and 
in a program recently issued for 1905-1906 we find an admira- 
ble showing". The meetings are held monthly throughout the 
year except August, and at present not less than fifteen papers 
have been prepared or are promised. Those that have been read 
are: "Reminiscences of Indiana University Forty Years Ago" 
(published in Vol. 1, No. 3, of this magazine); *'Hon. James 
Hughes," by Henry C. Duncan; **The History of the Blooming- 
ton Water- Works," by Ira C. Batman; * 'James Parks, Pioneer," 
by Jonathan W. Ray; *'01d Water Mills in Monroe County," by 
Williamson B. Seward; **My Grandmother Seward's Stories of 
Pioneer Times," by Miss Margaret McCuUough; '*Early Elec- 
tions in Monroe County," by Frank C. Duncan; ''Sketch of 
Dudley Chase Smith, of Vermont," by his son, Dudley F. Smith; 
"The Rogers Family in Monroe County," by Leonidas D. Rogers; 
"My Grandmother Elizabeth Grundy Dunn," by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Dunn ^^^%' 

Those on the program yet to be read are, dates and subjects, 
as follows: 

March i6, "The Bloomington Christian Church," by AmziAt- 
water; April 20, "Notes from the Journal of Dr. Theophilus A. 
Wylie," by Mrs. Louise Wylie Boisen; May 18, "The Univer- 
sity in the Later Fifties," by Judge John C. Robinson; June 15, 
"A Sketch of Austin Seward," by Henry C. Duncan; July 20, 
"Monroe County Stone Quarries," by Williamson B. Seward. 

To quote from the program: 

"A number of subjects are in contemplation from which the 
program for the year 1906-1907 will be made up. Among these 
are 'The Monon Railroad,' by Mr. Carter Perring; 'The Blooming- 
ton Public Schools from the Records of the School Board,' by Mr. 
W. A. Rawles; 'The Immigration of the Scotch-Irish Presbyteri- 
ans to Monroe County,' by Mr. J. A. Woodburn; 'The Old Monroe 
County Female Seminary,' by Mr. Amzi At water; 'The History 
of Organized Charities in Bloomington,' by Mrs. Minnie B. Wal- 
dron; 'Company K, 14th Indiana Volunteers in the Civil War,' 
by Miss Mary Kelly; 'The Beginnings of the City Hospital,' by 
Mrs. Maude Showers. 



EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 53 

*Trhe society hopes to secure in time, a history of each re- 
ligious denomination in the county and of individual congje- 
g'ations. It seeks the cooperation of clerks of sessions and of 
congreg-ational secretaries and pastors to this end. 

"It is the intention of the society to preserve typewritten cop- 
ies of all the papers read before the society, to be bound in an- 
nual volumes. 

LOCAL HISTORY CONTRIBUTIONS. 

POST VINCBNNBS — A SUMMARY OF THB BVIDBNCB RBLATING TO 

ITS ESTABLISHMBNT. 

A pamphlet of some fifteen or twenty thousand words bearing 
this title has recently been issued by F. A. Myers, of Bvansville. 
As the sub-title implies, it is a study in the sources that touch 
upon the old post, and particularly upon the date of its establish- 
ment. There is ample evidence in the text that the study has 
been searching and painstaking, and it has much collateral in- 
formation that is of interest. Just what it adds to the subject 
only an expert could tell. We frankly confess ourselves some- 
what stupid in the attempt to get at the merits of this particular 
kind of a question. The date of the establishment of Vincennes 
is involved in much haze, and the probabilities are that it will 
never be less hazy. The evidence at best but affords grounds 
for surmise, and the surmising varies with the ingenuity of the 
investigator, just as, in the contentions that spring up, the most 
ingenious reasoner triumphs quite regardless, perhaps, of the 
actual facts in the case. Mr. Myers takes vigorous exceptions 
to certain conclusions of Mr. J. P. Dunn on this subject, but we 
think he might have presented a clearer summary of his own ar- 
gument, the exact scope of which is uncertain on a casual read- 
ing. The pamphlet, nevertheless, we repeat, is a careful and 
lengthy study of the question from such data as exist, and as 
such should be in the collection of every one who is gathering 
Indiana material. The author's address is 724 Upper Third 
street, Bvansville, Ind. 

Nbwspapbr Articlbs. There is much, in fact, a surprising 
amount, of valuable history material being continually publish- 
ed by the local papers throughout the State. Very often this is 



54 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

not preserredy even by the publishing' papers, and in a short 
time passes into ntter obliviotk We shall be glad to receive 
for notice in these pages any articles of note that have been sa 
published, either recently or at any previous period* Some have 
been received and we here give them space. 

Tk€ True Site of Fort Knox, by Dr. Hubbard M. Smithy in the 
Sunday Commercial, of Vincennes, January 7, 1906. In this article 
Dr. Smith proves by good documentary evidence that Fort Knox 
(the American fort in that locality that succeeded to Port Sack- 
ville) was located at Vincennes, about two hundred yards below 
the present foot of Hart street. It has been generally believed 
that this fort stood at a point some three miles up the river, 
but Mr. Smith makes it tolerably clear that the establishment 
located there was not the fort, but a garrison, and that there has 
arisen a confusion respecting the two. He makes an appeal to 
the Daughters of the Revolution to place a marker at this site, 
as they have already marked old Port Sackville. 

TTie George Lay Raidy a series of ten papers by John T. 
Campbell, in the Roekville Republican, May 9 to July 11, 1894. 
This series makes an interesting chapter in our civil war his- 
tory and recounts Mr. Campbell's experiences as an officer with 
the disaflFected element in Parke county. The articles give a 
graphic idea of the spirit of the times and the serious proportions 
of organized rebellion in that locality. Some of these papers, 
we believe, may still be procured. Mr. Campbell's address is 
The Soldiers' Home, Lafayette. 

The Unnamed Anti-Slavery Heroes of Old Newport, by Dr. O. N. 
HuflF, in the Richmond Sun- Telegram, December 25, 1905. This 
rather lengthy paper is a valuable contribution to the anti-slavery 
history of Wayne county, in that it preserves a record of the 
names and services of active workers in that cause who have 
received little or no credit in the histories previously written. 
There is quite a list of these names, and the part some of them 
played makes an interesting story. 

The New Harmony Papers, The New Harmony Times is doing 
a good work by giving to the public documentary material from 
the rich collection in the New Harmony Library. The journals 
of William Owen and William Pelham, from the original manu- 
scripts, have been running for some months, and the reminis- 



EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 55 

cences of the late Victor Duclos have been recently begun. All of 
these papers deal with the famous JRappite and Owen commun- 
ities and have a far more than local interest. The Duclos ar- 
ticles will be followed bj a diary of James Bennett, who went to 
California across the plains in 1849, and Mr. Wolfe, the editor^ 
promises that it will offer ^''a rare addition to the information 
that has been left of the once unknown West.^ 

The Genesis of Methodism in Richmond^ by the Rev. O, & Har^ 
rison, in the 5*101- Tekgram^ February 14, 1906, is, as the title im* 
plies, a local contribution to the history of the State, and as 
such will be of interest to the student of that subject. 

Edivard SwansoTL, the romantic story of a strange character who 
was hanged for murder in Rushville, in 1829 — a series of arti* 
cles by Dr. John Arnold, in the RushviUe Graphic^ in August 
and September, 1897. These papers contain considerable lore of 
Rush county. Dr. Arnold also published a series of * 'Reminis- 
cences^ in the Rushville Republiain^ beginning' January, 187& 

INDIAN MOUNDS IN DEKALB COUNTY. 

Editor the Indiana Magazine of History: — 

References in the December number of the Indiana Quartbrlt 
Magazinb op History, to the old Indiana Torture Stake near 
Muncie, have suggested to me an explanation of a discovery 
made by me while examining some of the mounds in DeKalb 
county. I examined a great many of these mounds. Most of 
them contained human bones, fragments of pottery, and an oc« 
casional arrow-head, stone hammer, or stone flesher. 

Two of these mounds were on the bank of Cedar creek, about 
one-half mile northwest of Waterloo. Large trees were grow 
ing around them, and quite a large tree grew about in the cen- 
ter of one of them, — the smaller of the two. The large mound 
was about twelve feet in diameter, and about four and one-half 
or five feet in hight. It contained the skeleton of one person, 
apparently buried in a sitting posture. The other contained 
the remains of a number of persons. The bodies had apparently 
been placed in a heap on the ground, and covered with earth. 
Fractures of some of the skulls indicated violent deaths. Above 
the earth covering the bodies was a layer of stone and over this 
more earth and a thick layer of charcoal mingled with charred 



56 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

fragments of human bones. At that time, after a careful ex- 
amination, I concluded that these mounds marked the site of a 
battle; that the victors of those left in possession of the field 
had made these mounds the burial place of their dead, and had 
burned the bodies of their dead enemies on the mound above 
them. The description of the old torture stake at Muncie sug- 
gests that instead of the bodies of their dead enemies, they may 
have burned living victims. Very respectfully, 

ROBBRT W. McBrIDB. 
Indianapolis, January 10, 1906. 

STATE TEACHERS' HISTORY SECTION. 

The ninth annual meeting of the History Section of the In- 
diana State Teachers' Association will meet at the Claypool 
Hotel, in Indianapolis, on Friday and Saturday, April 27 and 28, 
1906. Following is the program: 

Friday, 2:00 p. m. — Report of committee on local history, C. W. Hodgin, 
chairman; discussion opened by Prof. W. S. Davis, Richmond Hig-h 
School (Professor Davis is chairman of the History Committee of the 
Richmond Centennial Association, and will show what may be done, 
bj what Richmond is preparing* for her Centennial next September); 
report of committee on history in the grades, Prof. E. W. Kemp, 
chairman; general discussion; appointment of committees. 

6:00 P. M. — Dine together at the Claypool. 

8:00 P. M. — Joint session of the History Section and the Indiana Histori- 
cal Society; paper, **Making a Capital in the Wilderness," by Judge 
Daniel Waite Howe, president of the Historical Society; talk, "Work 
of the Historical Society," by Hon. J. P. Dunn, its secretary; talk, 
**Aims of the History Section, and Possible Ways of Cooperation 
Between the Two Societies," by Dr. James A. Woodburn; general dis- 
cussion. 
Saturday, 9:00 a. m. Address, **An Experiment with History in the 
Grades," by Prof. Henry Johnson, of the Eastern Illinois State Nor- 
mal School; general discussion; address, ** Evolution of the Present 
Wave of Reform," by Hon. L. B. Swift; election of officers; miscel- 
laneous business. 

Headquarters at the Claypool, which furnishes free Assembly Room, 
and offers a $2.50 rate, two in a room; $3.00, one in a room. 

All teachers of history and related subjects are cordially invited to par- 
ticipate in the pleasure and profit of all the sessions. 



THE INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Vol. n JUNE, 1906 No. 2 

GEORGE W« JULIAN s SOME IMPRESSIONS. 

BY HIS DAUGHTER, MRS. GRACE JULIAN CLARKE. 

"The dear and erood paternal image." 

— Daktb. 

OF my father's political career I could have no knowledge at 
first hand, because it was mainly finished before I was old 
enough to remember. I knew him only as an old man and a 
semi-invalid; but these two facts, coupled with the sudden death 
of my mother in 1884, brought me into very close and intimate 
relations with him. And it is my conviction that his public 
services, valuable and disinterested as they were, were yet not 
so remarkable as was the man himself, which prompts me to give 
to his friends this little sketch of my father as he appeared to me, 
supplemented by a few facts gathered from him and from others. 

Life was truly a boon to him, increasing in value with the 
years. It was, moreover, a momentous reality, an experience 
not to be idly or carelessly passed through, but a privilege into 
which should be crowded as much of useful achievement as 
possible. It was not mere existence that he loved. Activity 
was his delight, and he fretted under enforced idleness. He 
dreaded unspeakably the loss of his faculties, and during the 
last few years the words of John Quincy Adams about his 
^'shaking hand, darkening eye and drowsy brain" seemed to 
possess new meaning for him. Ever on the alert for signs of 
failing mental power, he was a severe task-master to himself, for 
he believed that he could at least hinder the ravages of time by 
keeping his mind employed. It is probable that the final catas- 
trophe was precipitated by the continuous strain, during exces- 
sively warm weather, occasioned in the preparation of a book re- 
view for The Died. This meant double work for the brain grown 
sluggish with age and supported by an increasingly feeble body. 

Although stinted in sleep for more than thirty years, and 



58 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

bowed down by gTowing infirmities, my father manifested a 
certain pugnacity in facing distressing conditions that not only 
made them bearable, but lent a sort of color to life. It was not 
a part of his philosophy to ignore evil and unfortunate circum- 
stances, as it has become fashionable nowadays to do, but rather 
to face them in all their might and ugliness, and then set to 
work to overcome them. Among the lines that he repeated 
of tenest were these from Browning's Easter Day: 

*' And so I live, jou see. 
Go throug'h the world, try, prove, reject. 
Prefer, still striving- to eflFect 
Mj warfare; happy that I can 
Be crossed and thwarted as a man. 
Not left in God's contempt apart. 
With ghastly smooth life, dead at heart," 

• 

When attacked by the grippe, which occurred quite regularly 
during the last few years, he would keep his room at first with 
rather a bad grace, for he loved to be down among his books, 
where he could see people; but presently, having become ad- 
justed to the situation, he would set himself to pointing out its 
pleasant features — the east and south windows, the open fire, 
the pictures on the walls, — ^pictures of the capitol and of the 
Thirty-first Congress, of Horace Greeley, Thaddeus Stevens and 
others. Sunshine was a perpetual delight to him, and the fleet- 
ing glory of the dawn was worth a great effort to behold. 
Once, when he was recovering from pneumonia, I was shocked 
and a bit provoked, on going into his room very early in the 
morning, to find him standing at the window gazing out, al- 
though it was quite cold. and he was not dressed; but he won 
forgiveness by hurrying back to bed, saying gaily: *'I had to 
get up to see 'jocund day standing tiptoe upon the misty mountain 
tops' I" The branches of the maples as they swayed to and fro 
outside his window spoke a language very sweet and quieting, 
and the birds were a constant source of pleasure to him. The 
sight of a storm seemed to fascinate him, and he would go from 
one room to another to get new views of it, his face wearing a 
look of mingled awe and delight. The twilight hour was a 
precious time; he liked then to have a loved one beside him, by 
the fire in winter and under the trees in summer, and to sit in 



GEORGE W. JULIAN: SOME IMPRESSIONS 59 

silent meditation, or repeating poetry, or talking of the day*s 
doings and the morrow's plans. Always a great walker, he 
rather prided himself on his three miles a day at eighty, and 
bis figure was a familiar one in all parts of the village. But al- 
though ^^the old perfections of the earth" appealed to him more 
and more with the passing years, they never took the place of 
human society. **What should we do without people?" he mur- 
mured, gazing out at neighbors passing by, on the day before 
he laid him down for the last time. Unfailing courage, and 
ever-fresh enjoyment of nature and of the varying phases of hu- 
man experience, were among his most pronounced characteristics. 

Children came very close to him, and he had the art of enter- 
taining them without apparent effort. He had a fund of bear 
stories, and there was a favorite tale about Captain Scott and the 
Coons. General Putnam and the Wolf was another thrilling re- 
cital. In relating these there was more or less dramatic acces- 
sory, and when the gun went off, **she-bangl" was always the 
climax. 

Whatever my father did he put his whole heart into. He 
worked impetuously and indefatigably, and he played as he 
worked. In his youth he had enjoyed the game of Town Ball, 
and his special delight always as a recreation from intellectual 
labor was to toss a rubber ball against the house, keeping it on 
the bound sometimes ten or fifteen hundred times. The games 
of Base, and Hide and Seek, and Blind Man's Buff were also 
favorites; but it was largely his own enthusiasm and the aban- 
don with which he entered into them that made them fascinat- 
ing. This it was that made his society so engaging, — the en- 
thusiasm he felt for people and things, coupled with an air of 
wisdom, as of one having a horizon much wider than the av- 
erage, every-day horizon. 

His opinions were uttered with a freedom and spontaneity that 
were refreshing, and yet with a seriousness and tone of authori- 
ty that were the fruit of deep thinking and long experience. It 
was Miss Catharine Merrill, for fifty years a teacher of English, 
who said that he talked in such complete sentences that they 
had the quality of literature. I believe he never spoke without 
previous thought. 

In all his talk there was a deep religious vein, a spirit of faith 



60 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

in the Eternal Goodness, that was tonic in effect. In his article 
entitled "A Search After Truth" he called himself a Theist, 
and expressed his belief in personal immortality on the strength 
of the human affections and because he could not think that ^*the 
unappeasable hunger of the soul for so priceless a blessing was 
implanted to be ungratified." He believed in the simple hu- 
manity of Jesus and in the renovating and ever-uplifting power 
of his life and teachings in raising the world to higher and yet 
higher conditions. The life and sufferings of the Nazarene were 
habitually in his thoughts, and the story of the crucifixion al- 
ways brought tears to his eyes. Perhaps the most touching and 
terrible passage in literature, to him, was the sentence, * 'My God, 
my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" This picture of awful 
agony and utter loneliness was one not to be dwelt on, that yet 
laid hold of the heart and imagination. 

Reverence was a marked characteristic of my father — ^rever- 
ence for God, and Truth, and Duty. He was a good deal of a 
hero-worshiper, too, and certain names were always spoken with 
tender regard and a glow of pride. Among these were Plato, 
Dante, Bruno, Milton, Mazzini. But all his heroes did not belong 
to the past. He had numerous idols among the men of his own 
time. Over the mantel in his library hung portraits of William 
EUery Channing, Theodore Parker and Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
saint, reformer and seer, as he called them. It was not his priv- 
ilege to have known John Quincy Adams, the latter having 
died the year before my father entered Congress. But Mr. 
Adams's character impressed him as few others did, and he was 
almost as familiar with his career as with the alphabet. 
Charles Sumner was another statesman of Abdiel-like propor- 
tions, whose greatness seemed to tower higher with the reced- 
ing years. 

Deference to old people was a trait always observed in my 
father, — so I am told by his surviving cousins. The loneliness 
of the aged, even in the most favored conditions, appealed to him; 
and the sight of age coupled with want caused him a pang only 
equaled perhaps by the spectacle of a mind in ruins. To see 
one whom he had known in the vigor of manhood fallen into a 
condition of mental decay was not only unspeakably sad, but it 
seemed to fill him with a sort of awe. 



GEORGE W. JULIAN: SOME IMPRESSIONS 61 

My father was fond of the theater, particularly in middle life, 
when he went as a relaxation from the work and worry connected 
with the war period. Joseph Jefferson as Rip Van Winkle he 
went to see annually, if possible, and he liked to repeat Rip's 
farewell as he departed in the storm, and his beseeching* words 
to his new-made friends in the mountains: ''Boys, do not leave 
me/' The elder Sothem as Lord Dundreary pleased him infi- 
nitely, and he imitated to perfection the puzzled look of Dun- 
dreary when the latter attempted to repeat proverbs. The fun- 
ny little hop, or skip, that was also characteristic of Sothem in 
this part, he could rehearse capitally, and did so during the last 
weeks of his life. The Booths, father and son, and Fanny 
Kemble, were favorites. Edwin Forrest as King Lear he never 
missed an opportunity of seeing, and I think he felt real pity for 
the man or woman who had never heard Forrest's tone when he 
called on the dead Cordelia to ''stay a little." To the end of his 
life he spoke with enthusiastic delight of Jenny Lind and Christine 
Nillson. He had not what is called a cultivated ear, his taste 
being for simple things, especially for the Scotch ballads. His 
voice was sweet and melodious, and he sang almost every day. 
Sometimes it was a hymn that he had learned in childhood, but 
more often it was one of Bums's songs, — the Banks o' Doon, Auld 
Lang Syne, or Highland Mary; and his voice rang out with 
peculiar fervor to the thrilling strains of Bannockburn. 

In his youth he had committed to memory a great deal of poet- 
ry, and this he retained in large measure to the last, while he 
regularly added to his stock from the good things that appeared 
from time to time. As he lay awake at night he would repeat 
page after page of Paradise Lost, and occasionally some frag- 
ment that he had learned some fifty or sixty years before would 
come floating across his memory, called from its hiding place 
none knew how. Until within the last fifteen years, if asked 
who was his favorite poet after Shakespeare and Milton, he would 
probably have said Tennyson; but about 1885 he became inter- 
ested in the poetry of Robert Browning, from which he derived 
great pleasure, and he repeated more of Browning, I think, than 
of TennjTSon thereafter. "In Memoriam" remained without a 
rival in his regard, but there was a certain strength, a tone of 
courage, about much of Browning's work that touched in him a 
responsive chord. 



62 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

He had a peculiar regard for books. They almost seemed to 
possess sentient life, and he could not endure to see them tum- 
bled about carelessly. In the primitive society of his young- 
days books were very rare and precious, and he never ceased to 
regard them in that light. He cared greatly for philosophy, 
history, biography, and sermons of men like Martineau and 
Channing. Novels he knew little about, and he used to say that 
his early education along this line had been neglected; but I 
fancy he did not realize how vast and important was the field 
from which he was thus excluded. He had, of course, read cer- 
tain classics, such as Tristram Shandy, Don Quixote, Les Mis- 
erables, Consuelo, and a number of George Eliot's, and he did 
not forget them, as habitual fiction readers do. 

With his tall figure, which attracted attention wherever he 
went, there was a remarkable dignity of mein, and also a frank* 
ness of manner that, as was said of Uncle Toby, "let you at once 
into his soul." Like Uncle Toby, too, there was something about 
him, at least in later life, that seemed to make a special appeal 
to the unfortunate and unhappy. I often regretted this, because 
it added to the burdens on his heart. People used to come to 
him for counsel and advice on all sorts of topics, even those who 
did not know him well, feeling instinctively his friendly spirit. 
Perhaps one reason for this was his manifest sincerity and 
earnestness. He had no patience with vain, silly people, and 
when they endeavored to talk with him, it was apt to be a very 
one-sided affair, for his part of the conversation consisted large- 
ly of monosyllables and grunts. But he always sought to intro- 
duce higher and worthier themes than the ordinary chit-chat. 
He often read to a caller an extract from a book he was perus- 
ing, or something timely from a magazine or newspaper. * He 
never made people feel small; he was too kindly and gracious for 
that. There was, however, a reserve about him that made him 
appear austere and unbending to those who did not really know 
him. This was chiefly due to a native shyness that he never 
outgrew, — a timidity against which he always struggled, but 
which was, in fact, one of his most winning qualities. 

In his prime his hair and beard were black, but they began to 
whiten rather early. His eyes were hazel, remarkably clear, 
and they retained their ycung look to the very last His smile 



GEORGE W. JULIAN: SOME IMPRESSIONS 63 

was the most unclouded I have ever seen, beginning- with the 
eyes, and then all at once suffusing the whole face with sunshine. 

A more agreeable household companion than my father it is 
impossible for me to imagine. There was a bird in his bosom 
whose song could not be quenched. Pain and sorrow did some* 
times silence it, but not for long. He had that attribute com- 
monly possessed by the young, the ability to lose himself in a 
ray of fancy at any moment. He took great delight in words, 
and the dictionary was consulted many times every day, up to the 
last three or four days of his life. He had a fashion of applying 
a great variety of proper names to me, and when I entered his 
room each morning I was playfully addressed by a different ap- 
pellation, — almost any name, from '*Pio Nono" down to that of 
the Washington printer who used to print his speeches and 
whose un-euphonious patronymn was '*Pokenhorn." The nu- 
merous little attentions which his weakness rendered necessary 
were always kept from being irksome by the relation of an amus- 
ing anecdote or reminiscence. Sometimes he would imitate the 
tone and manner of Henry Clay as he addressed the Senate, or of 
an old Virginia planter whom he had once known; again, he 
would be Hamlet, or Lear, or one of Milton's devils. It was 
something different each time, so that there was the temptation 
frequently to prolong the task for the sake of the entertainment. 

His sense of humor was of the keenest, and his laugh was 
hearty and contagious. As he grew older, people became more 
and more attentive to him, and he was sometimes much enter- 
tained by the superlative exertions of street-car conductors and 
other kind persons who evidently thought him even more frail 
than he really was. The old gentleman up at Catawba Island 
who carefully lifted his foot for him when he was about to step 
aboard the boat was never forgotten, and the laugh occasioned 
by that performance betokened no lack of gratitude for the intend- 
ed service. 

He was everywhere a favorite with servants, because he en- 
deavored to make as little trouble as possible and never omitted a 
* 'Thank you" or a word of appreciation where it was due. The 
maid who waited upon him at breakfast was as sure of a cheery 
''Good-morning" as was the g^est who sat at table. His tastes 
in the matter of food were simple in the extreme, bread and 



64 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

milk forming the basis of each meal. He never used tobacco, 
and while not pledged to total abstinence as to spirituous liquors, 
his use of them was almost wholly medicinal. Coming of a 
Quaker ancestry, all display of whatever sort was distasteful 
to him, and to be in debt was a condition he qould not endure. 
I think he was peculiarly free from little eccentricities, such as 
characterize many old people, a sound common-sense being one 
of his chief endowments. 

Laundresses were the objects of his particular consideration 
and pity, and although very fastidious about his wearing ap- 
parel, I believe he never threw aside a garment without a sigh 
at thought of the work he was making necessary. He liked to 
listen to the sound as the clothes were rubbed up and down in 
the tub; it carried him back to the days when his mother did 
the washing for her little family. 

His father died when he was too young to have really known 
him, and with his strong affections he lavished a double love 
upon the parent who was left to bear the burden of life alone. 
His face glowed with filial pride when he spoke of her struggles 
and sacrifices, and I am sure that one of the chief pleasures 
of his life was the satisfaction she took in his success. His first 
great sorrow was on the occasion of the death of John M. Julian, 
the gifted brother whose early taking-off cast a shadow that 
never vanished from my father's path. His own immediate 
family was four times visited by death, in the loss of his first 
wife and two children and of my mother. I saw him in one of 
these bereavements, and the unselfish heroism of his attitude 
was a lesson for a lifetime. He liked sometimes to talk to a 
sympathetic listener of the loved ones gone, and so I came to 
know very well his brother so long lost, and the wife of his 
youth, as he called her; and it is hard to realize that I never 
actually saw **Louie," the little son who died when only nine 
years old, so habitually was he in my father's thoughts and con- 
versation. With his large heart and sensitive nature he felt 
keenly the sorrows of others, and his words of condolence were 
always fitting and full of meaning. 

It was his custom to take note of anniversaries. The 19th of 
April, the 17th of June, and such dates were always observed in 
some way. Anniversaries of events in his own life he would also 



GEORGE W. JULIAN: SOME IMPRESSIONS 65 

call attention to, as, for instance: ^^My child, sixty years ag-o 
to-day my brother John died,'* and then he would talk of his 
btbther's character, or describe his appearance. Agcain he would 
say: "Fifty years ago to-day I was first married," and he would 
gt) on and tell about the wedding, — how **Father Hoshour" of- 
ficiated, how his girl wife looked, in her white frock, and how, 
of the gay company then assembled, all but two or three had 
passed to the Great Beyond. 

It has been said, and I think truly, that a man's relations to 
woman, how he regards her and how he acts toward her, are the 
most significant things about him. My father certainly drew 
to him good women wherever he went, and his '*five hundred 
lovers" were the subject of inexhaustible raillery on the part of 
my mother, who thoroughly enjoyed this side of his make-up. 
It was no show of gallantry on his part that won the favor of 
the other sex; but there was about him a certain indefinable air 
of goodness, together with the artlessness of a child, and an 
ever-ready and boundless sympathy or fellow-feeling, that ap- 
pealed at once to some men, but more often to the finer intui- 
tions of women. One of these friends writes: ''I can never 
forget the culture tone that characterized him as one met him in 
society and in his home, — the absolute lack of that coarseness 
that is so much a part of our modern politician. Without know- 
ing his history, I could as easily have said that he was a poet or 
litterateur^ His daughter's friends felt for him a genuine af- 
fection, and he was seldom too absorbed in any task to stop and 
chat with them. "He seemed so much more than father," said 
one of them; "no, not that, but a// that a father could be — the 
fullness of fatherhood." 

His ideal of womanhood was the highest; yet it was not sen- 
timentally rose-colored. He was fortunate in being all his life 
associated with high-minded, self-reliant, gentle woman, and 
it was this association, reinforcing his own best judgment, that 
early convinced him of the right and duty of woman to share 
equally with man in the civil and political life of society. He 
carried on a most interesting correspondence with Lydia Maria 
Child, chiefly on political topics, during the years from 1862 to 
1878. He was a great admirer of Lucretia Mott, seeking her 
council in early manhood and enjoying her friendship until her 



66 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

death in 1880. Besides these well-known names, there was a 
longc list of women friends with whom he was on terms of de- 
lightful intimacy and comradeship. He liked to make social 
calls, and this was a practice kept up till the last, especially in 
his own neighborhood. 

A word in regard to the two women most closely associated 
with my father. He was first married at the age of twenty- 
eight to Miss Anne E. Finch, who was ten years younger. 
She is said to have been very beautiful, of the blond type, gay 
and impulsive in disposition, with a certain shy winsomeness 
that made for her friends wherever she went. She was 
thoroughly interested in public affairs, and accompanied him to 
Washington during his first term in Congress, where she enjoyed 
meeting and hearing the great men of the day. She died of 
consumption in 1860. It is interesting to note that the friend 
to whom my father turned most frequently in his sorrow was 
Mr. Giddings of Ohio (whose daughter was afterwards to be- 
come his wife) — "Father Giddings," as he always called him, 
between whom and himself there was a strong bond of sympa- 
thy dating from their first meeting, at the Buffalo Convention 
of 1848. Giddings was a believer in spiritualism, and he tried 
to enlist my father in this, to him, satisfying and comforting 
faith. He had known and admired Mrs. Julian, and hence he 
felt a certain near and personal interest in the case. But my 
father was so constituted that it was impossible for him to ac- 
cept anything bordering on the mystical and supernatural, 
his practical mind instinctively turning away from the "twi- 
lights of thought" to the clear sunshine of reason, and resting 
in an abiding trust that steadily grew throughout the years. In 
regard to the various so-called demonstrations of spiritual me- 
diums, I have heard him quote Emerson's words: "Shun them as 
you would the secrets of the undertaker and the butcher. ♦ * ♦ 
The whole world is an omen and a sign. Why look so wistfully 
in a comer? Man is the image of God. Why run after a ghost 
or a dream?" 

His consolation had to come through the softening effect of 
time and by plunging with all his might into the duties of his 
public position. The war was coming on, and he gave his days 
and nights to Congressional labors. One thing he never learned. 



^N: SOME IMPRESSIONS 67 

3deration. It was during these years 
for the sleeplessaess and other mala- 
i end of his days. From scrap-books 
fan to note his break-down in 1865, 
ered upon those persistent and weary 
irdy and robust constitution, 
years after the death of his first wife 
aura A. Giddingrs, whom he met for 
Vashingfton. She was the youagest 
I, and was twenty-two years my fa- 
i not seem so great a disparity of age, 
ry tall and bad a marked dignity of 
npressed everyone who met her, — a 
,ve to her as the air she breathed, but 
et her apart from all other women, 
ir, her face being one. that depended 
le play of expression. She had t>eea 
itioch Colleges, and had spent a num- 
itber in Washington and Montreal, 
a political affairs that was quite un- 
women. On account of ber father's 
led to look after his physical comfort 
all possible ways. This tender care 
band, and for twenty years was his 
is trusted advisor on all questions, 
ead to him, wrote at bis dictation, 
was completely a part of himself, 
greatly for society, and the deafness 
the last ten years of her life was a 
and's gifts as a reporter went far to 
us missed, and his efforts along this 
)y her manifest delight in the narra- 
father had done, of angina pedorU, 
arning. 
father had the advantage of a full, 
flow of language. He spoke slowly, 
Iways earnestly. He never ranted, 
ig those of familiar, friendly con- 
iculty was well developed in him, 



68 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

and all who have described his speaking bear witness to his mas- 
tery of the weapons of irony, sarcasm and invective, as well as 
a certain sly humor that was quite irresistible. This last is the 
quality that most impressed me as I listened to him during three 
presidential campaigns, — humor, and an air as if he were talk- 
ing with friends at the fireside. In reading his speeches I 
think one would infer his familiarity with the Bible, Milton 
and Carlyle, his style somehow suggesting these models. 

His last sure grasp of things was on Wednesday, July 5, 1899, 
when he was about the house as usual, only seeming very tired 
and lying down a great deal. The next day he did not leave his 
bed, and on Friday, the 7th, at a few minutes before eleven he 
breathed his last, his age being eighty-two years, two months 
and two days. Death came to him not unkindly, but as a friend 
whom he welcomed. In his rambling talk the day before, his 
mind had rapidly gone over his whole life, — the early years on 
his mother's farm, political conditions in the old Burnt District, 
the war and reconstruction, etc. He frequently spoke of the 
beautiful day, and asked if I were '*a spirit from another world." 
About noon, as he lay looking at me, I began to repeat a favor- 
ite verse from Browning's EartKs ImmortaliHes: 

**So, the year's done withl 

(Love me forever!) 
A.U March begun with, 

Aprirs endeavor; 
May- wreaths that bonnd me 

June needs must sever! 
Now snows fall ronnd me, 

Quenching' June's fever — 

(Love me forever!)*' 

He gave the alternate lines, joining in faintly with the ''for- 
ever" at the close. He became quite unconscious towards eve- 
ning, and remained so till the end, when a look of recognition 
came into his eyes and he was gone. 

At the funeral, three days later, he lay on the library couch, 
as friends were wont to see him, and there was naught to in- 
dicate anything unusual but the flowers that were everywhere, 
and the stillness. Frederic E. Dewhurst, of Plymouth Church, 
Indianapolis, spoke briefly and fittingly of his life and character, 



IMPRESSIONS 69 

Thee," and Chadwick's 
red. It was regretted 

10 had been invited to 

ressiveaess all its own. 
realised that bis spirit 
tude, not only for the 
ler of its close. After 
1. One of the saddest 
of an aged man whose 
ig for release. In 1890 
and blind for years, 
he closed as follows: 

11 be before long-, strike 
tod it is all overt" So 
summons came in the 
Qgs, when life, though 
IS not strange, so tire- 
to those who loved him 
thought of continuing 
said of his brother, "I 
>rds and motives, with- 
:e it was." 






70 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 



MR. JULIANAS AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

The subject of the foregoing- "Impressions" left in the pos- 
session of his daughter, Mrs. Clark, a manuscript autobic^fraphy 
which afiFords some intimate g-limpses of an interesting* career. 
Mr. Julian's progress from the humblest estate to eminence by 
the sheer force of a conquering will and strong personality makes 
a life story that is inspiring and stimulating. When he was 
about six years old his father died and his mother was left, all 
but penniless, with a family of children to provide for. The 
autobiography describes the battle of life at this period as a 
battle for life. The family wrung such support as they could 
out of a barren farm. They wove their own cloth for the home- 
made garments and eked out their slender income by weaving 
for the neighbors, while the boys occupied the rainy days weav- 
ing straw hats. In the spring the sugar g^rove was made to 
yield sweets for their table and as much additional revenue as 
possible. 

In such a life there was little to foster an interest in books, 
and small chance to gratify such an interest if aroused. Never- 
theless, the interest was nourished in this family,* and the di- 
vine spark found fuel to feed upon. The MS. tells us how 
young George raised his first funds for the indulgence of a grow- 
ing passion. "I gathered each year," it says, "a large crop of 
walnuts — one fall as many as sixteen bushels — and sold the hulls 
at Nathan Bond's carding and fulling mills, at six cents per 
bushel, for money with which to buy books and stationery." He 
attended the country school of winters, and though he speaks of 
himself as an unpromising dullard, yet by virtue of a "dogged 
perseverance" he applied himself to his studies with an assiduity 
that soon brought him abreast of his teachers. "I renounced," 
he says, "the society of my playmates and gave myself wholly 
to my books. My Sundays were especially set apart for study, 
and I was up till a late hour in the night poring over my tasks 

*It should be noted that theee asplratioDs were not confined to Qeorge* John, the eldeet 
brother, evinced unnsnal endowments ; Jacob became a Jurist, and Isaac, still livinff. a 
journalist and writer of both prose and Terse. 



MR. JULIAN'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY 71 

by the ligrht of a fire kept up by *kindlings,' which I regularly 
prepared as a substitute for the candles we could not afiFord/' 

At the age of eig'hteen he taught school, and was, doubtless, 
far more proficient than the average country teacher of that 
day. Having" no instructor, he studied by himself, as best he 
could, rhetoric and logic, natural philosophy, chemistry, astrono- 
my, mathematics and surveying, and seems to have made con- 
siderable progfress in these abstruse branches. A list of his 
g'eneral reading, also, reveals the solidity of his acquirements. 
Among" those enumerated are: RusselPs History of Modem 
Europe, Hume^s History of Eng'land, Gibbon^s Decline and Fall 
of the Roman Empire, Groldsmith's histories of Greece and Rome, 
Plutarch's Lives, the Eng'lish poets, Locke's Essays, Aber- 
crombie on the Intellectual Powers, Watts on the Mind, Combe 
on the Constitution of Man, Dr. Spurzheim's works on phrenolo- 
gy and education, Paine's political works, Godwin's Political 
Justice, Sterne's works, Don Quixote, Fielding-'s novels, Ossian's 
poems, etc. 

Mr. Julian repeatedly speaks of an abnormal timorousness and 
self-distrust that seemed an almost insuperable obstacle to his 
advancement. The assertiveness and efficiency as a public 
speaker that distinguished him in later years was acquired only 
by the most rigorous training and persistent self-conquest. 
When, by the advice of a friend, he turned to the study of law, 
it was with so little faith that he pursued his reading secretly 
and half ashamed. To pass an examination and secure a license 
to practice was the easiest part. In the assurance necessary to 
the young lawyer he was utterly lacking*. By way of cultivat- 
ing it he hung about the courts at Centerville, trying to famil- 
iarize himself with the customs of the profession, and a litttle 
later on, after he had removed to Greenfield, he tells of a ''dark 
lyceum" — an altogether novel institution consisting solely of 
himself and one other bashful young man who sought to eng'en- 
der courage by making" speeches at each other, which forensic 
efforts were carried on in a dark room so as to reduce the em- 
barassment. By way of adding* dignity and impressiveness to 
these meetings they were presided over by a "premier," whose 
duty it was to ''preserve order and decide the debated questions." 
Each speaker, after his turn on the floor, would become the 



72 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

premier and let the other descend from the chair and make his 
argiunent. The progress attained by these half ludicroaSy half 
pathetic and whoUj earnest efforts was so slight that the auto- 
biographer is moved to speak of it as ''all in vain," and he adds: 
''Sometimes, in my despair, I felt that I must break the chains 
which bound me, but I was powerless to do so, and no word of 
encouragement from any quarter cheered me. If I had had a 
single trusted friend to say to me, 'Be of couragfe; fear not; yon 
can conquer,' it would have lifted a great weight from my heart 
and opened the pathway to my deliverance." 

His first case in court is described by Mr. Julian. "It was 
tried," he says, "before a country justice of the peace, and N. 
W. Miner, of Dublin, was the opposing counsel. We were both 
frig-htened as if panic-stricken, and it now seems to me so ri- 
diculous that I almost doubt my own recollection. The justice 
was a good-natured old farmer who knew less law than either 
of us and whose judgment of our rhetoric was quite indifferent. 
The amount involved was only a few dollars, and in no case 
could there be serious consequences to body or soul; and yet, in 
opening our case and making our speeches we fairly quaked 
with nervous fear." 

Mr. Julian's career, from his entrance into politics, in 1840, is 
traced in his published volume, "Political Recollections." The 
autobiography, dealing with personal matters prior to that date, 
is chiefly valuable as a record of a self-made man, and as show- 
ing how such a man, gifted with native force and strong* will, 
can, in the face of many handicaps, hew his way grimly to 
a place in the front ranks. Dealing with the development of a 
man who accomplished things, it has the g'ermaine biographical 
value, and if published (especially if edited with reference to 
matter already published) would make a desirable addition to 
the biographical literature of the State. G. S. C. 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 73 



EARLY INDIANAPOLIS. 

THE FLETCHER PAPERS— SECOND INSTALMENT. 

The First Wedding CelebraHm and the First ''Poem''— Tlie First 
Campaign: Whitewater vs. ICentucky — Numerous Candidates — 
First Political Pamphlets and ''Handbills''— VoHng Precincts- 
Election and Successful Candidates — Citizens' Resolutions Against 
Campaign Methods, 

From the Indianapolis News of April /p, iSjg, 

THE earliest marriag-e in or around Indianapolis was undoubt- 
edly that of Jeremiah Johnson and Miss Jane Reagan, which 
took place early in 1821. In this case Johnson walked all the 
way to Connersville and back — about 120 miles — for his license, 
and then the lovers had to wait weary weeks before the first 
clergyman (Rev. Mr. McClung*) came along. The second mar- 
riage has been more fully recorded. One of the early settlers 
here was Mr. Thomas Chinn, from Virginia, who was the first 
person that imported blooded stock into Indianapolis. All the 
old boys will recall his fine stallion, ^^Black Hawk,'' and his 
gigantic bull, '*Walk-in-t he- Water." Mr. Chinn built him a 
log cabin on the bank of Pogue's Run, on what was afterward 
called "Noble's pasture." That log cabin, with its g^reat split 
puncheon floor, I remember was still standing, though unin- 
habited, in 1834. Now, Mr. Chinn had a smart, bright-eyed 
daughter, named Patsy. One of the young men who came to 
settle in Indianapolis was Uriah Gates. He and Miss Patsy 
soon found that their "hearts beat as one," and on the 22d of 
January, 1822, the second wedding in Indianapolis came o£F, 
Justice Mcllvain tying the nuptial knot. The town was so 
small that everybody was invited. My mother in her journal 
says: 

"Tuesday, January 22, 1822. Mr. Gates was to-day wedded 
to Miss Patsy Chinn, both of Indianapolis. I attended the wed- 
ding. It was a very disagreeable day, but notwithstanding 
there was a great concourse of people present. Wednesday, 23d, 
I attended a party at Mr. Reagan's, for Mr. R. gave the newly- 



74 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

married couple an infare. We danced until ten o'clock, and 
then came home." This wedding* was described to me by my 
father as a great affair. There was plenty to eat and drink, 
and what the French call the piece de resistance consisted of a 
good-sized porker roasted whole, mounted on the table with a 
large apple in its mouth.* The first copy of the Indianapolis 
Gazette appeared January 28, 1822, and contains the wedding- 
announcement and an original poem written for the occasion. 
[See note at end of this instalment.] 

From the News of April 26, 

At the first election in Indianapolis there was an army of 
office-seekers. That thej began skirmishing a long time in 
advance can be seen by the account which I gave of the Christ- 
mas of 1821, when candidates bought the only barrel of cider 
in town and treated the sovereigns, who afterward anchored the 
cider down with brandy and "bald-face." The "ball" at Wy ant's 
(on New Year's day) was a social affair nominally, but there, 
too, were many of the candidates with their most affable smiles. 
In a recent interview with Mrs. Martin (daughter of George 
Smith, one of the founders of the Indianapolis Gazette) I ascer- 
tained that she was present on that occasion and took her part 
in the dance. Mrs. Martin says that she went to Wyant's in Hog- 
den's "carriage." This last she describes as a great "lumbering 
thing," like the "mud wagons" employed by the old stage com- 
panies in the spring and winter. The supper prepared on this 
New Year's day, 1822, for the robust ancestors of many of the 
present Indianapolitans was also described by her. There was, 
she said, in the open fireplace an immense kettle or cauldron, 
which contained no less than sixteen gallons of coffee, and there 
were pans, skillets and other vessels in which were biscuits, 
sweet bread and that best of all cakes, the real old pound-cake. 
That New Year's party was composed of every grade in society, 
so that the candidates had an excellent opportunity to see the 
people, for my father told me that invitations were extended to 
everybody, down to the humblest inhabitant of the meanest log 
cabin on the donation. 

On that memorable Christmas, 1821, a number of the candi- 
dates had already declared themselves, and my father records 
the following: 

^See Nowland*8 * 'Early Beminisoences,** pp. 128-180. 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 75 

''I will here mention the names of some of the candidates for 
office in our new county. For associate judges, James Mcll* 
vain and Mr. Patterson; county clerk, James M. Ray, Milo R. 
Davis, J. Hawkins, et al.; for county commissioners, Messrs. 
Hogden, Osbum and Morrow." 

In his journal for the 3d day of January, 1822, my father 
writes: 

*'Kept close in the morning and wrote letters. In the after- 
noon visited the river (the largest part of the population was on 
the east bank of the river). I find the people much agitated 
about the approaching election." The candidates, it seems, 
were not the only canvassers. » The people were in that business, 
for my father continues: ''There is much canvassing of the 
character of the candidates and their eligibility. There is 
hardly a man in town but ofiFers himself for some office, either 
civil or military." 

The divisions were not according to the political parties of 
the day. They were local, or, rather, geographical. My fath- 
er informed me that the combatants were ranged under the 
titles of "Whitewater" and "Kentucky." The emigration from 
those two sections was simultaneous. The people from White- 
water were as clannish as those from Kentucky, and each wish- 
ed to have the distribution of the public loaves and fishes. The 
Whitewater party had some advantage over Kentucky, in that 
it had received some accessions from people from Ohio and 
Pennsylvania who had resided long enough in the eastern part 
of the State to qualify them as voters, while many of the Ken- 
tuckians had not resided a year in the State. The Whitewater 
people were consummate politicians. They had been led and dis- 
ciplined by such men as Jonathan Jennings, the two Nobles and 
Jesse B. Thomas previous to their arrival in the New Purchase. 
My father informed me that these were men of talent, and that 
greater adepts at political warfare never lived. 

From the News of May to. 

The politicial war-horses of Whitewater and Kentucky did a 
great deal of vigorous pawing in February, 1822. The pro- 
prietors of the Indiana Gazette wisely considered that they would 
not be too partisan. They decided that both parties, if they 
wished the benefit of the art of printing, must pay the printer. 



76 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

It was the fashion of the day in the east and in the newer States 
of the west to issue pamphlets. The first author of a pamphlet 
or of any other publication (except the Gazette) in Indianapolis 
was not from New Eng'land or from New York, but from Ken- 
tucky. The late Morris Morris was our first author. The 
greatest battle to be fought at the election of 1822 was, with- 
out doubt, to be over the clerkship for the new county. White- 
water and Kentucky chose their best men. The first selected a 
youngs man from New Jersey. He was of undoubted gifts; he 
had studied at Columbia College, New York; he was a fine pen- 
man, and had a neatness of dress and address not often found 
on the frontier. He had resided in the southern part of the 
State, and had been deputy clerk at Lawrenceburg and Conners- 
ville. This was James M. Ray, a quiet young man but a 
famous "still hunter." The Kentucky party also selected a 
strong man. One of nature's noblemen was Morris Morris, who 
came to Indianapolis from Carlisle, Kentucky, in October, 1821. 
It seems that the battle must have been already sharp long be- 
fore SherifiF Hervey Bates issued, on the 22d of February, the 
proclamation for the election, for I find in my mother's journal 
the following entry, telling of an evening of a busy day. Under 
date of January 30 she says: 

*'Mr. Morris has written a pamphlet and had it put in print. 
Mr. Fletcher has just jeft me to write an answer to it, and I am 
all alone this evening." Again she writes: 

''Saturday, February 2. Mrs. Buckner dined with us, and 
after she went away Mr. Osbum came and staid all night." 
The husband of Mrs. Bupkner was one of the candidates for 
county commissioner. The Mr. Osburn mentioned was another 
of the candidates for commissioner. He was a mercnant and 
quite a politician, and no doubt was at my father's that evening 
to consult on the reply to Morris Morris's "pamphlet." This 
reply appeared in the shape of a handbill, for my mother writes 
the next day: 

"Sunday, 3d of February. The handbill came out in opposi- 
tion to what Mr. Morris wrote." 

While my father was never a violent partisan, he had decided 
opinions. In this election he was a Whitewater man, and took 
a deep interest in the formation of the county, but he sought 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 77 

no office, and as early as November 8th, 1821, he writes: "I 
find there are much strife and contention amongst the citizens of 
this place. I sincerelj hope to escape all censure bj asking no 
favors for myself." 

In those days it is evident that the Sunday was not observed 
as strictly as at present. On several occasions in the campaign 
I learn from my mother's journal that the "printing office was 
visited by her in company with her husband on that day." On 
February 15 she writes: *'Mr. Morris's second handbill came 
out." "Handbill" can not be taken in the usual acceptation of the 
term. It was larger than what we as present understand as 
such, and is used indiscriminately with the word pamphlet. It 
was half the size of the Gazette^ printed on one side, and was 
usually nailed up in a public place. On the same date the 
journal continues as follows: '*I went to bed early, but Mr. F. 
was writing an answer to the handbill, and did not go to bed 
that night. Sunday Mr. F. went to bed early in the afternoon 
and slept till 8 P. M., when I awakened him and we both went 
to the printing office and staid until 2 o'clock in the morning." 
The dairy further reads: 

"Monday, 18th February, 1822. In the morning the handbills 
came out, and great was the mystery. Curiosity was aroused to 
know who the *Legal Voter' [doubtless the signature] alluded 
to when he mentioned *Col. PufiF-back, Captain Swell-back and 
myself.'" 

Skipping over many pages which refer to long consultations 
and threatened suits for slander, I come to Sunday, March 31st, 
the day before the election, when my mother records: I spent 
the day very unsatisfactorily, for there were so many candidates 
coming in that I could neither read nor write nor do anything 
else." 

On April 1st came the shock of battle. There were thirty- 
three candidates recorded in the Gazette^ but in the journals I 
find there are others mentioned which would make up the num- 
ber to nearly forty. In 1846 I had an interview with Mrs. Pax- 
ton on this election, and she remarked: "I wondered at that 
time where all the voters were to come from, for it seemed to me 
that almost every man in Indianapolis was a candidate for of- 
fice." There were five for county clerk alone (the clerkship 



78 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

was for seven years). It will be remembered that Marion 
county was then five times its present size, comprehending: the 
present county, with the addition of Johnson, Hamilton, and 
parts of Boone, Madison and Hancock. The voting- precincts 
were announced in the proclamation to be at Indianapolis, 
Finch's (near Noblesville), Page's (Strawtown), Anderson and 
Pendleton. 

It is thirty-three years since [in 1846] after a conversation 
with my father, I published in the Indiana Joumcd on account of 
this first election, and in that communiction I used this descrip- 
tion of the place where the election was held in Indianapolis, 
viz. : '*The election was held in the house of General John Carr, 
which stands in the rear of Beck's gunsmith shop, nearly op- 
posite the office of H. P. Cobum, Esq."* That description would 
not answer for the present generation, but when I state that the 
double hewed-log cabin of General Carr stood on Delaware 
street nearly opposite the west end of the court-house, all can 
understand. 

If whisky played its part at McGeorge's, down at the river, 
in 1821, it performed a greater part on the 1st of April, 1822, 
when, it is computed, the quantities drank must be reckoned in 
barrels. Kentucky was not to be'outdone by Whitewater in the 
matter of political hospitality. The political issues were en- 
tirely geographical and liquid, and Whitewater and whisky 
carried the day against Kentucky and whisky. The successful 
candidates were overwhelmingly Whitewater. James Mcllvain 
and Eliakim Harding were chosen associate judges; James M. 
Ray was elected clerk; Joseph C. Reed, recorder; Messrs. Os- 
burn, McCormick and McCartney became the first commissioners. 
James M. Ray received the highest vote in the wide district, 
viz., 217 votes out of 336. In the Indianapolis district (an area 
as great as the present county) the number of votes was 224, 
which shows that the population of what we now understand as 
Marion county was but little more than 1000. The party lines 
of Kentucky and Whitewater were kept up about three years, 
but were then harmoniously fused. 

Among the defeated candidates for recorder was Alexander 

«Thi8 reTeals the anthonhip of an anonymooa seriee to be found in the JowmaJL of the 
date mentioned. See note at end of this instalment. 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 79 

Ralston, to whom, more than any other person, we owe the beau- 
tiful plan of Indianapolis. While there are many of our street^ 
bearingf the names of individuals, there is not even an alley 
named in memory of the man who planned the city. 

NoTB. — The earliest historical account of Indianapolis known 
to us appears as a series of unsigned articles in the Indianapolis 
Journal, These contributions, under the heading of * 'Indian- 
apolis a Quarter of a Century Ago,'* appeared irregularly in both 
the weekly and the tri- weekly editions from November 4, 1846, to 
March 23, 1847. Sundry correspondences between that series and 
the one here published identifies Mr. J. C. Fletcher as the author 
of the earlier one. Most that is in that series is comprehended in 
this, but in the former are at least two items that we regard as 
rather a *'find." The first of these, taken from the Indiana Ga- 
zetU^ is of considerable interest in connection with the strenuous 
Kentucky and Whitewater campaign and the accompanying 
candidate nuisance. It is an account of *'a meeting of the in* 
habitants of this county, over which Dr. S. G. Mitchell presided 
and Dr. Coe acted as secretary." At this meeting **sunday res- 
olutions were passed condemning the soliciting of votes of elec- 
tions by the candidates for public offices, either from favor, flat- 
tery, promises, entertainments, treats or rewards, as anti-repub- 
lican in its principles, injurious to the public peace, interests 
and morals, troublesome, degrading and corrupting to the candi- 
date. And," concludes this presumably disgusted conclave, *'we 
do resolve that we will withhold our support from all who in the 
future resort to such practices." [See tri-weekly/iwrwo/ of No- 
vember 27, 1846.] 

The other historical bit is of literary interest, as it is the 
first *'poem" written, or at least published, in Indianapolis. It 
celebrated the Gates-Chinn wedding described by Mr. Fletcher 
and Mr. Nowland, and appeared in the first number of the Gazette, 
As a literary curiosity it speaks for itself: 

'*Come Hymen, now, and bear thy sway 
In Indianapolis, 
And hasten on the wished-f or day » 
That crowns the nuptial bliss. 



80 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Ma J conquering' love lend hU aid. 

And lead direct to thy altar 
The sacred virgin, the experienced maid. 

The trembling* jouth and batchelor. 

Bat all je powers of mortal joj, 

Come bless the wedded pair; 
Give them bliss without alloy, 

Peace and health and pleasing care.** 

It may be added that the second output of the muse was also 
inspired by Hymen, for some months later, in connection with 
the wedding announcement of William C. McDougal and Cyn- 
titha Reagan, appeared the following: 

**Hail, generous youth, and hail thou lovely fair. 
Love, joy and peace be now your only care. 
The wished- for day hath fixed the sacred tie. 
And given you mutual, full felicity. 

Long may Aurora shine amid the spheres. 
And see your joys increase through length of years. 
When sweet reflection views the day that*s past. 
Be each succeeding happier than the last.** 

There was no relation, seemingly, between the quality of the 
poetry and the after happiness invoked by the poets, for though 
this second effusion limped much less painfully over the metrical 
road, Cyntitha, in due course, left McDougal's bed and board, 
and he advertised her, warning the public not to trust her on 
his account. Mr. and Mrs. Gates, on the other hand, journeyed 
amicably together through their lives, leaving children and 
their children*s children, who at the present day make part of 
our population. 

Who these first versifiers were is forever lost to history. — EM- 
tar. 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 81 



THE EARLY SCHCXDLS OF INDIANA. 

FRC^yi THE PAPERS OF D. D. BANTA-SEOOND INSTALMENT. 

The Pioneer School Children — Winter Schools and Hardships of the 
Little Folks — Early Teachers — Their Character and Inefficiency 
— Their Status tvith the People — Their Pay — Queer Characters 
and Customs. 

From the Indianapolis News of February 3^ 1892, 

BEFORE advancing- upon the "masters," the books, the meth- 
ods, the manners and the customs of the pioneer schools, 
something* oug-ht to be said of the pioneer children who made 
these schools a necessity. 

Let me recall the reader's attention to the long- paths that 
ofttimes stretched their serpentine ways between the cabin homes 
and the cabin schoolhouses — two, three and even four miles 
longf, they sometimes were. In general it was a fall or winter 
school that was kept — most generally a winter, for every child 
big* enough to work was required at home to aid in the support 
of the family. We of to-day, with our farms all made and with a 
superabundance of farm machinery, can scarcely conceive of the 
extremities to which the pioneer farmers were often driven to 
secure the planting, tilling and harvesting of the crops. And 
so the children, in the beginning, could be spared best in the 
winter seasons, and in consequence the country schools were in 
general, winter schools. 

Happy were those children who had a fall school to attend I 
The long and winding school-paths threaded a region of de- 
lights. What schoolboy or schoolgirl of those far-off days can 
ever forget the autumnal wood with its many-hued foliage, its 
fragrant and nutty odors, its red, ripe haws, and its clusters of 
wild grapes; its chinquapins [acorns of the 'pin oak] and its 
hickory nuts? And think of the wild life that was part of it all I 
Gray squirrels barked and chattered from tree to tree, while the 
voices of glad birds were heard amid the branches from sun to 
sun. And the school-paths themselves I Were there ever such 
paths as those winding over hill and through hollow, and filled, 



82 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

as they were, with dainty, rustling leaves that were as cool and 
soft to schoolboy foot as silken carpet? 

But how different the winter school! When the snow came^ 
blockading the paths, how it tried the temper of the young folk 
who were limited to one pair of shoes per winter. And how in- 
finitely worse was it when the winter rains came. The whole 
face of the Indiana earth, whether along the country roads, in 
the cleared fields or in the woods, was filled with water like a 
sponge, and the most careful of school children seldom failed to 
reach school or home with feet soaking wet. Fifty years ago it 
was not the fashion for boys to wear boots. For that matter 
there were few men in the country places that wore them, while 
boot or bootee for girl or woman was not even to be thought of. 
Riding astride or making a speech would have been no more 
shocking, and so boots were seldom or never seen in the school- 
room, but it was the custom of both boys and girls, on occasion, 
to draw over the ankle and the top of the shoe a sock or stocking- 
leg, or a piece of cloth, which, being well tied to shoe and ankle, 
kept the dry snow out of the shoe fairly well. 

I have known boys and girls to attend school in the fall long- 
after the hard frosts came, and even after the ice began to form, 
with their feet encased in old socks or stockings so badly worn 
at the toe and heel as to be fit for no other purpose than wearing- 
in this manner, and so common an occurrence was it that no one 
thought it worthy of special attention. Sanford Cox, in his 
* 'Wabash Valley," draws a graphic word picture of the town of 
Lafayette, as it appeared to him about 1825, in which he tells 
us that he had ''often" seen the Lafayette juveniles skating upon 
the ice, "some with skates, some with shoes, and some bare- 
footed." It would seem that if the boys of Lafayette were of 
such hardy nature we might expect to find in some other places 
satisfactory evidence that the winter weather did not deter the 
barefooted from attending school. I have, accordingly, care- 
fully looked through such records as have fallen in my way, and 
candor compels me to say that I have found only one other in- 
stance. This is related by the author of the "History of Monroe 
County," who says: 

*'It was then the custom to go to school, winter and summer, 
barefoot. That seems unreasonable, but it was done, and how? 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 83 

The barefooted child, to begin with, had gone thus so long that 
his feet were hardened and calloused to resist the 'cold by several 
extra layers of epidermis. He could stand a degree of cold 
which would apparently chill him to the bone, and could walk 
for some time in the snow and frost without suffering more than 
he could bear with reasonable fortitude. When he had to do 
extra duty in the snow and cold, however, he would take a small 
{riece of board, say a foot wide and two feet long, which had 
been seasoned and partially scorched by the fire, and after 
heating it till it was on the point of burning, he would start on 
the run toward the schoolhouse, with the hot board in his hand, 
and when his feet became too cold to bear any longer, he would 
place the board upon the ground and stand upon it till the 
numbness and cold had been partly overcome, when he would 
again take his ^stove* in his hand and make another dash for 
the schoolhouse. * * * Sometimes a flat, light piece of rock 
was substituted for the board and was much better, as it re- 
tained heat longer/' 

While we may feel assured that there never was a time when 
it was the fashion in Indiana generally for the children to attend 
school in the winter-time barefoot, nevertheless I have no doubt 
that during the territorial and early State periods it so frequent- 
ly occurred as to occasion little or no remark. 

I find but one reference as to the buckskin clothing worn by 
school children during the earlier periods mentioned. In the 
early schools of Vanderburg county the local historian tells us 
that the boys wore buckskin breeches and the girls wore buck- 
skin aprons. Though this is the only statement found by me, 
yet there was a time when buckskin clothing must have been as 
common with school children, especially boys, as it was with 
their fathers. 

From the News of February lo. 

One of the greatest drawbacks to the efficiency of the pioneer 
schools was the want of competent teachers. This want was 
felt from the very beginning and continued on down for many 
years. "The pioneer teachers were generally adventurers from 
the East, or from England, Scotland or Ireland, who sought 
temporary employment during winter, while waiting for an 
opening for business," said Barnabas C. Hobbs on one occasion. 



84 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

The Southern States furnished their quota, and western Penn- 
sylvania was not behind any section of equal area in the num- 
ber sent forth to become educators of the youth of the land. Of 
course there were many of the old-time teachers who were ad- 
mirably equipped for their work, and who did it so well that they 
found a place in the lasting remembrance of their pupils; but 
while this is true, it is, on the other hand, equally true that the 
admirably equipped teachers were the exception. So loud were 
the complaints of the inefficiency of the school teachers through- 
out the State that they reached the ears of the Governor. In his 
annual message to the legislature, in 1833, Governor Noble thus 
calls attention to the subject: 

'*The want of competent teachers to instruct in the township 
schools is a cause of complaint in many sections of the State, 
and it is to be regretted that in employing transient persons from 
other States, containing but little qualification or moral charac- 
ter, the profession is not in that repute it should be. Teachers 
permanently interested in the institutions of the country, pos- 
sessing a knowledge of the manners and customs of our extended 
population, and mingling with it, would be more calculated to 
render essential service and be better received than those 
who come in search of employment.'' And he proposes as a 
remedy for the evil the establishment of a seminary for the spe- 
cial training of our native teachers, or the incorporation of the 
manual labor system with the preparatory department of the In- 
diana College at Bloomington. 

In the beginning of our State's history and for many years 
thereafter the people held in slight esteem the vocation of the 
pedagogue. Not because he was a pedagogue, but because he 
did not labor with his hands. Lawyers and ministers and even 
doctors who did not show their mettle now and then by acts of 
manual labor were very apt to receive less favor at the hands of 
the people than otherwise. An Indiana Secretary of State once, 
while in office, kept a jack for breeding purposes, and he caused 
the announcement to be made through the newspapers that he 
gave to the business his personal attention. It was considered 
a very proper thing for a Secretary of State to do. This one 
was an invincible politician before the people. It is related of 
an early Posey county teacher, one Henry W. Hunt, that when 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA §5 

he first applied for a school the people looked upon him as a ^4azy, 
trifling, good-for-nothing fellow who wanted to make his liv- 
ing without work." What was true in Posey in pedagogue 
Hunt's case was generally true in every pedagogue's case through- 
out the State. 

Teachers quite often in those days went on the hunt for their 
schools. They were a kind of tramp — homeless fellows, who 
went from place to place hunting for a job. When the prospect 
seemed good the candidate would write an ' 'article of agree- 
ment," wherein he would propose to teach a quarter's school at 
so much per scholar. With that in hand he tramped the neigh- 
borhood over, soliciting subscribers, and, if a stranger, usually 
meeting with more scorn than good-will. He was too often es- 
teemed a good-for-nothing who was too lazy to work. "The 
teachers were, as a rule," says the historian of Miami county, 
"illiterate and incompetent, and selected not because of any 
special qualifications, but because they had no other business." 
The only requirements were that the teachers should be able to 
teach reading, writing and ciphering. The teacher who could 
cipher all the sums in Pike's arithmetic, up to and including the 
rule of three, was considered a mathematician of no mean ability. 

The wages paid the ordinary teacher were not usually such as 
to give respect to the profession. One of the curious chapters 
of the times is the low wages paid for all manner of intellectual 
labor. The Governor received only $1000 per year, and a judge 
of the Circuit Court but $700. Teachers were by no means an 
exception to the rule. Rev. Baynard R. Hall, the first principal 
of the State Seminary, at Bloomington, came all the way from 
Philadelphia to accept of the place at a salary of $250 a year, 
and John M. Harney, who subsequently made such a figure as 
editor of the Louisville Democrat^ walked all the way from Ox- 
ford, O., to apply for the chair of mathematics at a like salary, 
also, of $250 per annum. Jesse Titus, an early schoomaster in 
Johnson county, taught a school during the winter of 1826-'07 at 
$1 per scholar, which yielded him $6 per month, out of which he 
paid his board of $1 per month. The first school taught on the 
present site of Moore's Hill was by Sanford Rhodes, in 1820, at 
seventy-five cents per quarter for each pupil, which was paid 
mostly in trade. In 1830 John Martin taught in Cass county at 



86 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

$8 per month. Seventy-five cents per quarter was a price quite 
commonly met with as late as 1825, or even later, but the price 
varied. In some sections $1 per scholar seems to have been the 
ruling price, in others $1.50, while in a very few instances $2 was 
paid. In many cases, probably a majority, the teacher was 
oblig-ed to take part of his pay in produce. I find wheat, com^ 
bacon, venison hams, dried pumpkin, flour, buckwheat flour, la- 
bor, whisky, leather, coon skins and other articles mentioned as 
things given in exchange for teaching. '*At the expiration of 
the three-months' term," says one writer, '*the teacher would col- 
lect the tuition in wheat, corn, pork or furs, and take a wagon- 
load to the nearest market and exchange it for such articles as 
he needed. Very little tuition was paid in cash." One school- 
master of the time contracted to receive his entire pay in corn, 
which, when delivered, he sent in a flat-boat to the New Orleans 
market Another, an Orange county schoolmaster, of a some- 
what later period, contracted to teach a three-months' term for 
$36.50, to be paid as follows: $25 in State scrip, $2 in Illinois 
money, and $9.50 in currency." This was as late as 1842, and 
there were seventy school children in his district. 

A large per cent. 'of the unmarried teachers * 'boarded around,'* 
and thus took part of their pay in board. The custom in such 
cases was for the teachers to ascertain by computation the time 
he was entitled to board from each scholar, and usually he se- 
lected his own time for quartering himself upon the family. In 
most instances, it is believed, the teacher's presence in the fam- 
ily was very acceptable. The late A. B. Hunter, of Franklin, 
once taught a school under an agreement to board around, but 
one of his best patrons was so delighted with his society that he 
invited him to make his house his home during the term, which 
invitation the young man gratefully accepted. It was not the 
practice for the married teachers to board around. If not per- 
manent residents of the neighborhood, they either found quar- 
ters in the ' 'master's house," or in an abandoned cabin of the 
neighborhood. Quite common was it to find a "schoolmaster's 
house," which had been erected by the district, hard by the 
schoolhouse, for the use of the married masters. 

The school terms were usually called "quarters." There were 
two kinds of quarters known in some localities — the "long quar- 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 87 

< 

ter" and the "short quarter." The long quarter consisted of 
thirteen weeks, and the short quarter of twelve weeks. 

Notwithstanding the people were inclined to look upon the 
pioneer schoolmasters as a lazy class, yet they were looked up to 
perhaps as much if not more, than in these days. I have already 
said that the presence of the schoolmaster as a boarder in the 
family of his patron was welcome, for he was generally a man 
of some reading, and his conversation was eagerly listened to by 
all. Books and newspapers were scarce in those days, and so 
conversation was esteemed more than it is now. 

A few years ago I had occasion to look into the standing and 
qualifications of the early teachers of my own county, and on 
looking over my notes I find this statement: "All sorts of 
teachers were employed in Johnson county. There was the 
*one-eyed teacher,' the *one-legged teacher,' the 4ame teacher,' 
the *teacher who had fits,' the 'teacher who had been educated 
for the ministry but, owing to his habits of hard drink, had 
turned pedagogue,' and 'the teacher who got drunk on Satur- 
day and whipped the entire school on Monday.' " A paragraph 
something like this might be truthfully written of every county 
south of the National road, and doubtless of every one north of 
it, but as to that I speak with less certainty, for want of knowl- 
edge. The lesson the paragraph points to is that whenever a 
man was rendered unfit for making his living any other way, he 
took to teaching. Mr. Hobbs, I believe, states that one of his 
first teachers was an ex-liquor dealer who, having grown too fat 
to successfully conduct that business any longer, turned school- 
master. It 'is related of the first teacher of the first school in 
Clay township, in Morgan county, that he was af9icted with 
phthisic to such a degree that he was unable to perform manual 
labor; but he was a fairly good teacher, save when he felt an at- 
tack of his malady coming on. "That was the signal for an in- 
discriminate whipping." The first schoolmaster of Vanderburg 
county lived the life of a hermit, and is described as a "rude, 
eccentric individual, who lived alone and gained a subsistence 
by hunting, trapping and trading." John Malone, a Jackson 
county schoolmaster, was given to tippling to such excess that 
he could not restrain himself from drinking ardent spirits during 
school hours. He carried his bottle with him to school but he 



88 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

seems to have had regard enough for the proprieties not to 
take it into the schoolhouse, but hid it out. Once a certain 
Jacob Brown and a playmate stole the bottle and drank till thej 
came to grief. The master was, of course, properly indignant, 
and "for setting such an example,'* the record quaintly says, 
"the boys were soundly whipped." Wesley Hopkins, a Warrick 
county teacher, carried his whisky to school in a jug. Owen 
Davis, a Spencer county teacher, took to the fiddle. He taught 
what was known as a "loud school," and while his scholars 
roared at the top of their voices the gentle pedagogue drew 
forth histrusty fiddle and played "Old Zip Coon," "The Devil's 
Dream," and other inspiring profane airs with all the might and 
main that was in him. Thomas Ayres, a Revolutionary vet- 
eran, who taught in Switzerland county, regularly took his 
afternoon nap during school hours, "while his pupils," says the 
historian, "were supposed to be preparing their lessons, but in 
reality were amusing themselves by catching fiies and tossing 
them into his open mouth." One of Orange county's early 
schoolmasters was an old sailor who had wandered out to the 
Indiana woods. Under his encouragement his pupils, it is said, 
"spent a large part of their time roasting potatoes." About the 
same time William Grimes, a teacher still further southwest, 
"employed his time between recitations by cracking hickorynuts 
on one of the puncheon benches with a bench leg." 

[ To be continued.^ 



RIVER J^A VIGA TION /A INDIANA 89 



RIVER NAVIGATION IN INDIANA. 

r 

\ 

THE story of transportation in Indiana properly begins with a 
consideration of the rivers, for though their uses in this con- 
nection was but a ps^ssing phase (barring the Ohio), and ^'navi- 
g'ation in Indiana** now sounds oddly to us, they were at one time 
of considerable importance in our export trade. They certainly 
occupied a large space in the hopes of the pioneer fathers. 
Prospectors who traversed and reported upon the country before 
the coming of the settler dwelt upon the question of the streams 
and their navigability as a very important factor in the coming 
occupancy; and for some years after the occupancy the stren- 
uous insistence in considering '"navigable" streams that 
would seem hopelessly useless for such purpose ofttimes ap- 
proached the ludicrous. For example, Indianapolis for nearly 
two decades after its founding, would have White river a high- 
way of commerce in spite of nature and the inability of craft to 
get over ripples, sandbars and drifts. As early as 1820 it was 
officially declared '^navigable;** in 1825 Alexander Ralston, the 
surveyor, was appointed to make a thorough inspection of the 
river and to report in detail at the next session of the legislature. 
The sanguine hopes that were nourished at the young capital 
are evidenced by. existing records. An editorial in the Indiana 
Journal of March 26, 1831, says: 

"For three or four years past efforts have been made by Noah 
Noble to induce steamboats to ascend the river, and ♦ * * 
very liberal offers have been made by that gentleman to the first 
steamboat captain who would ascend the river as far as this 
place. * * * As early as February, 1827, he offered the Ka- 
nawha Salt Company $150 as an inducement to send a load 
of salt, agreeing to sell the salt without charge." 

In 1830 Noble offered a Capt. Stephen Butler $200 to come to 
Indianapolis, and $100 in addition if Noblesville and Anderson 
were reached, though what efforts were made to earn these 
bonuses is not known. From time to time the newspapers made 



9G INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

mention of boats which, according to rumor, g-ot ''almost" tO' 
the capital, and eventually one made for itself a historic repu- 
tation by performing- the much-desired feat. This one was the 
^'General Hanna," a craft which Robert Hanna, a well-known 
character in early .politics, had purchased for the purpose of 
bringing- stones up the river for the old National road bridge. 
The Hanna, which in addition to its own loading, towed up a 
heavily-laden keel-boat, arrived April 11, 1831, and, according 
to a contemporary chronicle, **every man, woman and child 
who could possibly leave home availed themselves of this op- 
portunity of gratifying a laudable curiosity to see a steamboat. 
* * * On Monday evening and during the most of the suc- 
ceeding day the river bank was filled with delighted spectators.'' 
Captain Blythe and the artillery company marched down and 
fired salutes. The leading citizens and the boat's crew peppered 
each other with elegant, formal compliments, and the former, in 
approved parliamentary style, * 'Resolved, That the arrival at 
Indianapolis of the steamboat General Hanna, from Cincinnati, 
should be viewed by the citizens of the White river country and 
of our State at large, as a proud triumph, and as a fair and un- 
answerable demonstration of the fact that our beautiful river is 
susceptible of safe navigation." 

A public banquet in honor of the occasion was arranged, and 
the visiting navigators invited to attend, but they were in haste 
to ^tX out of the woods while the water might permit, and so 
declined with regrets. Legend has it that the boat ran aground 
on an island a short distance down river, and lay there ignomini- 
ously for six weeks, and that was the last of the '*proud triumph" 
and White river **navigation." 

Many are familiar, through Maurice Thompson's ''Stories of 
Indiana," with the Wabash river craft that attempted to es- 
tablish a "head of navigation" above Lafayette, and, after 
heroic strugglings, was finally hauled ingloriously up to Lo- 
gansport by a hawser and a dozen yoke of oxen.* In a book 
descriptive of the West, written by Jacob Ferris, as late as 
1856, is the following account: '*The river navigation of Indi- 
ana is rendered difficult by frequent shallows. The boats are 
of light draft, fiat-bottomed, with paddles placed across the 

•For oriciDAl aooonnt see Coz*8 "B^coUectioos of th«' Wabash Valley/' 



RIVER NA VIGA TION IN INDIANA ^1 

-stem. ^ ^ ^ It has been said of the Indiana boats that, in 
making headway down stream, thej contrive to keep up with 
the current They draw about as much water as a sap trough. 
When thej get stuck in the sand all hands will jump out and 
push them off. It is related of an exasperated Hoosier, who had 
refused to pay his fare till there should be some prospect of get- 
ting somewhere or other, that, being ordered ashore from the 
middle of the river, he stepped into the water, seized the craft 
by the bows, and gave it a shove down stream, stem foremost* 
When it worked back to the point he held it there, puffing and 
fluttering, the captain ^cussing,' till a compromise was effected, 
a.nd the Hoosier hired for the rest of the trip to help the engi- 
neer.'' 

But despite these and many similar absurdities, the Indiana 
streams were a factor, and an important one, in our earlier com- 
merce. The number of rivers and creeks that have been de- 
clared **public highways'' by our legislators is a matter for sur- 
prise. An examination of the statutes through the twenties and 
thirties discloses from thirty to forty. According to Timothy 
Flint, who wrote in 1833, the navigable waters of the State had 
been rated at 2500 miles, and this estimate he thought moder- 
ate. These streams ranged in size from the Wabash to insig- 
nificant hill drains that run down the short water-shed into the 
Ohio, some of which, at the present day at least, would scarce 
float a plank. Such streams were, however, supposed to have 
sufficient volume during high water to float flatboats, and the 
purpose of the legislation was to interdict impeding of the water- 
way by dams or otherwise, and the clearing of the channel was 
under State law. To this end many of these streams were divid- 
ed into districts, as were the roads, and ''worked" — i. e., cleared 
of drifts and other obstructions by the male residents living ad- 
jacent to either shore. This service varied with various localities 
and ranged from one to three days' labor a year from citizens 
residing one, two and three miles back. These workmen were 
exempt from road duty. By an act of January 4, 1828, $1,000 
was appropriated for the improvement of the two forks of White 
river, and they were to be * 'worked" by the various counties 
through which they ran. Boards of justices were to appoint 
supervisors and establish districts, and citizens within two miles 
on either side were to work the rivers three days in each year. 



92 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

It is probable that most of those declared navigable bore on 
their swollen tides at one time or another boats laden with the 
produce of the country, and an examination of the various his- 
tories reveals that very many of our counties thus founds thoug'h 
irregularly, an important outlet for their exports. 

The * 'Emigrant's and Traveler's Guide" a book published in 
1832, gives some information on this point. '^Hundreds of fiat- 
boats," we are told, ' 'annually descended the Wabash and White 
rivers. * ♦ * The trade of this river (the Wabash) is be- 
coming immense. In 1831, during- the period which elapsed from 
the Sth of March to the 16th of April, fifty-four steamboats ar^ 
rived and departed at and from Vincennes alone. It is also esti- 
mated that at least 1000 fiatboats entered the Ohio from the 
Wabash in the same time. * * * In February, March and 
April of this year there were sixty arrivals of steamboats at 
Lafayette." 

This showing of a thousand fiatboats in less than a month 
and a half, is no mean one, and shows conclusively the value of 
the rivers in the early stages of our commerce. Not less inter- 
esting is the glimpse which this writer gives us of the character 
of the commerce. One-tenth of the fiatboats, he tells us, was 
estimated to be ''loaded with pork at the rate of 300 barrels to 
the boat." Another tenth is said to have been loaded with lard, 
cattle, horses, oats, commeal, etc., and the remainder, making 
by far the largest export, with com in the ear. Sometimes we 
hear of more curious cargoes. The inhabitants of Posey coun- 
ty seem to have had a reputation among the facetious river 
men for "hoop-poles and punkins," and in the history of Jack- 
son county we learn that the first fiatboat cargo from Medora, 
in that county, was bickory-nuts, walnuts and venison hams. 
The value of produce and stock sent annually to market from 
the valley of the Wabash by fiatboats was estimated by Ferris 
at nearly $1,000,000. 

While there were other kinds of boats, the fiatboat was by 
far the best craft for the Indiana rivers, by reason of its light 
draft, its carrying capacity and its cheapness of construction. 
The huge tulip poplars that abounded in our forests, easily 
worked with the ax, afforded slabs long and broad enough for 
the sides, and the simple attaching of planks to these for the 



RIVER NA VIGA TION IN INDIANA 93 

-, ends and deck could be readily accomplished by the 

- r with such tools as were at his command. When finished, 

**^ ^^ " - a mere float, or lighter, fiat-bottomed and strong enough 

"■" ' * nd any amount of ordinary thumping as it drifted down 

^- - the current. 

Tt-- ., individual, or often several individuals, would knock to- 

^--- • or one of these, load it with the surplus produce of a 

^ iiborhood, and ride down with the freshets. The port was 

• ilj far-away New Orleans, from whence the boat was not 

used to return. After the disposal of its cargo it was sold 

vhatever it might bring, and the merchant returned by 

iiboat, usually to the Ohio river port nearest his home, 

V e across country. Sometimes, however, boats came up our 

s laden with imports. These seem mostly to have been keel- 

t s, a long, narrow craft with a keel, much lighter than the 

Scat. The ascent, a most arduous and snail-like task, was 

oted by poling, where the current permitted, and by *'cor- 

iing" where it was swift, the latter process being a towing by 

:ui, one end of the hawser being secured to a tree, to make 

I c of the distance gained. Two or three of these keel boats 

recorded as finding their way to Indianapolis soon after its 

.tiding, the principal part of the cargoes being salt and whisky 

. wo very precious articles. 

The late Mr. Alexander Conduitt, of Indianapolis, who as a 

mg- man was a *'sailor" on White river, has described to the 

i ter the fiatboats common on that stream. They were about 

*een feet wide; those built at and below Spencer were eighty 

•t long, and those for the river above Spencer were sixty feet 

:ij^. A sixty-foot boat would carry 500 dressed hogs. 

THB WABASH RIVBR. 

Such part as was played in Indiana's commercial development 
the steamboat was confined virtually to the Wabash and Ohio 
Ts. This at one time was of considerable importance to the 

Tthem and western portions of the State. Lafayette was 

ctically the head of navigation on the Wabash; and, prior to 

construction to that point, in 1843, of the Wabash and Erie 

iial, it depended much upon the river for an outlet. The 

I'raveler's Guide," quoted above, speaks of sixty arrivals of 



• tfcerrr- 
-a ta L3e 



,-s^ ami be- 



"zans^ I 



92 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HIS 

It is probable that most of those declared n- 
their swollen tides at one time or another boat- "^ uxoe 

produce of the country, and an examination of 
tories reveals that very many of our counties th naoe of 

irregularly, an important outlet for their expor 

The **Emigrrant's and Traveler's Guide'* a b- 
1832, gives some information on this point. ' i 
boats," we are told, "annually descended the W 
rivers. * * * The trade of this river (tht '- Dtrnn^ 

coming immense. In 1831, during- the period ^\ inEcaiiai- 

the Sth of March to the 16th of April, fifty-fou 
rived and departed at and from Vincennes alon 
mated that at least 1000 flatboats entered tli "^ 

Wabash in the same time. * * * In Febr a^i\ )^ ^ ta 

April of this year there were sixty arrivals 
Lafayette." 

This showing- of a thousand flatboats in It 
and a half, is no mean one, and shows conclus- -^ oeettaiK 

the rivers in the early stages of our commerce liiocks at 

esting- is the glimpse which this writer gfives u 
of the commerce. One-tenth of the flatboats 
estimated to be '*loaded with pork at the rate 
the boat." Another tenth is said to have been -rot w^tLr 

cattle, horses, oats, commeal, etc., and the re Tcncaiaie:'* 

by far the larg-est export, with com in the eai 
hear of more curious cargoes. The inhabitan 
ty seem to have had a reputation among- tl 
men for "hoop-poles and punkins," and in tht 
son county we learn that the first flatboat cat 
in that county, was bickory-nuts, walnuts a 
The value of produce and stock sent annual! " '^'^st fork 

the valley of the Wabash by flatboats was es = nam forir 

at nearly $1,000,000. 

While there were other kinds of boats, thr flrftfofkto 

far the best craft for the Indiana rivers, by r » «Mk* 

draft, its carrying- capacity and its cheapnes 
The huge tulip poplars that abounded in o to aoctfaon 

worked with the ax, a£forded slabs long- and t 
the sides, and the simple attaching of planks 



/A INDIANA 95 

lin's mills, 
mning-ham's mills. 
o the nlills of Brooks, Rob- 
mill. 

ley's mill, 
arson's mill. 

uth to Brooks's mill. 

lill. 

nill. 

. ood to forks. 

Hough's mill. 

>t river to Sherley's mill. 
^ mill, in Randolph county. 
unty. Sugar Creek, in Shelby 
^catatuck. EJel river to Gray's 
n Mile creek, Black, Beanblos- 
c, Plum and Big Indian creeks, 
rwise impeding navigation on 
le from $10 to $500. 
od being in large part lost to 
clared navigable is now past 

G. S. C. 



AT ON WHITE RIVER. 

L OF AN OLD PILOT. 

1 in the seventies by John Scott 
vho was bom in Lexington, Ky., 
interesting account of the first 
ers of White river: 
steamboat 'Victory,' running up 
lear the last of August; then the 
hen went aboard of the steam- 
s, master, l)ound for New Orleans. 



% INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Yellow fever was raging in New Orleans at this time. After 
our safe return from New Orleans, I asked Captain Sanders for 
my discharge: he would not hear of it, and went up to Louisville 
— our boat was lying at Shippingsport. When he returned he 
said: 'I have got a full load to go up White river to Spencer/ 
White river empties into the Wabash river near Mt. Carmel, 
through on the opposite side of the river; Spencer is in Indiana. 
So we loaded the boat with salt, and went on our way. Henry 
Christopher was still my pardner, and neither of us was ever 
up White river, but we went on our way up the Wabash to Mt. 
Carmel, then up the White river. White river is a small stream 
and very crooked; we went over mill-dams, though the water 
was high, and we finally arrived at Spencer. The steamboat 
'Traveler' was the first steamboat that ever turned a wheel on 
White river; William Sanders, master. 

'*The water commenced falling so we had to hurry out our 
load of salt, and go out of the river as soon as possible. Cap- 
tain Sanders said we would run down the river about thirty 
miles, land some passengers, and stay there all night, as we had 
told him we could not run in the night. It was Christopher^s 
first watch. We went on down White river and landed the pas- 
sengers, some time in the fore part of the night. The Captain 
then said, 'We will go on to-night. Christopher said nothing,' 
and away we went. I told Christopher if he could stand it, I 
could. So my pardner stood watch until twelve o'clock and 
then called me up. When I took hold of the wheel I do not 
think I was ever in such a bad fix in my life, for a man that is a 
pilot can generally see the river all the way ahead of him. 
However, I told my pardner that I would go it blind, if there 
was ever any one time in my life when I longed for the light of 
day that was the time. So we continued on down and I heard 
the chickens crow, then I knew it was not long until daylight. 
The first thing I knew we went into the Wabash river, then I 
was all right. The Wabash, after White river, appeared to be 
as wide as the Mississippi and we went on our way rejoicing to 
Louisville, without accident." Emma Carlbton. 



GRA VES OF RE VOL UTIONAR Y SOLDIERS 97 



GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS 

IN Vol. If Nos. 2 and 3, of this magazine, were published lists 
of Revolutionary graves located in Putnam and Floyd coun- 
ties. The following list is the fullest, up to date, of these 
graces as located in various parts of the State by members and 
chapters of the D. A. R. It is taken from the First Annual Re- 
port of the D. A. R. State Historian, Miss Eliza G. Browning: 

Allbn County. The Mary Penrose Wayne Chapter reports 
a large number of Revolutionary soldiers buried at Harmersford, 
but is unable to give the names. 

Floyd County — 6. Located by Piankeshaw Chapter. Jos- 
eph Bell, Joshua Fowler, Richard Lord Jones and Benjamin 
Buckman, all in the New Albany cemetery; Jacob Garrison, 
Galena; Gabriel Poindexter, Floyd Knobs. 

Crawford County — 1. Piankeshaw Chapter. Jeremiah 
Wright, Fredona cemetery. 

Clark County — 20. Twelve located by Piankeshaw Chapter. 

Harrison County — 18. Piankeshaw Chapter. Charles Dyer, 
Bethlehem cemetery, near Crandall; Joshua Bennett, Samuel 
Raugh and Patrick Hunter, Presbyterian cemetery at Rebobeth; 
Hinson Johnson, Blunk's cemetery, Webster township; Peter 
Deatrich, George Krone and Charles George, family burying 
ground one mile south of Elizabeth. David Trout, Luther^s 
Chapel; John Williams, Goldsbury farm, three miles south of 

Fredricksburg; John Smith, near Corydon; Cooper, neat 

Hancock's Chapel; Henry Funk and Daniel Funk, west bank 
of Big Indian Creek, near New Amsterdam; Abraham Harmar 
and Joseph Harmar, Thompson's burial lot; John Long, High- 
fill farm, near Corydon; Philip P. Stine, near same place. 

Huntington County — 1. Huntington Chapter. Elijah Mitch* 
ell, Good cemetery, Warren township. 

Jennings County — 1. Mrs. W. A. Guthrie, of John Paul 
Chapter. Darby McGannon, family burial ground on McGannon 
farm. 

Marion County — 8. Caroline Scott Harrison Chapter. John 
Morrow, Crown Hill cemetery; Isaac Wilson, family yard, Indi- 



INDIANA QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Gborgb S. Cottm an. Editor and Proprietor, 

EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

A DBLAYKD ACKNOWLBDGMENT. 

An acknowledgment of favors received should have appeared 
in the last number of this magazine, but was unintentionally 
omitted. The magazine last year barely paid expenses, and, 
much as the publisher desired to keep it up, its continuance 
seemed impracticable. That it has continued to exist is largely 
due to the friendly aid of several well-wishers who added to 
their personal subscriptions a number of extra ones, thus swell- 
ing the subscription list very materially and putting in the 
hands of the publisher a fund sufficient, in addition to the regu- 
lar list, to defray the publishing expenses for the current year. 
This was done without any soliciting on the part of the publish- 
er, and that men of such character should have thought the 
publication worthy of their voluntary support and endorsement 
is the most gratifying result, so far, of our effort to promote 
an interest along this line. We here make mention of the gen- 
tlemen to whom our thanks are due: 

Messrs. A. W. Butler, W. E. Henry, J. Frank Hanly, Charles 
J. Buchanan, Geo. W. Benton, Daniel Wait Howe, John H. Hol- 
liday, C. B. Coleman and T. E. Hibben, Indianapolis; Mrs. Mil- 
ton Shirk, Peru; Mr. Fremont Goodwine, Williamsport; Mr. J. 
A. Woodburn and the Monroe County Historical Society, Bloom- 
ingfton; Mr. Cyrus W. Hodgin, Richmond; Mr. F. B. Shutts, Au- 
rora; Mr. Robt. S. Taylor, Fort Wayne, and Mr. Geo. B. Lock- 
wood, Winona Lake. 

To Messrs. W. E. Henry and A. W. Butler we are especially 
indebted. 

THB RICHMOND CENTENNIAL. 

The plans for the Richmond Centennial anniversary, to be ob* 
served next September, still go enthusiastically on. The pro- 
gram has been arranged, and committees for the many branches 
of work organized, while the local press from time to time 



GRA VES OF RE VOL UTIONAR Y SOLDIERS 101 

publishes historical matter calculated to arouse the public in- 
terest in the movement, and the town, seemingflj, is being 
searched for relics, historical documents and all kinds of tribu- 
tary material. An important feature of the occasion will be a 
**Centennial History" of the city, under the charge of a History 
Committee, in which the various phases of development will 
be carefully dealt with by those most competent for the 
tasks. With the effort that is being made to get at all existing 
material, it is probable that the book will contain much of real 
historic value hitherto unused. 

LOCAL HISTORICAL SOCIETIES IN INDIANA. 

By request Prof. Cyrus W. Hodgin, of Richmond, supplies 
US with the following information: 

"The local historical societies in this State that are at present 
active, so far as we have been able to learn, are located in the 
following counties: Elkhart, Grant, Henry, Kosciusko, Mon- 
roe, St. Joseph, Wabash and Wayne. The facts of the history 
of the Elkhart, Grant and Kosciusko societies are wanting. 
The Wayne county society was organized first in 1882 within 
the Old Settlers' organization. It was reorganized in 1901 and 
incorporated in 1902. It has rooms in the court-house at Rich- 
mond, assigned to it by the county commissioners, who recently 
appropriated $250 to furnish suitable cases for its collection. 
Its collection of books, files of papers, volumes of magazines and 
various relics, numbers between six and seven hundred. This 
does not include the papers that have been read before it. Its 
meetings are held quarterly, that in November being called the 
annual meeting. It is supported by membership fees. 

**The Henry county society was organized in 1887 and incor- 
porated in 1901. It is housed in a valuable property purchased 
for the purpose by the county commissioners at a cost of $5000. 
It is supported, however, by membership fees and special con- 
tributions. It has a valuable collection. 

*^The society in St. Joseph county is known as the Northern 
Indiana Historical Society. It aims to work the field of the 
entire State. It has for its quarters the entire second floor of 
the public library building in South Bend. Its collection is said 
to contain the largest number of historical publications and the 



102 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

most interesting' historical relics in the State. The annual meet- 
ing occurs in February. 

^^The Wabash society was organized and incorporated in 
1901. It has been given the use, by the county commission- 
ers, of Memorial Building in the city of Wabash, where it has 
begun a collection of historical materials. This society does 
not collect membership fees, but each member must ^pay for one 
share of stock in the association.' Among its officers are a 
historian and an archaeologist. The annual meeting is held in 
Wabash in October. Special meetings may be held at such 
times and places as the board of directors may designate. 

*'The Monroe county society was organized in 1905. It is 
maintained by a membership fee. The meetings are held 
monthly in the lecture-room of the Kirkwood Avenue Chris- 
tain Church in Bloomington. The topics in its programs indi- 
cate that much good investigation is being made in the history 
and biography of the county." 

PRESBRVATION OP THE FRIGATE "CONSTITUTION.*' 

Since our last issue the Northern Indiana Historical Society 
has put into circulation the following circular which we are 
glad to reprint. All local societies should indorse the memorial: 

*'To the Senators and Representatives from Indiana: 

*'The Northern Indiana Historical Society at a special meet- 
ing of its executive committee held this day, unanimously adopt- 
ed the following memorial: 

"The members of the Northern Indiana Historical Society 
hereby strongly indorse the movement for the preservation of 
the U. S. Frigate 'Constitution,' now lying at the Navy Yard at 
Charlestovm, Massachusetts, — a war vessel around which cluster 
many memories of the early days of the Republic, — the vessel 
which, by its destruction of the British warship *Guerriere, gave 
to the war of 1812 its first victory, and encouraged the nation to 
renewed and ultimately successful efforts, . after the early and 
discouraging events of the war. 

'*The society urges that the members of Congress from Indi- 
ana favor the appropriation added by the Senate to the naval 
appropriation bill for the repair or rebuilding of the famous frig- 
ate, that it may be an object lesson, showing what in 1812 was 



LOCAL HISTORY CONTRIBUTIONS 103 

considered a well-equipped vessel of war, thus D lust rating* the 
marvelous progress which steam and steel have wrougfht in na- 
val architecture in a sing-le century. The frigfate 'Constitution/ 
so long" as she is afloat, will serve to recall a naval victory which, 
small in itself when won, was the foundation of the maritime 
power of the nation. 

**And, said society earnestly requests and urgently petitions 
the members of Congress from Indiana to use every honorable 
effort and influence within their control to secure so liberal an 
appropriation as may be necessary to fittingly restore and per- 
manently preserve the frigate 'Constitution' for the purpose 
above set forth, and as an inspiration of patriotism to the youth 
of our country. Timothy E. Howard, President 

"Gborgk a. Bakbr, Secretary,'''' 

LOCAL HISTORY CONTRIBUTIONS. 

The Moravian Mission on White River. — In the Indianapolis News 
for March 17, 1906, Mr. J. P. Dunn has an interesting contribution 
in which he discusses the martyrdom of Christian Indians among 
the Delawares of White river, under the instigation of the nefari- 
ous '^Prophet,** and the Moravian Mission that was established 
among these people early in the nineteenth century. Hitherto 
the chief, if not the sole authorities, touching upon these 
matters have been John B. Dillon, the Indiana historian, and 
John Heck welder, the Moravian missionary. To these have 
recently been added the original reports of the mission, which 
were discovered in the archives of the Moravian church, and 
which it is the intention of the Indiana Historical Society to 
publish. That they will add new information to our rather 
meager knowledge of the Indians of Indiana is to be expected. 

The site of the old Moravian mission, like that of Ouiatenon, is 
somewhat uncertain, though tradition places it on White river 
about two miles east of Anderson. A witchcraft craze, inaugu- 
rated by the Prophet, who, with his brother Tecumseh, was 
then located among the Delawares, so discouraged the mission- 
aries that their establishment was discontinued in 1806. In 
subsequent history so little mention is made of it that its ex- 
istence is practically forgotten. 

In this connection, it may be said that such authorities as we 



104 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

have upon the subject seem to be quite uncertain as to the dis- 
tribution of the Indians along- White river. Chief Anderson's 
town and the Munsee town, at or near where Anderson and 
Muncie now stand, are frequently spoken of in local chronicles, 
but to most of the others there is very little allusion. Accord- 
ing* to a United States survey map made in 1821 there was a Lit- 
tle Munsee Town, near Anderson's villag'e, and a Buck Town a 
little farther up the river. In a former number of this maga- 
zine (see Vol. I, No. 4, p. 176) were published some commnnica- 
tions reminiscent of an old Indian torture stake that stood for 
a number of years after the whites came into the country. This 
was on the river, about three miles southeast of Muncie. Prom 
one of these letters, written by Samuel Cecil, who for many 
years owned the land, it is pretty conclusive that an Indian 
town of some permanence stood at that place, and that a stake 
for torturing prisoners was a notable feature of it. Mr. Cecil 
says that the villege was known as Old Munsey, or Old Town 
Hill, and that it antedated the Munsey that stood just across 
the river from the present city of Muncie. In Henry county they 
have a tradition of a town that stood not far from the site of 
New Castle, and which remained there for some time after the 
coming of the whites. Judge Martin L. Bundy who, we l>elieve, 
has a personal recollection of them, affirms that they were Sen- 
ecas. The Indians who were murdered near Pendleton, in 1824, 
are also said to have been Senecas. The Senecas t>elonged to 
the Iroquois confederacy, and this dual tradition would seem to 
indicate that Iroquois were to be found among the Algonquins 
of this section. Strawtovni, in Hamilton county, is also said to 
have been originally ^'a flourishing Indian town,^ and there are 
vague reports of others on the river at the north and south boun- 
dary lines of Marion county. 

The Union Literary Society. — We are in receipt of an interest- 
ing article with this caption, written by Philander Ontland, of 
Richmond, and published in the Sun'Telegram for Novemt>er 22, 
1902. The Union Literary Society, or Institute, more properly 
speaking, was a school in Randolph county, established by the 
BViends in 1845, and was, perhaps, the first institution of the 
kind in the State to throw open its doors alike to white and col- 



THE SNOWFALL IN OCTOBER, 1869 lOS 

ored pupils. It was oommenced in a two-story hewed-log build- 
ing', '^located in a dense forest,'^ and in this primitive seat of 
learning many a youth of the under race was gtuded toward a 
broader life. An account of the school, written by Professor 
Ebenezer Tucker, its principal, may be found in the History of 
Randolph County, but Mr. Outland, a colored man who was ed- 
ucated there, deals freshly and more at length with its special 
service to the colored race. Negro pupils attended the school 
not only from the territory immediately surrounding, but from 
Richmond, Logansport and Indianapolis, this State, and from 
Dayton, Piqua, Cincinnati, and Shelby and Mercer counties, 
Ohio, while some came from Mississippi and Tennessee. 

Saber's History of Green County. — Mr. Henry Baker, of Worth- 
ingfton, sends us a copy of the little paper-bound History of 
Greene County, the authorship of which is accredited to "Uncle 
Jack Baber," and which was published at Worthingfton in 1875. 
Some of the best local history we have is to be found in pam- 
phlets or small, unpretentious volumes published by the authors, 
and Baber's is one of this class. It is evidently written by a 
reminiscent who is thoroughly familiar with the community in 
which he has long lived, and the text, which rambles along in a 
gossipy style, contains many minor incidents and anecdotes 
that bring the people of Greene county close to the reader. The 
book is now hard to find. 



THE SNOWFALL IN OCTOBER, 1869. 

From Indiana Farmer, November //, /905. 

I SEE in the last issue of the Farmer^ C. H., of Ohio, wants to 
know the exact date of tfae deep snow that fell in October of 
1868 or 1869. As I have been keeping a record only since 1872, 
I can rely only on my memory for the information wanted, 
which was in 1869, the day of the week or month not remem- 
bered. If I knew the day of the month I could tell the day of 
the week. I well recollect a snow in 1843, when I was just 
turned into my twelfth year, that for severity has perhaps never 



106 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

been equalled. The day of the month or week I fail to recollect, 
but from an old man of my acquaintance and several years my 
senior, I learned it was the 4th. I have a vivid recollection that 
will remain with me as to snow while the trees were in full leaf. 
Prom my diary of 1880 I see that two inches of snow fell on the 
forenoon of October 19th (Tuesday), and that at noon the sun 
came out and the snow went like a white frost. I regret that 
I didn't keep a diary of my school days, just as every young* man 
should. I find it a great source of satisfaction now in my old 
age for reference. Hbkrv Bakbr. 

Worthington. 



THE INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Vol- n SEPTEMBER, 1906 No. 3 

THE EARLY NEWSPAPERS OF INDIANA. 

BEGINNINGS AND DEVELOPMENT OF JOURNALISM. 

IN view of the illiteracy with which early Indiana has (justly 
or unjustly) been accredited, the ubiquity of the newspaper 
press, almost from the beginning, is a matter for surprise. We 
have abundant evidence that in our pioneer population there 
was a large element of intelligent and thinking* men. The man 
of this tjrpe, with the alert American sense of citizenship and 
with a lively curiosity about the news of the world (whetted, 
perhaps, by his isolation), together with his zeal for local de- 
velopment, demanded an organ to promote his political opinions, 
to keep him in touch, in some fashion, with the outside world, 
and to advocate the public wants. As a consequence, generally 
speaking, wherever he went and established his rude beginnings 
of a civil and social life, the printing press followed hard after. 

These journalistic beginnings are very difficult to trace 
because of the meagemess and uncertainty of the records. 
Many a paper that had its little day and was once part of the 
history of its community has passed utterly away, leaving not a 
number nor even a memory in the minds of men to tell that it 
ever existed; and the only proof of its existence often is indirect 
and obscure. Others have changed their names, sometimes 
repeatedly, while still retaining their newspaper identity, and in 
a study of the subject this is confusing. 

The sources for such a study are, mainly« the newspaper 
directories, local histories. United States census reports, old 
gazetteers and newspaper files. The first of these are of little 
historical value, and the local histories are not always reliable 
and sometimes wholly silent as to the papers of their localities. 
The most valuable of these sources are old newspaper files, for 
in them, though fragmentary and incomplete, we find not only 
many of the publications themselvt i, but allusions to and adver- 



!»>> ami ANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 



tiscsBests of «lik9r contemporaneons papers. From these rarions 
aathorities I hare compiled a list of aboat 250 periodicals, 
Bostlj aevspspers, pablished in this State prior to 1850. The 
U:>t is« pffobablj, not complete, nor always accurate as to dates, 
ecc^ bot is, I think, about as trustworthy as it can be made 
froB the source material available! To give anything* like 
lietailed imf<Hination about these many ventures is, of course, 
oat of the question here, but their chronological and, in some 
cas^Sv geographical distribution may be briefly given. For 
coa i e aiea ce they may be considered by decades. 

Fi«ST Decade.— From 1800 to 1810 the only publication in 
ibe Territory of Indiana was the Indiana Gazette and its succes- 
9or« the Western Sun^ of Vincennes. This paper was established 
IB 1S04 by Elihu Stout, who shipped a printing outfit from 
Frankfort, Ky., by way of the Kentucky, Ohio and Wabash 
rivers. This sheet antedated the first one in St. Louis by four 
rears, and seems to contest the claim to priority with the first 
in the Louisiana Purchase, as the earliest New Orleans papers 
were in 1804, These were Le Moniteur, a French publication, 
and the Louisiana Gazette. Of the first I have not found the ex- 
act date; the latter was first issued in July of the year given. 
The Indiama Gazette was burned out and re-established as the 
Wesiffm Smn. Subsequently it became The Western Sun and 
G^fmep^ Advertiser, Jones' Vincennes Sentinel, The Vincennes Indi- 
(tfu P^ri(}i^ The Courant and Patriot, and, finally. The Western 
Sam a^ain, which name it still bears. Two or three in Ohio 
prvceded this one. 

S;sci^da> Decade. — By 1810 the St. Louis paper, and ten in 
tiie Bn^ish, French and Spanish languages that had been start- 
<^i itt New Orleans, had all suspended. The one in Indiana 
TVmtv>rr sturdily persisted in living, in spite of the disaster by 
tst^ that overtook it almost in the start, and during the second 
g^-jide others came to keep it company. The record we have of 
»vy^ K %:>Ant. Imt the following are mentioned in local histories 

m4 elsewhere: 

•V C^^^d/m GoMttte, 1814; 7%e Piaindealer and Gazette^ Brook- 
x-'><v 15^^^ <* \%\^\ The RepubHcan Banner and The Indiana Re- 
^Vwi. Madisoa. 1815 and 1816; The Indiana Register, Vevay, 



THE EARL Y NEWSPAPERS OF INDIANA 109 

1816; The Centinel, Vincennes, about 1817 (partisU file in State 
Library); The Vevay ReveiUe^ 1S17; The Indiana Oracle, Law- 
renceburg, 1817 or 1819; The Intelligencer, Clark County (prob- 
ably Charlestown), 1818; The Enquirer and Indiana Telegraph, 
Brookville, 1819. There is also vague mention of one, name not 
given, conducted at Jeffersonville in 1820 by George Smith and 
Nathaniel Bolton, who a little later founded the first Indianap- 
olis paper, the Gazelle; and one at New Albany by Ebenezer 
Patrick. 

Third and Fourth Dbcadbs. — At the beginning of this ar- 
ticle I said that wherever the pioneer went the printing press fol- 
lowed hard after. This, perhaps, is an over emphasis of the ar- 
gument if we construe ^^hard after" as immediately. Just at 
this point we have an interesting revelation as to the time nec- 
essary for the creating of a journalistic field. It should be 
noted that the dozen or so papers above given were confined to 
the south third of the State. In 1820, the whole central portion 
of our Territory was thrown open to settlers and there was an 
influx of population that spread as far north as the Wabash. 
There seem reasons why the newspaper press should spread ac- 
cordingly, but by my notes I find that while during the third dec- 
ade the number of papers was trebled, only four of them were 
in the *'New Purchase," as the newly opened country was called. 
These were the Indianapolis Gazelle (see Note 1), The Weslem 
Censor and Emigrant* s Guide, which became the Indianapolis Jour^ 
nal, the Lafayette Journal, and the PoUawattamie and Miami 
TimeSy of Logansport (Note 2). During these ten years many 
thousands of settlers had come in, and there are reasons for be- 
lieving that many papers were taken and read, but for some 
reason the conditions seem not to have invited journalistic ven^ 
tures until the beginning of the next decade. In the early thir- 
ties they began to spring up and during these ten years one hun- 
dred new papers came into existence, by far the larger part of 
which were in the central and northern localities, and scattered 
pretty well over these portions from Columbus to Michigan City, 
and from Henry to Parke counties. From 1840 to 1850 I find 
added to the list at least one hundred and fourteen more, and of 
these comparatively few are located in the older parts of the 
State (Note 3). 



110 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

As stated above, the number of periodicals that I have found 
trace of as existing in the State prior to 1850 is something like 
250. There were certainly some in addition to these that have 
quite disappeared from mortal ken. Many were ephemeral, and 
the mortality among them is indicated by a comparison of the 
number I find with those given on the United States census. 
This comparison can not be made through that medium until 
1840, when the census first deals with the periodicals of the 
country. Up to that period, according to my research, at least 
134 had been established, but the total number existing in the 
year mentioned is reported in the census as 79, while against 
the 250 that had been in 1850 only 107 remained. 

Drawing still further upon these census reports, we find some 
interesting figures touching the output of the press, not only as 
to increase but as to character. In the beginning all periodicals 
were weekly newspapers. By 1840 a differentiation had begun, 
and along with 69 weeklies there were 4 semi- and tri- weeklies 
and 3 classified as '^periodicals," presumably literary. In the 
following decade the daily makes its appearance, and by 1850 
there are 9 of these, along with 95 weeklies, 2 tri-weeklies and 
1 semi-monthly, with a total circulation of 63,138. In 1860 there 
were 186, with the political weekly still in the ascendancy, but 
showing an intrusion into the field of 6 religious and 5 literary 
weeklies and monthlies, and with an aggregate circulation of 
159,381. During the sixties there was a much heavier rate of 
increase, the census of 1870 showing 293 and a circulation of 
363,542. The next ten years the advance was more marked yet^ 
and by 1880 had reached the number of 467, with a circulation 
of 661,111. By this time the dailies had increased to 40, and 
the monthlies to 27. The tables of 1890 show 680 newspapers 
and periodicals, with a circulation of 1,292,418; those of 1900, 
887, and a circulation of 210,805, or an output during the entire 
year of 175,432,092 copies. 

One of the interesting phases of journalistic history is the 
differentiating process above referred to, one aspect of which af- 
fords an important sociological datum, as indicating changes in 
the attitude of the public. Not only has the weekly, in large 
measure, given place to the daily, and the daily fallen into 
classes, as morning and evening, but there have been changes 



THE EARL Y NEWSPAPERS OF INDIANA 111 

of a deeper sigfiiificaiice. In the earlier times the journal was, 
first of ally a party orgfan, with all the rabid partisanship that 
that implies when the party organ is in its worst estate. Even 
the news, where possible, it seemed, was twisted to subserve 
party ends, and as a concomitant, savage political rancor was 
the order of the day. The modem newspaper is not all sweet- 
ness and light, but one could hardly imagine, for example, the 
Indianapolis Journal in its latter days admitting to its columns, 
as it does in the issue of November 3, 1836, an open letter ad- 
dressed to "the Lying, Hireling Scoundels who do the dirty work 
as Editors of the Democrat.^'* The pioneer reader was nothing 
if not a partizan, and the acrimony with which both editors and 
contributors expressed themselves is an index to the moral spirit 
of the times. Not only political differences but personal animos- 
ities were aired in the public columns with a brutal rancor and 
ferocious hate based, so far as one can see in the controversies, 
on little cause.* 

So little was the old journal a newspaper, in the modem 
sense, that local news, or, indeed, any kind of news other than 
political was hardly thought worth the space. The things that 
would now have peculiar historical value, had the papers 
chronicled them, are provokiugly scant. What local matter 
there was had no separate department, but was usually 
scattered down the editorial column, and matters that we now 
regard as of interest and importance often had little or no 
mention. For example, one would think that the people, and, 
as a consequence, the press, would have been very much 
interested in the admission of the State to the Union, and in the 
convention that framed the first Constitution, at Corydon; but 
in the files of the Western Sun- of that period (the only paper of 
that date available) very little is said about the convention, and 
the first conspicuous indication of statehood is the budding 
forth, more than a month after the convention, of notices of 
candidates inaugurating the grand rush for office. The 
startling earthquake shocks of 1811-'12, the equally startling 
star shower of 1833, and other notable occurrences are dismissed 

^GoTomor James B. Bay was a past-matter at this gentle art of vltiiperatiaii, and an open 
letter of his to James Noble, then United States Senator, pnblished in the ItUUanapoUa 
Jbttmol of March 8, 1880, is a good example of the flereenese I speak of. 



112 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

with little more than a mere mention, though they unquestion- 
ably occupied a large place in the public mind at the times. 

The first venture, perhaps, in the local field was The Loco- 
motive^ a little weekly, unique for that day, which was launched 
in 1845 as an amateur performance by three apprentices in the 
Indiana Journal office, of Indianapolis. It died a couple of 
times, but was revived, enlarged a little, more maturely edited, 
perhaps, and proved a "go." It was wholly local and literary, 
with much of the society column feature, and, according to 
Berry Sulgrove, **covered so well a field completely neglected by 
the grave political organs that it soon began to pay." It was, 
he adds, *'the first paper that the women and girls wanted to 
read regularly." 

The early newspaper did not, however, wholly neglect litera- 
ture. Indeed, it sometimes filled in with a: disproportionate 
amount of reading matter of this sort, not only from the writers 
of the day, but from those of the past, as in the case of the 
Ripley County Index^ which published in a serial form the 
whole of * 'Pilgrim's Progress." Love stories, often serials, not 
unfrequently occupied the first page. There was also, usually, 
the time-honored Poets' Comer, affording a chance to budding 
rhymsters, and showing that the muse, though humbly subordi- 
nate, was not quite forgotten. In The Western Sun^ of 
Vincennes, this latter department was headed the * 'Poetical 
Asylum." 

THE INDEPENDENT PRESS. 

The development of the independent newspaper during the 
last third of a century is one of the interesting journalistic 
phenomena. Prior to that period there were in this State 
several so-called independent sheets, but these were, without 
exception, I believe, simply neutral and not aggressively inde- 
pendent, as the modem usage of that term implies. The most 
noteworthy of these was the Independent Press^ established at 
Lawrenceburg in 1850, by Henry L. Brown and James E. Groble, 
and edited by Oliver B. Torbett. From the salutatory and a 
long communication to the editor in the first number on the 
needs of an independent press, one would think that the paper 
had naturally risen out of a growing demand for such; but Mr. 
Brown, one of the founders, now (or until recently) living in 



THE EARL Y NE WS PAPERS OF INDIANA 113 

Indianapolis, explains that the independence of the new paper 
was largely accidental. The Democratic field was already 
occupied; there was no encouragement for a Whig organ in 
that county, and hence the remaining alternative. This is one 
of the most interesting papers of its period, and its superiority 
over the majority of its contemporaries alike in the matter of 
news, literature and miscellany, doubtless accounted for the 
measure of success to which it att^iined. 

The independent movement which avowedly takes an active 
part in all political issues and makes a virtue of the * ^flopping'' 
which so excites the scorn of the staunch partisan, was inaug- 
urated in this State by John H. Holliday who, in 1869, es- 
tablished the Indianapolis News. Being a man of ideas, and 
with the boldness to experiment with these, he launched a paper 
that in several respects occupied its own field. It is supposed 
to have been the only two-cent paper, outside, possibly, of 
Chicago, that existed west of the Allegheny mountains. Prior 
to the war cheap papers had sprung up, but the advance in cost 
of material, particularly of white paper, in the war period, had 
driven them out. It was made an afternoon paper because day 
labor cost less than night work; and, finally, it was made an 
independent paper because Mr. Holliday preferred and believed 
in that kind of a newspaper. It may be adde4 that the 
proprietor secured for it the Associated Press dispatches, which 
advantage no previous evening publication here had enjoyed. 

Just how far the well-known success of the News is attributable 
to its political independence and how much to good business 
management is not obvious, but its success in the independent 
field has doubtless been a strong influence in developing the 
movement. Others followed the lead of this pioneer in its 
venture, and that they met a **felt want" would seem to be 
indicated by the fact that by 1903, according to Lord & Thomas's 
Pocket Directory of that year, there were in the State no less 
than 219 independent journals, not counting those that professed 
a qualified independence, such as '^Republican-Independent" 
and **Democratic-Independent." These are scattered pretty 
well over the State, and 185 of them (34 not being returned) had 
an aggregate circulation of 266,103. 



M^i^i^ta^ 



r" - ■ - 



#'j 



THE EARL Y NEWSPAPERS OF INDIANA 115 

and paper for the first issue, was upset in fording* a stream. 
The consequent delay in the paper's initial appearance was 
explained as due to * 'circumstances beyond our control" — a 
comprehensive and oft-used excuse which the first printers 
probably kept "standing-." This was only the begfinning of this 
joumars difficulties. Often the stores and shops of the town 
had to be ransacked for ordinary wrapping paper to print on; 
sometimes only a half sheet was sent out, and sometimes no 
paper could be issued at all. The first paper in Martinsville, 
printed on a small wooden press, also frequently depended upon 
store paper.* When Milton Gregg bought a second-hand print- 
shop at Brookville to start The Western Statesman at Lawrence- 
burg, he sent "a wild Hoosier teamster" for the outfit, and the 
latter, laying a quilt upon the floor, emptied thereon in one pile 
the various cases of type, both body and job. It was three weeks 
before Gregg's printers got the pi distributed. The first paper 
in Rushville, The Dog-Fefinel Gazette{\)^ published by one Wick- 
ham in 1832, seems, from the unique name bestowed upon it, to 
have been consciously grotesque. What the eccentric father of 
it used as bed for his press we are not told, but it is affirmed 
that for his pressing power he utilized a heavy pole, one end of 
which was attached to a tree. Placing the form under the pole 
near the tree, so as to get a good leverage, he would squeeze oflF 
his impressions. The sheets were distributed printed on one 
side, and his patrons, after reading, would return the paper to be 
printed on the other side for another issue. This quite equals 
the old jest among the fraternity about sheets that are worked 
with swamp mud on a cider press. A copy of The Dog-Fennel 
Gazette would be an interesting find. 

That these early ventures in the journalistic field should have 
exercised their function in a primitive manner and made a 
rather sorry shift generally is not surprising, the wonder, indeed, 
being that the mortality among them was not greater. In The 
BloomingUm Post for August 30, 1832, nearly three editorial 

*In the Indianapoli* Journal of May 8, 1828, 1 find mention of a paper mill at Madison. 
A futile attempt to establish one in Richmond in 1828 was followed in 1880 by a sncoeesfnl 
▼entnre. ( Yonng's Wayne Connty, p. 380.) The United States Census returns of 1840 report 
three of these mills in the State— in Jefferson, Franklin and Wayne oountiee (Madison, 
BrookriUe and Richmond.) The aggregate capital inTSStad is given as 1|0I,739, and the 
▼aloe of production for the last year as |B6,4S7. 



116 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

columns are gfiven to the status of the press. It is bitterly 
complained that *4nterlopers/' not practical printers but *^quack 
doctors, half-read lawyers and pretended literary characters," 
had invaded the journalistic field to the demoralization alike of 
the journal and of the legfitimate printers' chances, which latter 
are represented as slim at best. 

To begfin with, the munitions of war for their crusade against 
darkness was an exceedingfly uncertain quantity, for thougfh 
their subscription rates were high compared with the news 
weekly of to-day, and the advertising* patronage was often 
liberal, the editor shared with business men at large the 
embarrassments of scant cash and delayed payments. Indeed, 
the sentiment seemed to prevail that the newspaper man and 
the doctor could wait for their pay a little longer than any one 
else. We find that rather extraordinary inducements were 
offered for advance payments, and the clause as to arrearages is 
one of the proofs of the frequency of arrearages. The 
acceptance of all sorts of produce, from cordwood to maple 
sugar, was common, and if we may judge by the long 
continuance of the custom, yet more in vogue with printers than 
with merchants. A notice to be found in an old number of the 
Brookville Indiana American announced that it will accept ^'the 
following currency at par, for subscription or advertising, to- 
wit: Maple Sugar, Molasses, Country Linen, Jeans, Chickens, 
Butter, Cheese, Wood, Dried Apples, Dried Peaches, Com, 
Wheat, Flour, Cornmeal, Pork, Beef, Oats, Hay, Bacon, or most 
any other mechanical production,*' and The Bloomington Post oi 
October 26, 1838, advertises that ''persons expecting to pay for 
their papers in produce must do so soon, or the cash will be ex- 
acted. Pork, Flour, Corn and Meal will be taken at the market 
prices. Also, those who expect to pay us in firewood must do so 
immediately — we must have our wood laid in for the winter 
before the roads get bad." The same paper for July 6, 1838, 
after repeated appeals to creditors, resorts to this heroic measure: 

"The Black List. — We have forwarded accounts to several 
persons indebted to us for Job Work, Subscriptions, etc., and we 
are sorry to say that they pay little or no attention to them. 
We take this opportunity to inform those gentlemen that if they 
any longer neglect to remit to us the amount of our accounts we 



THE EARL Y NE WSPAPERS OF INDIANA 117 

will forthwith place their names in bold capitals on the ^'black 
iist,^ as scoundrels and swindlers.*' 

Three weeks later the editor beg^an his black list, but whether 
or not it had the desired effect is a matter lost to history. 

Akin to this is the wail of the Madison Indiana Republican for 
July 26, 1817, which says: 

*^Mr. Clerk, I wish you to discontinue my dunning adver- 
tisement. My debtors pay no attention to it. Be so good as to 
inform the Sheriff that I wish to see him. Yours truly, 

"B. Young." 

Nor was this all, nor, perhaps, the most serious of the printer's 
troubles. His most avowed function was to supply people with 
the news, and the difficulties in obtaining the news were most 
discouraging. For example, when the Indianapolis Gazette was 
started there was no regular mail to the town, and for the first 
three or four months of its existence it had to appear irregularly 
and as it could secure matter. Its launching, indeed, seems to 
have been a cause in determining the first mail line, for soon 
thereafter the citizens of the place held a meeting to consider 
the situation, decided upon establishing a route to Connersville, 
sixty miles away (there to connect with the government service), 
and themselves employed a man to carry the mail and open a 
post-office. After the government established a regular route the 
delays necessitated by bad roads were multiplied by indirect and 
circuitous carriage. An editorial in the Western Censor and Emi" 
grant^s Guide about that time complains that its exchanges, 
instead of coming as directly as possible, were carried by round- 
about routes and got to their destination usually two weeks 
later than need be, and this fortnight, added to the several 
days that "need be" by the best possible service of the day, gives 
an idea of the antiquity of most of the "news" i^hen it reached 
the readers. The great source of the foreign intelligence was, 
of course, the exchange which had already served its readers at 
points farther east or south, and so the interior readers were a 
stage further removed from the actual events of the world. 

Of the exchanges drawn upon, that most frequently quoted is 
Nile^ Weekly Register^ a most excellent and valuable compendium 
of news and history, which comprised a wide range of subjects. 
This periodical, a weekly publication of sixteen octavo pages, 



118 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

was issued at Baltimore from September 7, 1811, to Augrust 27, 
1836, bj Hezekiah Niles, and from that date to June 27, 1849, 
was continued by a son, W. O. Niles. Among" the journals of 
that day it stood alone as a repository of all sorts of information 
proper to a paper of its kind. It is to-day one of our most val- 
uable collections of records, and as such is prized by historians. 
Fifty bound volumes of the work may be found in the State 
Library. 

NAMES OF PAPERS. 

The names of papers in Indiana have been exceedingly varied, 
but a dozen or ^o have been distinct favorites. Of these, Herald 
and Gazette are perhaps most in evidence, with Democrat, 
Times, Sentinel, Journal, and (a little later) Republican, fol- 
lowing hard after. Banner, Register, Chronicle, Courier, States- 
man and Observer also make something- of a showing. The 
name Telegfraph appears at least three years before the introduc- 
tion of Morse's method of telegraphy, and a number of Re- 
publicans were in the field years before the birth of the Re- 
publican party, which in turn g-ave name to so many papers. 
Of unusual names a list might be given, a few of which are The 
Cornet^ The Westetn Constellation^ The Corkscrew^ The Dog-Fennel 
Gazette^ The Budget of Fun^ The Whig Rifle, The Coon-Skinner^ 
The Locomotive, The Busy World, The Indiana Blade^ The Chrono^ 
type. The Broad Axe of Freedom ^ The People^ s Friend and The Hoo^ 
sier. The first one with the last-mentioned name was launched 
at Greencastle by ex-Governor James B. Ray and W. M. Tanne- 
hill, as early as 1833. 

NOTES. 

1. — The Indianapolis Sentinel is often referred back to the Ga- 
zette of 1822 as its beginning, but this is certainly by a liberal 
construction as to what constitutes newspaper identity. The 
Indiana Democrat^ which immediately succeeded the Gazette^ was 
not a continuance of the latter sheet. Smith and Bolton, of the 
Gazette^ dissolved partnership in 1829, and a letter from each in 
the issue of July 23, sets forth the reason. Smith wished to 
support Andrew Jackson. The Gazette had from the beginning 
been non-partizan, and Bolton wished to continue this policy. 
Smith further announces himself as one of several who proposed 



THE EARL Y NEWSPAPERS OF INDIANA 119 

to establish *4a this place'* a new paper, to be called The Jack- 
soman. No paper bj this name appeared, but The Indiana Demr 
ocraiy occupying^ the proposed field, did appear in 1830, and at 
once swallowed up the Gazette. It thus had a separate origin 
and was brought into existence for a new purpose. Bolton was 
subsequently one of the proprietors of this paper. Even the 
relationship between the Democrat and the Sentinel^ which suc- 
ceeded it in 1841, is by no means so clear as is generally supposed^ 
for the first issue of the Sentinel is Vol. I, No. 1, and in the 
* ^prolegomena" of that number it is evidently regarded as the 
launching of a new paper. 

2. — The Northwestern Pioneer, established at South Bend in 
1831 by John D. and Joseph H. Defrees, is often cited as the first 
paper north of the Wabash river. It should be noted that the 
Pottawattomie and Miami Times, started at Logansport by John 
Scott in 1829, was north of, or at least on the north bank of the 
Wabash. There are various loose statements as to the dates of 
founding of several papers now existing. The Richmond Palla- 
dium^ dating back to 1831, claims to be the oldest, barring the 
Western Sun. Earlier dates are claimed by the Vevay RevieUt, 
1817; the Terre HauU Express, 1823; iht Lafayette Journal, 1829; 
and perhaps by others. It may be noted that of the three papers 
last mentioned, none is included by those names in the list of 
1833, g^ven below. The Western Register^ of Terre Haute, was 
established in 1823, but had either ceased to be or had changed 
to The Wabash Courier by 1833, as that is the only Terre Haute 
paper given in said list. The Courier probably became the Express 
in 1840, as the name of Thomas Dowling is connected with both 
of them. Tht Register, of 1823, was founded by John W. Osborne, 
one of the most notable of the early journalists of Indiana. 

3. — What is probably the first directory of Indiana newspapers 
ever compiled is to be found in a gazetteer of 1833, published by 
Douglass & M aguire, proprietors of the Indiana Journal. This 
table, compiled by newspaper men, whose exchange list seems 
to have included all the papers of the State as they appeared, 
was doubtless not only correct but practically a full list of tb^ 
publications then in existence. As such it is a document of 
value, and I give it in full: 



120 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

A TABLE CONTAINING A LIST OF NEWSPAPERS IN THE STATE OP 
INDIANA, PLACES WHERE PUBLISHED, AND THE NAMES OP 
THE PUBLISHERS. 

Indiana Journal^ Indianapolis, Douglass & Maguire. 
Indiana Democrat^ Indianapolis, Morrison & Bolton. 
Western Times, Centreville, Hall & Boon. 
Fort Wayne Sentinel, Fort Wajne, Tigar & Noel. 
Richmond Palladium, Richmond, D. P. HoUowaj* 
Liberty Portfolio, Liberty, Leviston & Walters. 
Star and Sentinel, Philomath, S. Tizzard. 
Indiana American, Brookville, C. P. Clarkson. 
Indiana Palladium, Lawrenceburg, D. V. Cully. 
Western Statesman, Lawrenceburg, D. S. Major. 
Switzerland Monitor, Vevay, R. Ransdall. 
Weekly Messenger^ Printer's Retreat, Keen & Child. 
Indiana Republican^ Madison, Arion & Lodge. 
New Albany Gazette, New Albany, Henry Collins. 
Western Courant, Corydon, Ladd & Jones. 
Paoli Times, Paoli, W. A. Bowles. 
Annotator, Salem, Allen & May. 
Far West, Bloomington, Brandon & Deal. 
Columlms ChronidCy Columbus, L. L. Dunkin. 
Western Sun, Vincennes, Elihu Stout. 
Vincennes Gazette, Vincennes, R. Y. Caddington. 
Wabash Courier, Terre Haute, Thomas Dowling. 
Wabash Herald, Rockville, Marts & Comingore. 
Lafayette Free Press^ Lafayette, J. B. Semans. 
Wabash Mercury, Lafayette, R. R. Houston. 
Ca^s County Times, Logansport, Scott & Burns. 
Recordy Crawfordsville, I. F. Woods. 
Federal Union, Knightstown, James Silver. 
Democratic Republican, Shelbyville, Churchman & Kendall. 

ADDENDA. 

Since writing the above I have found a copy of the Western 
Eaglcy Madison. This paper dates back to 1813, and probably 
was the second one established in Indiana Territory. 

Perhaps the only copy in existence of the first paper issued in 
Indianapolis (No. 1 of the Indianapolis Gazette) ^ is in the pos- 



THE FIRST PRINTERS IN INDIANAPOLIS 121 

session of Mr. Georgfe T. Porter, of Indianapolis. In the Indi- 
anapolis Press^ December 19, 1899, is an interesting* account of 
this pioneer sheet, with matter quoted from its columns. 

The Indianapolis Gazette from 1824 to its period of ceasing", and 
also the Western Censor and Emigrant's Guide (complete), the 
forerunner of the Indiana Journal^ are in the City Library of Indi- 
anapolis. This library has by far the fullest collection in ex- 
istence of Indianapolis newspapers. Locked in these files is 
matter of inestimable value in its relation to the development of 
the city. Unfortunately, the incomplete and wholly inadequate 
catalogue furnished by the library is practically no guide to the 
collection, and does not even indicate the presence in it of some 
of its rarest possessions; hence the usefulness of the collection 

is by no means what it might be. 

Gborgb S. Cottbcan. 



THE FIRST PRINTERS IN INDIANAPOLIS. 

GEORGE SMITH AND NATHANIEL BOLTON. 

From The Indianapolis Sentinel, August 27, iSgg, 

GEORGE SMITH was bom in Lancaster, Pa., and while quite 
young learned the printing' trade with one of the Bradfords, 
the colonial printers in Pennsylvania. In the earlier part of 
this century he removed from Philadelphia to Chillicothe, O., 
and while living there married Mrs. Nancy Bolton, a widow, 
whose maiden name was Cox. She was a sister of Nathaniel 
Cox, one of the early pioneers and hunters of Indianapolis. 
^^Uncle Nat Cox,'' as he was familiarly called, was a carpenter 
by trade, but was excessively fond of hunting, and in his day 
had no equal in central Indiana as a first-class **shot" with the 
rifle, the only species of firearms then in use in the West. 

Mrs. Bolton's only child by her first husband was Nathaniel 
Bolton, who was bom in Chillicothe, O., July 25, 1803. Eliza- 
beth Smith, his half-sister, was born in the same town Febmary 
17, 1809. Her father had become the owner.of a printing office, 
which was, almost always, in the same house in which they 
lived. Mr. Smith was a man of fair education, very industrious^ 



122 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

a master of the art of printing, a good writer, of untiring energj, 
and was well liked by all of his acquaintance. Like all printers 
of that period and some of later years, he was by force of circum- 
stances and disposition unsettled as to location, often going from 
one town to another, not only as a mere journeyman printer, but 
as the owner and publisher of his own newspaper. 

The daughter Elizabeth grew up to be a remarkably intelli- 
gent and observing woman, of clear memory, full of wit and 
humor, whose conversations relating to the early settlement of 
Indianapolis were always interesting to listeners. A short time 
before her death she noted down in a book many interesting par- 
ticulars of her earlier life, and it is from this book, now in 
possession of her daughter, Mrs. Maria Goldsberry Tanner, of 
this city, widow of the late Major Gordon Tanner, and mother of 
George G. Tanner, of the firm of Tanner & Sullivan and late 
surveyor of customs at Indianapolis, that many of the incidents 
herein related have been obtained by the kind permission of Mrs. 
Tanner. Elizabeth's earliest recollections were of the printing 
office, wherein most of her childhood was spent. She was prol)- 
ably the first female typesetter in all the western country. When 
she was about three or four years old her father moved to Worth- 
ington, a small place near Columbus, O., and then back again 
to Chillicothe. At this place the family lived quite a while, 
Nathaniel going to school to a Presbyterian minister, receiving 
some instruction. His practical education, however, was in the 
printing office. The little g^rl took great delight in helping 
her iather and brother in the printing office as much as her age 
would permit. 

In 1820 Mr. Smith caught the emigration fever. The '*new 
purchase" of land from the Indians in the neighboring State of 
Indiana was then attracting much attention, and Mr. Smith de- 
termined to leave Ohio and try his fortune in the Hoosier State. 
At Cincinnati he arranged for passage down the Ohio river on 
the steam packet General Pike, but was compelled to cancel the 
contract and change his plans of travel by reason of the timidity 
of Mrs. Smith, who, on first seeing a steamboat, declared she 
would not go aboard of what seemed to her a dangerous craft. 
While there they all visited Wells's type, foundry, which was a 
novelty and a great object of interest to Nathaniel and Elizabeth, 



THE EARL Y NEWSPAPERS OF INDIANA 123 

they witnessing' for the first time the process of making' moveable 
types. 

Other means of transportation than that of steamboat was 
obtained, Mr. Smith arranging for the accommodation of his 
own and 'another family on an Allegheny river timber boat from 
Olean, N. Y., and on this they floated down the river quite com- 
fortably. The rude craft had fireplaces at each end large enough 
to do their cooking'. Uncle Nat Cox steered the vessel. On 
reaching- Ghent, Ky., the rough weather compelled a "tie up," 
and the occupants went ashore, where they were entertained a 
few days by a family of former acquaintance in Chillicothe. The 
storm abating, they returned to the boat and floated down to 
Jeflfersonville without further delay or trouble. 

At Jeffersonville a wagon was hired in which they proceeded 
to Corydon, the then seat of government of the new State. Not 
liking the place, Mr. Smith arranged for a partnership with a 
Mr. Brandon, and, returning to Jeffersonville, they opened a book 
and job printing office, in which Mr. Smith made more than ex* 
penses. His objective point on first coming to Indiana was the 
capital of the State, the location of which had in 1820 been set- 
tled by the commissioners fixing it at the junction of Fall creek 
and White river, and naming- the town Indianapolis. The family 
remained in Jeffersonville during' the summer of 1821, awaiting' 
the announcement of the first sale of lots at the capital. The 
lots having been surveyed and laid out, the first sale was held 
in October, 1821. Mr. Smith attended this sale, walking' all the 
way there and back. He purchased two lots, on one of which 
stood a buckeye cabin built by a squatter, who, getting' home- 
sick, deserted it and returned to his home in Kentucky. 

Some weeks after Mr. Smith's return he removed the family 
and his little printing' office and some "plunder" to Indianapolis, 
the journey being' a remarkable one. Inside of a large four-hors6 
wagon was stored the type, cases, stands, press and other ma^ 
terials of a primitive printing office, a meager lot of household 
effects and wearing apparel, and the family, or rather such of 
them as rode, the male members walking most of the way* 
The route was over a "blazed trail." The only towns they 
passed through were Paoli, Bedford and Brownstown. The re- 
maining portion of the journey Was made through an anbfokeii 



124 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

wilderness of dense growth, wholly unsettled. They camped out 
two nights during- a heavy snowstorm and suffered other pri- 
vations. 

Late one cold, stormy night, about two weeks before Christmas, 
they drew up in front of their cabin and took possession. With 
plenty of wood, they soon had a good fire and their first supper 
in Indianapolis. This was served on a store goods box for a 
table, with smaller boxes for seats, there being but one chair in 
the house. The little cabin had but one room, which served for 
the printing office, bed-room, dining-room and kitchen. Eliza- 
beth describes her bedstead as having been made of two old sugar 
troughs with rails and short boards laid crossways, on which was 
placed a good feather bed "made up nice." The father and 
mother's bed was composed of two buckeye logs and rails, over- 
laid with brush. With the printing press and stands for two sets 
of type cases but little room was left for lodging, cooking and 
eating; but they managed to make themselves comfortable, 
though compactly housed. A Dr. Scudder, who had his office 
in a near-by cabin, kindly let them fix up a bed there for Uncle 
Nat Cox and a journeyman printer who had been hired for a 
while. 

Thus was inaugurated the first printing office from which was 
issued the Indianapolis Gazette^ the first newspaper ever published 
in the new town of Indianapolis, the proprietor of which was the 
editor, publisher and printer all combined in himself. Writing 
his own editorials, he would then set them up in type, make up 
the forms and work off the paper on a two-pull Ramage hand 
press. The forms were inked by hand with buckskin balls 
stuffed with wool and greased with coon oil to soften them when 
not in use. The composition rollers were then unknown. The 
first or outside forms of two pages were printed the first part of 
the week and the corresponding inside forms were struck off 
usually on Friday and the paper circulated Saturday morning. 

Nathaniel Bolton had remained in New Albany to finish some 
work on printing the laws of the State. After completing this 
job, he found a man going to Indianapolis with a lot of horses^ 
who allowed him to ride one, and on reaching there he joined 
Mr. Smith in the work of the publication of the Gazette^ and 
afterward became first a partner and then sole proprietor. 



THE FIRST PRINTERS IN INDIANAPOLIS 125 

The first residence and printing office herein described was on 
Maryland street, just below the crossing of Missouri street, and be- 
tween that place and the old cemetery Mr. Smith opened up a 
fine sugar camp. 

During the winter of 1821-'22 Elizabeth Smith, then about 
thirteen years old, learned to set type, and did considerable work 
in assisting her father and brother in getting out the paper. In 
1824 her father bought a lot cornering on Georgia and Tennessee 
streets, on which now stands St. John's Cathedral and other 
buildings connected with that parish. On this lot he built a 
house into which he moved the printing office and residence. 
After this removal Elizabeth quit typesetting. 

This same year Washington and Meridian streets were opened 
and the trees, stumps and undergrowth removed. The first court- 
house was built about the same time, and in it was held the first 
legislative session at the new capital. 

Mr. Smith soon after became a judge of the Marion circuit 
court, retiring from the printing business and surrendering the 
proprietorship of the Gazette to his step-son, Nathaniel Bolton. 
As a judicial officer he served with g^eat ability and fairness. 
Mr. Smith died April 10, 1836, after a lingering illness, aged 
fifty-two. According to his last request he was buried at Mt. 
Jackson, the name given to the farm on which he last resided. 
The remains were afterward removed to Greenlawn cemetery. 

Mr. Bolton succeeded to the ownership of this farm, and here 
he and his wife, Mrs. Sarah T. Bolton, kept a tavern for nine 
years. At the same time Mr. Bolton kept up his journalistic 
work, while Mrs. Bolton wrote many of her earliest poems during 
the leisure hours from the labors incident to the farm and tavern. 
In the fall of 1845 Mr. Bolton ^Id to the State the farm as a site 
for the Indiana Hospital for the Insane, the selling price being 
$5,300. 

The difficulties of obtaining news at the commencement of Mr. 
Smith's newspaper enterprise were great. The nearest post-office 
was Connersville, sixty miles away. The enterprising publisher 
however, established a private mail, employing a man to go there 
every four weeks to bring the letters and newspapers. 

In December, 1822, President James Monroe sent to Congress 
one of his short messages, a copy of which reached Indianapolis 



126 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

iki F€l)ruar7, 1823, and was published in instalments in two or 
three succeeding^ numbers of the Gazette, 

Soon after a regular United States mail route was established, 
and then mails reached Indianapolis from the East every two 
weeks, unless detained by higfh waters. 

Mr. Smith's father broug-ht in a wagon from Springfield, O., 
driven by himself, the white paper on which the first issues of 
the Gazette were printed. After Mr. Bolton became sole proprie- 
tor in 1824 the Gazette office was removed, first to a house on the 
Corner of Washington and Tennessee streets on. the State House 
square, and then to the south side of Washington street a few 
doors west of the court-house. 

When I came to Indianapolis in 1837, a boy of nine years of 
age, I made the acquaintance of Mr. Bolton and his partner, 
John Livingston, the proprietors of the Democrat^ and for a 
few years worked in their printing office as a roller boy, printer's 
devil and carrier of the paper. At that time the old double-pull 
Ramage press was still in the office, and many a time have I 
inked the forms thereon, as a roller boy. This work was then 
done with rollers make of glue and molasses, in the molding of 
which I always had a hand. During my employment I made 
several trips to the Mt. Jackson farm, on foot, for **copy" and 
"corrected proofs." 

The Indiana Democrat was continued by that name until 1841, 
when George A. Chapman, publisher of a paper at Terre Haute, 
ind Jacob Page Chapman, his brother, publisher of a paper at 
Evansville, purchased the Democrat^ adding to its material all of 
their types and presses, and changing the name of the paper to 
The Indiana State Sentinel. They continued to own and publish 
the paper until 1850, when I became the purchaser of the name 
^nd good will of the paper, for which I purchased an entirely 
new plant of presses, types and printing materials. 

Austin H. Brown. 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 127 



EARLY INDIANAPOLIS. 

THB FLETCHER PAPERS— THIRD INSTALMENT. 

CharacUr of the Early Settlers; High Standard of Intelligence — Mu- 
tual Helpfulness — Intellectual and Social Culture — Hunting In^ 
cident; George Smith's White Swan — Sugars Making — Daniel 
Vandes*s Big Log Contrcut, 

From the Indianapolis News of June 2^ iSyg, 

WHAT society was in Indianapolis in 1822-^23 I might illus- 
trate very fully from the letters and journals of my parents. 
In a letter w^^tten to a lady in Virginia under date of January 
17, 1822, my father defends Indianapolis from the exaggerated 
reports of a few disappointed ones — reports which for many a 
day gave a bad name to Indianapolis — and he afterwards speaks 
of the character of the early settlers. **You have been informed," 
he writes, '*that we have a large swamp in the rear of our town. 
I am happy to inform you that this is not exact information. 
Our town, like all newly-settled places, requires seasoning before 
a person can be strictly healthy. I am much pleased with the 
inhabitants of this new purchase. As I told you in one of my 
letters, we have none here but independent free-holders, and a 
much more enlightened set of people than any other I have seen 
in the western country. We have all the emancipators from 
Kentucky, who are of the sober class. We have likewise the 
industry of the State, such as never owned slaves, either from 
poverty or conscientious scruples, and we have the thrift of Ohio. 
Our laws and constitution are truly Republican. Debts are easily 
collected; all fines on military delinquents and for misdemeanors 
are appropriated to the use of the county seminaries in this State." 
My father's judgment of the class of people who first settled 
here was an intelligent one, for he was well acquainted with new 
towns in Virginia, some of the old towns in Pennsylvania, and 
with the people of Ohio in such places as Urbana, Columbus, 
Dayton and Bellefontaine. He therefore, when he wrote, had 
in mind a comparison between the inhabitants of the at>ove- 
named towns in Ohio, and the early Indianapolitans when he 



128 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

places the latter as ''a much more enlightened set of people than 
any other I have seen in the west." There mast have been a 
certain intellectual activity and a moral bent at the very outset 
which manifested itself not merely in political meetings but in 
town meetings for the promotion of civil affairs; in debating 
clubs for exercising, if I may so say, in mental gymnastics; in 
religious meetings, and in a class for the study of the Bible 
before a regular minister settled down to parish duties. These 
things make up the staple of my mother's journal. Already I 
have recorded the inauguration of the new year (1822) by ±he 
party at Wy ant's. Now we are told how, on January 26, **Mrs. 
Henry Bradley came and staid with me until eleven o'clock, while 
Mr. Bradley and Mr. Fletcher went to the debating society." 
Again: "On Tuesday, the 29th of January, I attended a quilting 
party at Mr. Buckner's, and there met a number of ladies who 
were formerly from Kentucky." Individual neighborly help, as 
well as combined aid, was the order of the day, as we may see 
from the entry of January 20, viz: * 'Arranged some candle wick 
for Mrs. Foote," and, at a later date: **Had Mr. Blake get me 
some bean poles." 

Not only were there practical mutual aid societies, but mutual 
improvement societies. February 18, 1822, my mother writes: 
*'I went to Mrs. Buckner's and assisted her in finishing her quilt;" 
and, on Saturday, 9th of February, '*Went to the singing school." 
The debating club is mentioned again. Then the social visits: 
"Monday, February 11. Took tea at Mr. Steven's, who will 
move to-morrow two miles into the country." "Tuesday, 12. 
I have had a very pressing invitation to-day to go a-visiting with 
Mrs. Nowland and Mrs. Bradley to Mrs. Yandes's; but I do not 
feel well enough to go." "Wednesday, the 13th of February. Mr. 
and Mrs. Paxton came and took tea with us, and then Mr. P. and 
Mr. F. went out hunting, returning at ten o'clock." 

I suppose from the hour these pioneers went out hunting and 
from the shortness of their stay that they must have gone coon 
hunting. Coons could then be "treed" at a good many places 
within the limits of our solid blocks on Washington, Market, 
Maryland, Missouri and Meridian streets. 

Among the curious hunting incidents of those days was the 
shooting of a swan by George Smith (our first printer). One 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 129 

morning in the spring of 1822 he started for the wild woods in 
the vicinity of the present Kingan's pork-house, and following 
down the left bank of the river he saw in the water a flock of 
white swans. Mr. Smith succeeded in bagging the largest of 
the flock. My father informed me that this magnificent bird 
was of the most beautiful plumage and of wonderful size. This 
is the only visit of swans to Indianapolis that I ever heard of. 

Among other of the earlier recreations must be counted the 
fishing excursions in the springtime, rambles after raspberries in 
the summer, and gathering of wild grapes in autumn. More like 
work were sugar-making, gardening, and the drying of pump- 
kins. My mother writes: 

'*Monday, March 10, 1822. I began sugar-making." 

This was in the vicinity of Missouri street and south of Wash- 
ington. Some at that time tapped the maple trees in the very 
heart of our present city, and others went into the dense woods 
north, east and south. **March 24, 1822," is the date recorded 
by my mother when she ** walked more than a mile to a sugar- 
camp." This probably refers to a sugar-camp in the vicinity of 
Fletcher Place Church, on Virginia avenue. Here it was, ac- 
cording to Mr. John H. B. Nowland, that his father first ^'made 
sugar at an old Indian sugar-camp," in the spring of the previous 
year. In 1846 I took notes of my father in regard to the spring 
of 1822, and he informed me that the fine sugar grove that occu- 
pied in and around what is now known as the Governor's Circle 
was, in 1822, used as a sugar camp, and that the trees were 
tapped some five or six feet from the grotmd, and the troughs 
for catching the sugar water were scaffolded up by poles to keep 
the hogs from drinking nature's nectar. Mrs. Paxton, he said, 
made sugar from the primeval forest trees that occupied the 
site of our State House and contiguous portions of Washington 
street, while Mr. Nowland's camp was further out in the country, 
and they were busily engaged in boiling the water down to syrup 
in a grove not far from where Judge Stevens at present resides.* 

Sugar-making and gardening did not prevent social visiting, 
which seemed to be going on every day, in the forenoon as well 
as the afternoon and evening. Everybody at that time called 
the whole of the afternoon evening. 

•This piobablj meani the old Storeofl reddenoe on New Jersey atreet below Booth.— JVcUtor. 



130 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

On the 13th of April my mother writes: '*The waters are very 
high at this time, and have been for a week back. Mr. Levington 
and many other men have been ten miles up the river, on the 
public lands, cutting saw-logs for several weeks. They made 
a contract with Daniel Yandes to deliver him 2,000 logs at one 
dollar per piece, and since the rain the saw-logs are coming down 
the river." This, I presume, was the biggest contract up to 
that time made in Indianapolis. The logs were doubtless for 
the most part poplar and walnut. 

The waters continued high for a week or more, for on the first 
of April it is written that '*Mrs. Wick and Miss Carter went vrith 
me to the river. We had the pleasure of riding up to the mouth 
of Fall creek and back again to the ford on a flatboat." The 
"ford" was not far from the Vincennes railroad bridge.* The 
flatboat was the largest vessel seen on our river at this point. 
I can remember the flatboats that went from here with produce 
to **Orleans." The last that I can recall was navigated to the 
mouth of the Mississippi by **old Van Blaricum," the father of 
*'Mike" and '*Bill." When he returned he brought with him the 
first oranges and cocoanuts that ever came to Indianapolis. Old 
V. B. was a kind man to little children, and on his return from 
* 'Orleans" he took delight in inviting them to his house to show 
them his stock of tropical fruits and to gladden their child-hearts 
with presents. 

*BeiTy SuUrroTe speaks of. this ford and also of one where the Lafayette road crosses the 
river (see History of Marion County, p. IS). J. H. B. Nowland (see ^Trominent Citizens/' p. 
10) says that the mouth of Fall creek was the crossing-place of White river « long used by the 
Indians, and be has described to me personally a bar at the mouth of the creek at which 
various Indian trails converged. From this convergence one might reasonably infer that 
the Fall creek bar was the only foidable spot in this locality, at a day when the river flowed 
much more water than at present, but the using of others by our flr8t*comen somewhat nega- 
tives this theory. Which illustrates the difficulty of getting at historical ''facts.**— JSTdtlor. 

[ To be continued. \ 



THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 131 



THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF INDIANA. 

FROM PAPERS OF a a BANTA-THIRD INSTALMENT. 

The Book Famine in Pioneer Days — Scarcity of School-books; Those 
Used — Preeminence of Spelling — The McGuffey Readers; Their 
Excellence — Home-made Writing Materials — The Difficulties ff 
Arithmetic — Popular Opinion of Grammar — ^^Loud Schools*^— r- 
The Reign of the Switch — A Few Anecdotes. 

From the Indianapolis News of February 24^ tSgi, 

HOW hungry did some who were boys here in Indiana fifty 
years ago become for something fresh and entertaining to 
read! Often have I heard that lover of good books, the late A« 
B. Hunter, of Franklin, tell the story of a book that was owned 
by a man living on the outskirts of his neighborhood. He had 
read everything owned by the neighbors that he cared to read, 
and now came the story of a new t>ook— one unlike anything 
that he had thus far seen, and he was wild to get hold of it. At 
last there came a day when his father could spare a horse from 
the plow, and young Hunter went in pursuit of the new book, 
which was found, borrowed, and subsequently read with a zest 
almost unknown up to that time, for it was one of Sir Walter 
Scott's immortal stories. 

It seems tome that scarcely any other thing so distinctly marks 
the difference between the present and the past of which I am 
writing, as the great scarcity of reading* matter in that past com- 
pared with its great abundance now. I think it not too much to 
say that in my own "Shiloh neight)orhood,'* all the books, ex- 
cluding Bibles, hymn-books and spelling-books, owned by the 
neight>orhood, could have been packed in a bushel basket. I call 
to mind "Hozzy's Life of Marion," "TrumbulPs Indians;'^ 
* 'Carey's Olive Branch," a * 'Natural History," "Western Ad- 
venture," a "Life of Selkirk," "Young's Night Thoughts," "Jose- 
phus," and "Pilgrim's Progress," and that was at>out all. No 
wonder if a boy living in that neight>orhood would become so 
hungry for something to read that he had recourse to the inside 
of the lid of a certain big t>ox in which was stored the family 
linen, that he might read the two exposed pag«s of a copy of the 



132 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Western Luminary that had been pasted thereon. The story 
may seem incredible, but that boy thus read the two pages of 
that old luminary many a time, and every time he did so he im- 
Ag^ined he found a freshness in it that was charming. 

But it is to the school-books, or rather want of school-books, 
of that time that I wish to call attention. There were compara- 
tively few school-books published in those days. Every school 
child, at least after learning the letters, was expected to have a 
i^Uing-book, and Dillworth's and Webster's American were 
used in the beginning. The child who had not been taught his 
letters out of a Bible or hymn-book at home, usually brought 
a primer. I have, however, seen a paddle with the alphabet 
pasted thereon used instead of a primer or spelling-book. I 
never saw Dillworth's. Webster's elementary spelling-book, the 
most wonderfully successful strictly educational book that was 
ever published in America, at an early day occupied the entire 
^eld in Indiana, and practically held it until the appearance of 
McGuffey's Eclectic Speller, which was published somewhere 
^bout 1850. The elementary served the double purpose of spelling- 
book and reading-book. The old schoolmasters placed great 
stress on spelling. The custom, it is believed, existed universally 
in the country schools, at least up to and for some time after 1850, 
for the whole school to stand up twice a day and spell for head. 
A half-day in every week was given to a spelling-match, besides 
which night spelling-schools were of frequent occurrence. No 
one ever grew so large or so learned that he was exempted from 
the duty of spelling. I have known the head man of a long row 
of pupils to spell the first word without dictation, after which 
the next in line would spell the next word, and so on down to 
the foot, and then from the head on down again. The words in 
the elementary spelling-book were generally written in a sort of 
rhythmical order which made them easy to memorize. There 
were spellers who claimed to know the book by heart, and there 
were still more who claimed to be able to spell correctly every 
word in it. 

I have said the elementary spelling-book was used as a reader 
as well as a speller, and so it was. On nearly every page was 
reading matter made up of moral sentences in each of which was 
usually found one or more words belonging to the annexed spell- 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 133 

• 

ing lesson. It was the practice to teach a pupil to spell first, 
after which he might read. Some teachers, after the scholar 
had learned to spell sufficiently well, required him to pronounce 
the words in the book at sight, and after he was able to do this 
sufficiently well he was formally set to reading. The **pro- 
notmcing lesson," as it was called, may have had its uses, but I 
have no doubt that many a pupil was reading quite well at home 
before being allowed to read at school. Do I not remember the 
first reading-lesson in the elementary spelling-book? No matter 
if the pupil could pronounce at sight all the words in the book, 
Charles Disbrow, of blessed memory (my old teacher), insisted 
that he who was going to take the long leap into the reading 
world should read the first lesson. As the boy who could read 
the Testament at home and pronounce all the words of the spell- 
ing-book at school stepped up to read his first and formal lesson, 
consisting of words of three letters, how silent that hitherto loud 
school would become, and how loud his own voice would sound 
as he read: 

'*She fed the hen. 

**The old hen was fed by her. 

'*See how the hen can run." 

Was ever ordeal worse than that? After the book had been 
read through and through, say half a dozen times, another reader 
was in order, provided it could be had. There were few school 
readers in those days. Here and there was to be found an old 
copy of the ''English Reader" or the "Columbian Orator." Rev. 
George K. Hester tells us that he read a dream book and "Gulli- 
ver's Travels." I have seen Gulliver myself in the schoolroom; 
and so of the "Life of Marion," "Pilgrim's Progress," histories, 
sermon books and the Holy Bible. Henry Eaves, a pioneer 
schoolmaster of Switzerland county, in his extremity, took the 
Frankfort Argus into his school, which served the uses of a 
"reader." About 1835 B. T. Emerson's readers came into use 
to a limited extent. Somewhat later — five years, perhaps — 
McGuffey's Eclectic Series appeared and ultimately occupied the 
field to the exclusion of all others. The introduction of this 
series marked an era in the schools of the State. They were of 
incalculable benefit to the people of the western country. I think 
it not too much to say that the higher readers of the series did 



134 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

more to cultivate a taste for the better American literature than 
any other books of that daj. But for them the names of Perd- 
val, Bryant, Long-fellow, Hawthorne, Irving, Paulding and other 
American authors of the first half-century would have been known 
to few indeed of the school children of Indiana of thirty and forty 
years ago. 

The pupil having learned to read sufficiently well, he was next 
set to writing. The mothers usually made the copy-books by 
sewing a few sheets of foolscap tog-ether. The g^ese furnished 
the quills that were fashioned into pens, and the ink was home- 
made. Maple bark, sumach and oak balls and vinegar were the 
materials out of which most of the ink of that period was made. 
In its season pokeberry juice was sometimes used, but, notwith- 
standing itsornamental capabilities, its use was never very gener- 
al. It was too apt to sour. The inkstands were generaly home- 
made also. A favorite inkstand was a section of a cow's horn, 
sawed off and fitted with a wooden water-tight bottom. Another 
favorite one was made of lead or pewter. Many of the boys of 
the old school days understood the art of casting inkstands. The 
pupiFs first exercise in writing was the making of '*pot-hooks 
and hangers.** In the fulness of time his teacher would set him 
his best round-hand copy, and in doing so he never failed of 
placing before the eyes of the scholar some moral or patriotic 
precept worthy of his remembrance, such as, '^Commandments ten 
Grod gave to men;" * 'Eternal viligance is the price of Liberty;" 
* 'Washington was the father of his country;** "Evil communi- 
cations corrupt good manners." 

The next thing in order for the boys was arithmetic. Not 
many girls gaye any attention to this study. Not much was 
ever said about it as a g-irls' study, but I think it was generally 
considered that the girls did not have "heads for figures." In- 
stead of arithmetic they took to geography and grammar, when 
they took to anything. It was the practice with a good many 
teachers to require their arithmetical scholars to copy all the 
"sums" in a "ciphering book." Mr. George Adams, who attend- 
ed school in Johnson county away back in the twenties, had, a 
few years ago, such a book, and judging from it the writer must 
have understood fairly well his subject. Students in arithmetic 
never recited — they simply "ciphered." The teacher seldom paid 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 135 

any attention to them unasked. The boys usually helped each 
other, but when help failed in that quarter the teacher would, 
on request, **work the sum." The majority of teachers thought 
they had done all that was necessary when that much was done. 
Sometimes a boy would * 'sneak" his arithmetic and slate into 
the school and ''cipher" for a considerable time before the teach- 
er discovered it. I did this myself, and traveled over addition, 
subtraction, multiplication and short division, before my teach- 
er let on that he knew what I was about. I had reached long 
division, which I found so very hard that I broke down at it in 
despair. Washington Miller, my old teacher, seeing my trouble, 
came to me, and without any reproaching gave the needed as- 
sistance, and thence on I was recognized as an arithmetical stu- 
dent. My friend, Mr. Hunter, who is mentioned above, went 
to school to a teacher who did not pretend to teach arithmetic 
beyond the "single rule of three." Young Hunter had ad- 
vanced beyond that. He took his seat in the schoolhouse, how- 
ever, and ciphered away till he went through the book. There 
was a greater variety of arithmetics than any other school-book. 
Pike's was the one most generally in use. The familiar pages 
of a copy of this old veteran are now before me. Their matter 
consists of abstract rules and of examples. I am not much sur- 
prised that I stalled on the long division hill on that school day 
so long past. "Take for the first dividend as few of the left 
hand figures of the dividend as will contain the divisor, try how 
often they will contain it, and set the number of times on the 
right of the dividend," and so on. Not a word of explanation; 
no development of the process; nothing but the abstract rule. 
The other arithmetics of the time were Smiley's, Bennett's, 
Jess's, Dill worth's, Western Calculator, and probably some others. 
Smith's and Ray's appeared shortly before 1840, and in five or 
six years the latter had the field. 

The geographies used were Moore's, Woodbridge's, Smith's 
and Olney's. These were the only school-books illustrated save 
the few pictures in the spelling-books, and there were very few 
children who did not delight to turn the leaves of a geography 
and look at its pictures. Lindley Murray's English grammar 
was the first in the field; after that came Kirkham's. There 
was not much studying of either geography or grammar in the 



136 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

early days. As to the former, it was considered a proper enough 
study if one had the time to spare for it, but by some the study 
of the latter was deemed useless waste of time. As late as 1845 
the trustees of Vevay in employing a teacher required in the 
written contract that he should *'not teach grammar.'* 

From the News of March i6. 

The first schools I attended were 'ioud schools.^' Loud schools 
were the rule in the beginning here in Indiana; silent ones were 
the exception. The odds in the argument were believed to be in 
favor of the loud school. A celebrated Scotch teacher, Alexander 
JE^inmont, of Cincinnati, as late as 1837, would conduct school 
by no other method. He claimed that it is the practical, philo- 
sophical system by which boys can be trained for business on a 
steamboat wharf or any other place. Both boys and girls spelled 
and read at the tops of their voices, on occasion, and sometimes the 
roar of their lesson-getting could be heard for a half to three-quar- 
ters of a mile. It is not much wonder that Owen Davis took his 
fiddle to school and solaced himself by playing airs while his 
scholars were shouting over their lessons. The teacher of a loud 
school who would keep his pupils at work labored under a great 
disadvantage. The idler who was roaring at one word, or over a 
line of poetry, or trumpeting through his nose, was, for aught 
the teacher knew, committing his lesson. It was said of one boy 
in an Orange county school that he '^repeated the one word 
'heptorpy' from morning till noon and from noon till night in 
order to make the teacher believe that he was studying his lesson. *^ 

Fifty or a hundred years ago the swishing of the switch was 
heard everywhere, in the family circle and in the schoolhouse, 
throughout the length and breadth of the land. The fathers 
made their children ''mind.'* The switch was the usual instru- 
ment, and its prompt and free use doubtless gave birth to such 
expressive phrases as ''a lick and a promise," ''the word with 
the bark on," and "tan your jacket." The schoolmaster, stand- 
ing in the place of the parent, punished as freely and savagely* 
and usually with the full approval of the parent. One of the 
most curious phases of the flagellating period was the almost 
universal prevalence of the sentiment that the schoolmaster who 
neglected the frequent use of the rod was a failure as a teacher. 
I had a friend who, much less than fifty years ago, was in the 



THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 137 

habit of occasionally playing pedagogue. In one of his schools 
he had a nice company of country urchins, between whom and 
himself there was the very best of feeling. After the school had 
run smoothly for a month or six weeks and no whipping done, 
his patrons began to think something was wrong. One morning 
one of them met him and bluntly told him that he was making 
a mistake — that he was "not whipping anybody.*' ** Why, who'll 
I whip?" he asked. *'Whip Sam," was the prompt answer. 
"What for? He*s lazy, I know; but I canU whip him for laziness, 
can I?" asked the pedagogue. **Yes, give it to him. Sam's my 
boy and I know he needs it every day." 

Now and then the circumstances were so ludicrous that the 
master's punishment, instead of inspiring terror, provoked laugh- 
ter. I once heard a story told on a Johnson county teacher to this 
effect: He was in the habit of opening his school with prayer. 
His pupils, for some reason distrusting his sincerity, sometimes 
during the services would wink and smile and even snickerout. 
One morning he carried an empty flour sack to school which he 
put on the seat beside him, and while he was praying that morn- 
ing, the irreverent conduct of two or three of the larger twys 
attracting his attention, he broke off his prayer and, seizing the 
empty sack, he struck each of the misbehaving lads over the 
shoulders, powdering them all over with the white flour, after 
which he concluded his prayer. Mr. Chute was an eminent 
schoolmaster in Evansville at an early day, who opened his 
school with prayer. He always stood, with a "long fishing cane 
in his hand," and prayed with his eyes open. "When he caught 
a boy in mischief during prayer he would stop short and call out: 
^Woe be to you, John,' and strike him over the shoulder with his 
long cane, and then resume his prayer." Another and similar 
but better story than either of the others comes from Pleasant 
township in Switzerland county. An old gentleman by the name 
of Curry taught in that township for several years. "He was a 
widower and married man by turns." Once when in the former 
state he went to the schoolhouse early in the morning to 
write a love-letter. When the pupils came he carelessly left it 
on his desk and proceeded to open school with prayer. Kneeling 
down he prayed with his "whip in his right hand and his right 
eye open." One of the boys, stealing up to the desk where the 



138 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

love-letter lay, began reading it; but ere he was aware the old 
man broke off in the middle of a sentence and, collaring him, 
gave him a sound thrashing, after which, adds the historian, **he 
resumed his devotions with equanimity. 

It was the custom to whip on the slightest provocation, and 
not infrequently without any provocation at all. There is 
scarcely a county in the State that has not had, at one time or 
another, its teacher who would drink to intoxication on Satur- 
day and soundly thrash every scholar in the school on Monday. 
The neighborhoods are full of the traditions of the savagery 
of the old schoolmasters. The schoolhouses fairly bristled with 
switches cut from the neighboring thickets. According to the 
historian of Morgan county, ^ 'these old instruments of punish- 
ment were always present and usually hung on wooden hooks 
over the old fireplace, so that they became so hardened by sea- 
soning from the heat that they resisted the severest exercise of 
the teacher in an application on some offending pupil, and even 
cut the wooden benches as the teacher in his fervor pursued round 
and round the howling culprit." I read of a Bartholomew coun- 
ty schoolmaster who "kept his switches standing in the corner 
or lying on pegs in the wall, but the cat-o'-nine-tails lay in the 
desk. He punished with the former and ternfied with the lat- 
ter." A Martinsville schoolmaster flogged his pupils, it is said, 
on the least provocation, with a "long hickory gad, well-sea- 
soned in the hot embers of the fire." 

It would be a mistake to infer that there were no other 
punishments, save corporal, given in those days. The "dunce 
block," the "fool's cap," the "leather spectacles," "bringing up 
the switch," "standing in the corner," "standing on one foot," 
"sitting on the girls' side," and any and all other schemes the 
wit of the old schoolmaster could devise were tried. I remem- 
ber to have seen a teacher remove a puncheon from its place in 
the floor and incarcerate a big girl in the "hole under the floor," 
which had been dug for clay to make the hearth, jambs and 
backwalls of the fireplace. I shall never forget how he pushed 
her fingers off the edges of the floor when he fitted the pun- 
cheon back in its place. 

[To be continued,] 



BERRY R. SULGROVE, JOURNALIST 139 



BERRY R. SULGROVE, JOURNALIST. 

[These sketches from the Journal and News^ of Indianapolis, were put>- 
lished at the time of Mr. Sulgrove*s death, which occurred February 20, 
1890.] 

From the Journal. 

BERRY R. SULGROVE was born in Indianapolis March 16, 
1827, and was the oldest child of James and Katherine Sul- 
gTove. His first schooling was at the age of five years, Miss Clar- 
issa Ellick, who taught in the old Baptist Church at the corner of 
Meridian and Maryland streets, being his teacher. He received 
the rudiments of his education in the different private schools of 
the city, there being at that time no public schools here. In 1839 
he entered the old County Seminary, on University Square, which 
was conducted by James S. Kemper, and continued his studies 
• there five years. He then entered his father's harness and 
saddlery shop, and learned that trade. This was in 1844, when 
Henry Clay and James K. Polk were opposing candidates for the 
presidency. In 1847 Mr. Sulgrove entered Bethany College, West 
Virginia, then under the presidency of Alexander Campbell. 
His principal collegiate course covered branches which he had 
studied at the old seminary, and he was enabled to graduate in 
one year, notwithstanding the fact that three months of that 
period were devoted to teaching. There were five departments 
in the college, and he secured first and second honor in each. 
He was ^'first honor man'' of the college, taking those of all 
departments — the first time such a circumstance had ever 
happened in that institution. He made his graduating speech 
in Greek. 

In 1848, returning to his home in this city, he began the study 
of law, with the late Oliver H. Smith and Simon Yandes. After 
three years he formed a partnership with John Caven, after- 
wards mayor of the city, and they practised together until the 
winter of 18S4-'S. He then, with the late John D. Defrees, took 
editorial charge of The Indianapolis Journal, He had previously 
written much for the press, having contributed considerable 
matter over the nom de plume of **Timothy Tugmutton" to vari- 



140 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

ous publications. In 1850 he wrote sketches of the constitutional 
convention for The Locomotive^ then published in this city. He 
next contributed to The Hoosier City, a small paper published by 
young" men then connected with the Journal^ and also wrote 
considerable matter for the columns of the last-named paper. 
This preceded the time of his regular connection with the paper. 

When Mr. Sulgrove first became connected with the Journal 
he did work now divided into a number of departments — writing- 
leaders, general news items, local matter, convention and meeting* 
reports, as well as copying telegfraph news after the old style. 
He inaugurated the system of covering the night's news for the 
paper of the following* morning-, and introduced the first verbatim 
reports ever used by the local papers. At this time he frequently 
worked nineteen out of twenty-four hours. In 1856 he boug-ht 
sufficient stock in the paper to give him a majority of the shares. 
He sold out in 1863, intending to go to Europe, but was prevented 
and continued as editor of tht Journal, In 1864 he accompanied 
Morton and McDonald through the State in their joint canvass 
for Grovemor, reporting the discussions for the Journal. He 
served later as Grovernor Morton's private secretary. In 1866 he 
returned to the editorial charge of tht Journal^ in which he con- 
tinued for several years afterward, and with intervals he had 
been connected with the paper nearly twenty-five years. He 
took service with the News when that paper was established, 
and continued with it until ill-health precluded his doing further 
literary work. 

Mr. Sulgrove was one of the most remarkable men this city 
and State have ever known. As an editorial writer during the 
war he wielded an influence in the West that was second to none, 
and he was from first to last the mainstay and adviser of the 
great War Grovernor of Indiana. While modestly keeping him- 
self in the background, he was ready with his opinion and counsel 
when asked, and they were always weighty. He was sometimes 
likened to Horace Greeley as a journalist, but the compari- 
son hardly did Mr. Sulgrove justice, for, with the brilliancy of 
Mr. Greeley, he was never eccentric, but always steady and 
mature, no politician ever being led into blunders by following 
his counsel or leadership. In his youth he was a Whig, but on 
the fotmdation of the Republican party was one of the first to 



BERRY R. SULGROVE, JOURNALIST 141 

lift the standard of the new party, and, with his ready pen, gave 
utterance to the sublime sentiments of freedom. 

While in his later years Mr. Sulgrove wrote for several papers, 
and on a variety of subjects, it was a noticeable fact that he 
would never write anything* he did not thoroughly believe, and 
especially was he conscientious upon political topics, and never 
at any time would he write except from a Republican standpoint. 
As to versatility, he could, at a moment's notice, write upon 
almost any topic. A publisher once had a cut representing a 
covey of quails. Mr. Sulgrove was shown the engraving and 
asked if he could write something to "fit it." He at once sat 
down and wrote an article upon the quail and its habits, gathered 
from his own observation, together with a number of anecdotes 
and incidents of this bird, that would have done credit to the 
research of a Wilson or an Audubon. As a matter of fact, no 
naturalist has, in the same number of lines, ever written so 
entertainingly and, at the same time, so instructively, and the 
article, or pieces of it, were for years floating about in the vari- 
ous papers and magazines of the land. 

From his earliest childhood his powers of observation were 
wonderfully keen, and continued in full exercise all his life. He 
was a great walker, a close student of nature, and was always 
seeing things in the fields and woods. As a boy he was full of 
life, a rover of the woods and a saunterer by the streams. He 
and General Lew Wallace were boys together, and it is said that 
they lay in White river all summer. From the time that he 
began to go to school, through the old Marion County Seminary 
and at Bethany College, he was looked upon as an Admirable 
Crichton, knowing everything, able to do anything. In the early 
days of Indianapolis he was looked upon as the orator of the 
town; at the same time he was the head of a company of Thes- 
pians of no mean merit, and a little later on was the captain of 
the Marion fire company, in the days of the old volunteer service. 

There seemed no limit to his knowledge, and his acquisitions 
were in all manner of fields. His memory has for nearly half a 
century been the talk of the town. It was said that he never 
forgot anything he had ever seen or heard. He carried tables of 
election returns about in his head and when called upon could 
tell how any county went and frequently could surprise a ques- 



142 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

tioner by giving the exact vote in some obscure precinct. One 
of his feats of memory quite surprised Professor Mitchell, the not- 
ed astronomer, who delivered a lecture here when this place was 
young". Mr. Sulgrove was present, heard the lecture and gfave 
ihtJaumtU^i full report of it. He did not have a scrap of pa- 
per to take a note, and the figfures of the lecture were given 
with absolute accuracy. This was before the art of stenogra- 
phy had come to the West, but with such a verbatim memory 
short-hand would appear to be unnecessary. 

Mr. Sulgrove went to Europe with Governor Morton in 1866. 
At Paris, sitting* at dinner with a number of disting'uished gen- 
tlemen who had called upon Governor Morton, a discussion arose 
about a quotation from Horace. Governor Morton himself was 
not interested, as he made no pretentions to scholarship of that 
character, but a couple of British gentlemen were much in ear- 
nest about the mattelr. As the discussion did not seem like coming 
to an end, Mr. Sulgrove, begging their pardon, asked to set 
them right. He not only gave the quotation, but quoted a half 
a page or more of the matter of which it was a part, and the 
Britons looked upon the quiet gentleman, who had so unexpect- 
edly displayed such scholarship and memory, in wonder. At 
Rome, where he made a long sojourn, he was known as **the 
learned American." He appeared to acquire the Italian lan- 
guage in a few weeks, and spoke it readily, even with the rab- 
ble of the place, mastering even the paiais of the fruit-sellers, 
fishermen and beggars. The sculptor, Rogers, who had lived in 
Rome twenty years, met Mr. Sulgrove there. Speaking of the 
wonderful acquirements of the man, he said he found Mr. Sul- 
grove, who had just arrived, knew a great deal more of Rome, 
both ancient and modem, than he did. 

There was a vein of humor in Mr. Sulgrove's conversation, 
which at times appeared in his writing. One of the best exam- 
ples of this, coupled with satire, a weapon he seldom used, was 
given in an editorial, many years ago, the Journal^ in which he 
dissected a then recent speech of Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees. 
The article bore the heading, **The Oratorical Rooster," and 
the writer began with narrating that in his youth he was the 
happy possessor of a most remarkable rooster. This chanticleer 
was possessed of two legs of unequal length, one being a pre- 



BERRY R. SULGROVE, JOURNALIST 143 

ternaturally short leg* and the other a supematurally long leg. 
**When he stood upon his long leg and scratched with his short 
leg/' the article continued, '^he fell short of the object scratched 
for; when he stood upon his short leg and scratched with his 
long leg he went beyond the object scratched for." With this 
beginning, he took up Mr. Voorhees's speech and dissected it, 
paragraph after paragraph, with running comments, adding here 
and there, "Here he scratched with his short leg" and "there he 
scratched with his long leg," making the application in a way 
that caused the article to go through the party press from one 
end of the State to the other. Mr. Sulgrove dearly delighted to 
have a foeman worthy of his steel, and for that reason, in the 
days when personal journalism was indulged to greater length 
than now, he was always more than pleased to have a tilt at Mr. 
Hendricks or Mr. McDonald. Withal, he was so genial and bore 
so little personal rancor that not the bitterest Democrat held any 
abiding enmity toward him. He was, despite of his great attain- 
ments, perhaps because of them, the most modest of men, firm in 
his friendship, and of the finest and tenderest sensibility. The 
death of George C. Harding, ten years ago, struck him with 
great force. He could not nerve himself to go to the funeral, 
nor even to come to the of&ce where they had so often met and 
talked, for many days afterward. 

Frotn the News, 

Mr. Sulgrove was the first editor to appreciate the value of 
news. It was the custom when he took charge of the Journal to 
set up all the matter during the day, lock up the forms by 6 o'clock 
and leave them ready for the pressman to work o£f the next morn- 
ing. An event occurring after 4 or 5 o'clock in the afternoon, 
no matter how important, never was mentioned in the paper until 
the second day. One night a fire occurred that was large for the 
town, and Mr. Sulgrove, procuring a printer or two, wrote an 
account of it, got it into the form, and the readers the next morn- 
ing were amazed to see the report. This led to other work of the 
same kind, and from that time on people were not compelled to 
wait thirty-six hours to hear of important events. 

In 1869, when the News was started, he became a member of 
the sta£f and has served as such ever since. He was also a con- 
tributor, more or less regularly, to other papers both here and 



144 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

• 

elsewhere, and did a gfreat deal of work for individuals, includittg- 
the writing of much of '*Hollo way's Indianapolis,'* and the entire 
authorship of *'The History of Indianapolis and Marion County," 
published in 1884. On all subjects pertaining* to the history, 
growth and appearance of Indianapolis and vicinity, as well as 
of the people who made the city, he was a great reservoir of 
knowledge, and to his pen we owe it that much that would soon 
be forgotten has been put into permanent form. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF D. L. PAINE. 

Mr. D. L. Paine, long an associate of Mr. Sulgrove, contributes 
this sketch: 

. I have known Berry R. Sulgrove somewhat intimately for thirty 
years, having been brought into close contact with him as com- 
positor, proof-reader and associate in editorial work a large part 
of that time. He was a man of great force of character and 
quaint originality. While not profoundly learned in any direc- 
tion, his available knowledge of almost everything was wonder- 
ful. In mind, as in personal appearance, he was unique. His 
friends were among all classes. He would chat pleasantly with 
the ignorant or vicious denizen of hell's half-acre, or discuss the 
precession of the equinoxes with the learned savant; sing a song 
to kindred company in a lounging-room, or coddle his dear old 
violin in his own study. He was the counselerof governors and 
statesmen, and the friend and associate of vagrants. He could 
invest a story with absorbing interest simply by his manner of 
telling it, or dismiss an absurd proposition in too forceful and 
not always polite words. The boyish, eager look in his roundly 
opened eyes when a matter of interest came to him, the comic 
expression which overspread his whole countenance in relating a 
joke, his quick staccato movements and nervous utterances, will 
be recalled by those who knew him in his prime. He was careless 
of personal appearance and brusque in manner, but genial, and 
even playful, with his intimates. Given to wide and lonely 
wanderings, he knew every stranded log on the river bank, and 
every lichen and fern- frond for miles around as familiar ac- 
quaintances. 

Seated at his desk in his earlier editorial days, his knees wide 
apart, with his toes touching the floor in the rear of his chair. 



BERRY R. SULGRO VE, JOURNALIST 145 

displaying the soles of his feet, his shoulders rounded up Atlas- 
like, looking* over his spectacles with his forehead nearly touch- 
ing the sheet upon which he was tracing microscopic characters, 
perhaps humming a tune or whistling softly, he presented an 
appearance quite striking if not grotesque. His handwriting 
was peculiar. In the old days, when he edited Xh^JaumtU, but 
two compositors in the office could decipher his chirography, and 
a list of the laughable blunders they often made hung upon the 
wall. He was given to outlandish expressions, as for instance, 
a valueless thing "was not worth the butt-cut of a hog- weed." 
In his best days his list of correspondents contained many names 
known to science, politics and society. He traveled for a time 
in Europe, and his letters, if collected, would make an interesting 
volume. Taken in every respect, he was the most striking figure 
in the list of Indiana journalists. 

OTHER STORIES. 

Mr. Sulgrove was constantly giving away something from his 
prodigious store of knowledge that was worth knowing. His 
acquaintances are full of stories illustrating his characteristics. 
Colonel Holloway, in speaking of him, said that there was noth- 
ing he couldn't do. ''lean beat you shooting. Berry," he said 
to him once in New York, as they .approached a shooting stand. 
But Berry hit the bull's eye three times in succession, though he 
shot with glasses. * 'Where did you learn to shoot?" the colonel 
asked. *'I picked it up when I was a boy." He had knowledge 
of music and played the flute and the violin well. 

Once the force at Wi^Jaumaly early in the fifties, decided to go 
fishing on Sunday, and, that there might be no interruption with 
the program, closed the forms and ran off Monday's paper at 4* 
o'clock Saturday afternoon. Sulgrove was in a barber-shop 
getting shaved when the carrier came along crying out the pa- 
per and delivering the Monday edition. *'See here, Mr. Sul- 
grove," said some one present, "what kind of a paper is this 
that purports to give the Monday news in Saturday's edition?" 
"What's that," exclaimed the editor, and on finding what was 
being done he ran out into the street with the barber's tools 
clinging to him, overtook the carrier and compelled him to go 
back and gather up all the papers distributed. The fishing par- 
ty was broken up. 



146 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

It never seemed to be necessary for Mr. Sulgrove to consult 
authorities. He had everything- in his head. Judge Chapman 
once had the editors arrested for contempt in publishing forbid- 
den evidence in the Clem case. An able lawyer was employed 
by the Court to defend its course. The lawyer cited the author- 
ities ad libitum and was very profound. Late at night Colonel 
HoUoway sent for Mr. Sulgrove, had the lawyer's voluminous 
address read to him from short-hand notes, and asked for an edi- 
torial in refutation. This Sulgrove wrote promptly — nearly two 
columns — "skinning" the attorney so eflfectually that he came to 
X\it Journal nt%X day and admitted that he had been beautifully, 
thoroughly and legally flayed. The accuracy of his memory 
has been often tested. When he was in Paris he confounded 
the sexton of a certain burial place by telling him that a cer- 
tain noted character was buried next to such and such a tomb. 
**I read the description years ago," said he, and when the sexton 
looked, the grave was found. 

Said Mr. E. H. Perkins, foreman of the News composing room: 
*'Mr. Sulgrove was known by the printers all over the country. 
He had the reputation of writing almost as bad a hand as 
Horace Greeley, but this reputation was not due him. On the 
contrary he wrote the best *copy' that ever came to me. It had 
its peculiarities, but these were offset by the absolute accuracy 
and infinite pains with which it had been prepared. In all my 
years of acquaintance with his writing I do not remember to 
have seen one mispelled word. He was thorough. All the 
printer had to do was to 'follow copy.' It was always properly 
capitalized, punctuated and paragraphed. He was one of the 
most agreeable men the printers had to do with. He never be- 
came impatient nor quarreled over mistakes. His copy was pe- 
culiar, as he wrote a very fine hand and scorned good paper. He 
would write on backs of envelopes, on election tickets of twenty 
years standing, on circulars and bits of brown paper. Some- 
times he would write across the face of printed matter and this 
would make the copy hard on the eye for old men, but the young- 
er men never had any trouble in deciphering him, and proof of 
his matter was generally the cleanest in the office. Of late, he 
has been writing on slips eight or ten inches long by about one 
or two wide. He would write a heavy leader on a bit of waste 
paper and never cause the printer to frown. 



JOHN D. DEFREES 147 

**I remember an incident told me by a Mr. P. When Sulgrove 
was editor of \\i^J<mmal^x. P. was a frequent but somewhat 
unsuccessful contributor. One day he went to the editor and re* 
marked, *Mr. Sulgrove, I have prepared with great care an article 
that I tbink will interest everybody, and I hope you will find 
room for it.' 

** *Why, yes; that's all right,' replied Sulgrove, who had a 
cigar in his mouth. He didn't even look at the article, but 
crumpling it up, made a torch of it in the gas jet and quietly 
applied the flame to his cigar. Mr. P. was so annoyed that he 
said nothing and neither did the editor. 1 never could tell 
whether it was absent-mindedness or intentional rebuff,' concluded 
Mr. P., *but I incline to the belief that it was not intended for 
an affront.' " 



JOHN D. DEFREES- 

[Obituary sketch by Berry R. Sulgrove, written at the time of Mr. De- 
frees's death, Octol>er 19, 1892.] 

A LIFE falling- short a few days of seventy-three years, the al- 
lotted span of * 'three score and ten" spent in the busiest 
activity, a year or two of restraint by reason of failing* powers, 
eig'ht or nine months of suffering pitiful to think of, and the 
record of John D. Defrees's life is closed. The outlines which 
marked it for the world may be briefly told. Bom at Sparta, 
Tennessee, November 8, 1810, he was eight years old when his 
father moved to Piqua, Ohio. In his fourteenth year he was 
apprenticed to the printers' trade. After serving- his time he 
studied law in the office of '*Tom" Corwin, at Lebanon, Ohio. 
In 1831 he moved to South Bend, Indiana, where with his young-er 
brother, Joseph H. Defrees, he began the publication of a news- 
paper. He became prominent in politics as a Whig, and was 
several times elected to the legislature. In 1844 he sold his 
South Bend newspaper to Schuyler Colfax, whom he had given 
a start in life, and moving to this city the next year, bought the 
Indiana State faumal, which he edited until he sold it ten years 
afterward. Of his connection with the AtUis newspaper, which 
was established with an eye to political rather than pecuniary 



148 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

results, with the Central Bank and the stave factory he and his 
brother Anthony started, now owned by Mr. Carey, and his part 
in the manag'ement of the Peru railroad, as it was then called, 
little need be said, as they illustrate merely the uncontrollable 
energy of his nature. 

In 1861 he was appointed by President Lincoln government 
printer. He held the office until Johnson, angered at some criti- 
cism of his, removed him. Congress made it a senate office, and he 
was reappointed in thirty days. He held it until 1869, when his 
opposition to Grant and enmity to the late Senator Morton af. 
forded them an occasion which they improved by turning him 
out. At the coming in of President Hayes he was appointed 
again to the same place, which he held until about last February, 
declining health compelling his resignation. 

This framework of a life seems plain enough, but as every 
one's skeleton is the same, the difference in appearance being the 
filling in of the flesh, so in this life there was a side, which those 
who knew him best saw most of, that made it an inspiration. 
It was all the difference there is between an existence which 
floats with the current of aflPairs and a life driven by the force of 
an unconquerable will toward the goal of a lofty ambition. He 
was a natural political student and had the gift of political 
management, and the associates of his early days speak of his 
rare sagacity and his untiring energy. He was a general business 
man for his party here, which, during the whole time of his 
editorship of the State organ, the Journal, was in the minority. 
He was chairman of the State committee at one time, and always, 
those who worked with him say, the adviser and general conduct- 
or of affairs. He could unite two or three antagonisms into a 
common purpose, and when there were factional or personal dif- 
ferences Defrees was called in to smootli them out and restore 
good feeling. He had the keeenest sense of humor, which his 
pluck and ceaseless activity were ever ready to carry into anecdote 
or practical joke. When the three hundred volunteers went to 
the Black Hawk war, arriving at the scene of action only to find 
the war ended, Defrees, then editing his paper at South Bend, 
saw the comical side of it, and came out with a sketch of what 
they didn't do, calling them the * 'Bloody Three Hundred." The 
fun hit so hard that most of the three hundred were ready for 



. JOHN D. DEFREES 149 

blood indeed, and they went to the yoan^ editor's home and call- 
ed him out for the purpose of ducking him in a pond. He came, 
but instead of apologizing, ridiculed and defied them without 
stint, until in admiration of his pluck, and in shame for a hundred 
or two against one, they withdrew. 

His energy from his earliest days was remarkable. His news- 
paper at South Bend was the first one in northern Indiana, and 
at every turn of affairs he was seeking something new, some 
improvement. ''Progress" seemed to be his watchword. He 
was the first man in Indiana to use steam to drive a printing press; 
the first to use a caloric engine for the same purpose; the first 
to see the value of the Bullock printing press and encourage the 
inventor; the first to use the metallic stitching machine for 
book-binders; the first to use the Edison electric light. 

His faith in progress and human kind, and his restless en- 
ergy which halted at nothing, permeated and colored his whole 
life. It supplied for himself the deficiencies of early systemat- 
ic training. What the experience of the printers' trade and the 
acquisitions of a young law student might give in the way of 
knowledge, it may be imagined were of themselves barren 
enough. But to him these were the keys with which he might 
unlock learning's storehouse. Books were his delight. He over- 
came the lack of a classical education by a thorough study of 
translations, and the lore of Greece and Rome was his familiar 
acquaintance. He was especially fond of history, and there 
were few classical works in this line, ancient or modern, which 
he did not know. He was a deep political student and particu- 
larly knew the political history of his own country as few know 
it. He was an unwearied student and thus as the years went on 
he became equipped with all the mental outfit of a gentleman. 
He had a correct literary taste and was as quick to discern gen- 
ius or special talent here as in other things. He wrote with a 
perspicuity almost such as Horace Greeley's was, and with a 
terse Saxon force and direct ''drive" at the purpose in hand, rare 
in these days. Those who were near to him, or came in contact 
with him in the direction of affairs, he acted upon with the 
characteristic qualities of his nature. He left his impress. He 
was an influence, and many there are who can rise up and call 



150 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

him blessed, in the memory of the chaste and elevating^ force 
that influence was. 

He was a man of the rarest courage; a courage that seemed 
to have no weak side, mental, moral or physicial. The furthest 
possible remove from a brawler in his nature, an acquaintance 
with him never failed to make it plain that he would fight on 
call. This coupled with the knowledge that he was a "dead shot** 
with a rifle, perhaps conspired to make a career among the tur* 
bulent scenes of politics singularly free from personal disturb- 
ances. Of his mental courage, his never failing faith in the power 
of attainments has already spoken. His moral courage, as is 
shown forth in a life free of dross as few lives are, was rare in- 
deed. He had the loftiest sense of honor, and the hottest anger 
and bitterest contempt for a dishonorable, dishonest or mean 
thing; and condemnation of such leaped to his lips in a mo- 
ment, for he had all the ''quickness" of the nervous tempera- 
ment. But so patiently did he work for its control, so thorough- 
ly did he conquer himself, that in his later life few knew from 
the calm exterior the rage that took hold of him at the sight of 
a wrong or meanness. His integrity was flawless. He had not 
merely the heart to mean rightly, but the head to do rightly, 
and in his daily walk and conversation he was truth and hon- 
esty incarnate. This is the testimony of those who knew him 
as he lived among them. The writer knew him in a personal 
and household way also, and so knowing him he knows of his 
unvarying sweetness, his cheeriness that brightened intercourse 
and his encouragement constantly to lofty ideals and noble deeds. 

All his life Mr. Defrees had not been a professor of religion, 
but if religion is a life he was one of its noblest exemplars. Last 
June he joined the Congregational Church at Washington, 
and took the sacrament. He was then unable to leave his room. 
Before and since then he was afflicted in a way that no medical 
skill could control, and for months he suffered as let us hope few 
of us may suffer. There was little bitterness of physical agony 
that he did not endure. His prayer was to die. 



A NEWSPAPER INDEX 151 



A NEWSPAPER INDEX. 

'•WESTERN CENSOR'^ AND ♦^OURNAL,^ OF INDIANAPOLIS, 1823 TO 

1827, INCLUSIVE— FIRST INSTALMENT. 

[The JVestem Censor and Emigrants Guide ^ the second paper lannched 
in Indianapolis, and its successor, the Indiana Journal^ are the only early 
papers of which there are complete files accessible to the public. For that 
reason they have a particular value, and the following index may prove of 
interest and service to many of our readers. The classification of news- 
paper matter is difficult owing to its heterogeneous character. In this index 
we have, with a few exceptions, confined ourselves to such matter as bears, 
directly or indirectly, upon the history of Indianapolis, or which reflects 
phases of early life there. We have deemed the chronological arrangement 
preferable to the alphabetical scheme. The first issue of The Western 
Censor appeared March 7, 1823. January 11, 1825, it became The Indiana 
Journal. The bound files may be found in the Indianapolis Public Library.] 

1623 — Western Censor. 

First issue, reasons for delay of. — March 7. 

Indianapolis, description of. — March 7. 

Communications, excess of. — April 2. 

Sunday-school, first meeting* of, to be held at Scudder*s cabinet- 
shop. — April 2. (Other matter pertaining to Sunday-school 
throughout early numbers.) 

Roads, State. — May 14. 

Squirrel killing". — May 14. 

Divorce cases. — May 14. 

Northern Indiana. — May 21. 

Advertisement for books loaned. — May 21. 

Trees, law affecting the cutting of in Indianapolis. — June 4. 

Mails. — June 11. 

Presbyterian church, the first. — June 11. (See also June 18.) 

Indians on White river, and white woman captive. — ^June 11. 

White river. — ^June 18. 

Contribution: **Humphrey Ploughshare's" criticism of town 
ways. — ^June 18. 

Fourth of July barbecue (ad. ) — ^June 25. 

Merchandise: New store and list of articles kept. — July 2. 

Letters advertised. — ^July 2. [Lists of letters of considerable 
length were periodically published, and the custom seems curious. 



152 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Why, in a backwoods village of six hundred people, should the 
advertising- of unclaimed letters be necessary?] 

Fourth of July oration, by Morris Morris. — ^July 9. 

Advertisement: ''Attention to Borrowers I" — July 9. 

Candidates for office, list of. — July 16. 

Rattlesnakes in Marion county. — Aug-. 18. 

Indianapolis, population of, 600 or 700 people (editorial). — 
Sept. 22. 

Contribution: "Conduct to be Observed on Entering* a Store** 
(satirical). — Sept. 29. 

Indianapolis and the New Purchase. — Oct. 6. 

Roads. — Oct. 20. (See also Dec. IS.) 

Apple trees and nursery. — Oct. 20. 

Delinquent taxes, sale of lots for in Indianapolis. — Dec. 1. 
(Christopher Harrison, commitoioner, a lot holder). 

1824— 

Tavern: Thomas Chinn's "Traveller's Hall."— Jan. 5. 

Prices of corn, pork and potatoes (ad.) — ^Jan. S. 

Population, influx of in anticipation of coming* legislature. — 
Feb. 16. 

Donation lands, advertisement for leasing-. — Feb. 16. 

Furs and tallow for subscriptions, etc. (ad.) — Feb. 16. 

Social supper. — Feb. 24. 

Public Meeting- "to consult on the propriety of taking care of 
the graveyard." — March 8. (Also March 16.) 

Mails; six weeks to Blooming-ton. — March 22. 

Tan-yard near Pogtie's run. — March 22. 

Potatoes, varieties of; Early Whites, Larg-e Red, Long- Pale 
Red, Large Early Blue. — March 22. 

School, teachers, etc.— ^ April 5 (first column.) 

Indian murders at Pendleton (diflfering somewhat from the 
ordinary account)!— April 5. 

Plasterer, advertisement of; probably the first. — April 5. 
^ Chairs for legislative halls, advertisement for. — April 19. 

Commodities for currency: Merchandise in exchange for 
"ginseng, beeswax, honey, sugar, deer and fur skins, or almost 
anything else in preference to promises. For cash only, powder, 
shot, whisky, salt." (John Givan's ad.) — April 26. • 

Sunday-school, long report about; also editorial. — May 3, 



A NEWSPAPER INDEX 153 

Importation: Arrival of keel-boat, * 'Dandy,*' with 28 tons of 
salt and whisky. — May 17, 

Danville, locating- of. — ^July 20. (Also Aug*. 31). 

School examination. — July 13. (School matter in July 27.) 

Captain Riley, famous traveler, located on St. Mary's river. 
Advocate of Wabash canal. — Aug. 31. 

Emigration to Indianapolis. — Oct. 19. 

Sale of Donation out-lots (ad.) — Nov. 16. 

Military election. — Dec. 7. (Also Dec. 14. 
182^ — Indiana Journal. 

Legislature: Coming of the legislators, etc. First meeting*. 
—Jan. 11. 

Mails, arrival of. — Jan. 18. 

Land office, James B. Ray on removal of to Indianapolis. — 
Jan. 25. 

Legislators, nativity of. — Feb. 1. 

Indianapolis, letter about. — Feb. 1. (Also Feb. 8). 

Whetzell's trace: Petition of Jacob Whetzell praying* compen- 
sation for cutting- trace (in Senate proceedings). — Feb. IS. 

Female Bible Society formed. — April 19. 

Manufacture of g-lass at New Albany. — April 26. 

Lots in Indianapolis, prices of. — May 3. 

Sabbath school. — May 3. 

James B. Ray, campaign letter to the public. — ^June 7. (For 
burlesque on Ray, see July 19). 

Agfricultural Society. — July 26. (See also, for formation of 
society, Sept. 6). 

Land office, coming* of, to Indianapolis. — Sept. 27. 

Settlers, coming* of; prospects of Indianapolis. — Sept. 27. 

Road to Fort Wayne, laying" out of; mention of Indian trace. 
—Oct. 11. 

Bible Society, forming* of. — ^Nov. 29. 

1826— 

Sabbath school for adults. — ^April 16. 

John Conner, death of. — April 25. (For W. H. Harrison on 
John Conner see July 20, 1824. Conner's estate, Nov. 28). 

Population of Indianapolis. — March 7, (760 people; 200 vot- 
ers; 61 unmarried men; 48 unmarried women). 

National Road. — Nov. 14. 

Bible Society, Marion county. — Nov. 21. 



154 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

1827— 

Legislature and State conditions. — ^Jan. 2. 

Alexander Ralston, death of; with sketch. — ^Jan, 9. 

Indianapolis in 1827. — Feb. 20. 

Leasings on the Donation. — Feb. 20. 

Female Bible Society. — March 20. 

Indian treaty. — March 27. (Treaty of Oct. 16, 1826, secur- 
ing Michigan road lands, and signed by all concerned. These 
signatures not appended to the of&cial report in American State 
Papers. Also, "reserves" specified.) 

Lots, sale of in Indianapolis (ad.) — April 3. (Also May IS). 

Mail routes. — May 1. (Also Aug. 7). 

White river, description of. — May 1. 

Rattlesnake oil, advertisement for. — ^June 5. 

Internal improvement. — June 19. (Also June 26, Nov. 13). 

Indiana, description of. — ^June 19. 

Wolves, bounty on. — ^June 19. 

Railroads. — July 3. 

Church worker in Indiana, letter from. — July 3. 

Jacob Whetzell, death of and short sketch. — ^July 3. 

Indians, the Delawares. — July 17. 

Morristown, first sale of lots in. — Aug. 21. 

Vocal music society, meeting in Indianapolis to establish one. 
— Aug. 28. 

Educational: Private teaching of grammar (ad.) — Sept. 18, 

"Muncytown," sale of lots in. — Sept. 18. 

Imports to Indianapolis (editorial). — Oct. 2. 

Methodist ministers and stations. — Oct. 2. 

Indianapolis Academy, "commencement" of. — Oct. 9. 

Indiana, north boundary of. — ^Nov. 6. (Also March 27). 

Indians, attitude toward. — Nov. 6. 

Public lands, kind of pay accepted for. — Nov. 13. 

Indianapolis, improvements in. — Nov. 20. 

Emigration to northern Indiana. — Nov. 20. 

Lumber, Caleb Scudder's advertisement for 25,000 feet of cher- 
ry and poplar. — Dec. 4. 

Map of Indiana (ad.) — Dec. 4. (Also Jan. 10). 



DEPAR TMENT OF GENEALOG Y 155 



DEPARTiyiEI^ OF GENEALOGY AND FAMILY HISTORY. 

EDITED BY MARY E. CARDWILU 

318 East Fifth Street, New Albany, Indiana. 

[Queries and answers concerning^ ancestors and family history will be 
S^ladly receiTed.] 

Thb Poindexter Family. 

THE earliest known records of this family reach back to about 
1250 when Geoffrey and Raoul Poing^estre are listed as 
Norman Huguenot land-owners in the Isle of Jersey. 

The founder of the house of Granville was Georg-e Poingdestre, 
who married Geritte, niece of Sir Thomas Ahier. Georg-e Poing^ 
destre died in 1544, and his eldest son, EMward, married Mar- 
garet, daug-hter of Clement Messeroy, in 1562. Their eldest son, 
Thomas, bom in 1581, married Elizabeth Effard. Their chil- 
dren were Philip, Jacob, Georg-e and Rachel. 

George settled in Virginia, 1640 or '50, in the present New Kent 
or Charles City counties. A missing link leaves a blank in the 
family history until about 1700 when John Poindexter was ap- 
pointed by the Governor of Virginia one of the Commissioners 
to organize Louisa county from a part of Hanover county. He 
was also a justice of the peace and a vestryman in Predricks- 
ville church, and a captain of cavalry. He married Christine 

, and had six children: John^, Thomas^ William^ Joseph^, 

Antf who married Slaughter, and Sarah^ who married 

Tyron. Thomas^ married Lucy Jones, daughter of Gabriel 
Jones, of Culpepper county. Thomas's^ will, probated July 15, 
1796, names the following children: John^ GabrieP, Thomas', 
Robert', James', Richard', George', Elizabeth', Lucy' and Molly'. 
John' married three times, became a celebrated Baptist preacher 
and was clerk of Louisa county, Virginia, for thirty years. 
James', a farmer in Louisa county, married twice and left one 
son. Dr. James* Poindexter, of Charlottesville. Thomas', a farm- 
er at Green Springs, Virginia, married and left many children. 
Richard' married a Miss Maer, and moved to North Carolina, 
where he became a most distinguished Baptist minister. He 
left one son, Abraham* Maer Poindexter. Roberf settled in 



156 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Kentucky. Some of his descendents are found in Vevay, Indiana. 
George* moved to Mississippi, soon became prominent as a law- 
yer, was a member of the Territorial Legislature, Delegate to 
Congress and Judge of Supreme Court. In 1820 he was elected 
Governor of the State and later was United States Senator for 
many years. Gabriel^ ancestor of most of the Indiana Poin- 
dexters, was bom in Louisa county, Virginia, May 8, 1758, and 
died in Clark county,. Indiana, August 28, 1831. He was a soldier 
of the Revolution, Virginia Line, Continental Establishment. 
He married Mary Swift, said to have been a relative of Dean 
Swift, and some years later, about the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, emigrated to Kentucky, where he lived near 
Lexington for ten or twelve years, when he moved to New Al- 
bany, Indiana, in which place his wife died in 1820. The fami- 
ly then moved to Clark county, Indiana, near Sellersburg. 

The children of Gabriel' Poindexter and Mary Swift Poin- 

dexter were Merriwether*, born ; killed in the battle of the 

River Raisin. Cleviars*, born 1797, in Virginia; married Nan- 
cy Holland, May 22, 1823. Elizabeth*, born 1801, in Kentucky; 
married John Adams, of Clark county, Indiana, December 1, 
1827; died March 23, 1866. MosesS died young. Lucy*, 
married Mr. Underwood, of Kentucky. Harriet*, married Felix 
Lane. Margaret*, married John Hancock, October 20, 1839. 
Polly*, married John Greene. John*, died young. Catherine*, 
died young. 

Cleviars* married Nancy Holland, born in Virginia, May 22, 
1823. Their children were: Moses^ born 1824. Married (1) 
Sally Littell, August 22, 1844; (2) Anna Littell, November 
19, 1864. Died 1895; left five children. He was a man of ability 
and prominence and was State Senator. Elizabeth^ bom 
1825. Married David Hay, September 4, 1844. Gabriel^, bom 
1927. Married Mary F. Willey, Febmary 5, 1851. He was 
Captain of Company H, Thirty-eighth Indiana Regiment, in 
the Civil War. He died in 1890. His children were Fountin*, 
Charles^ Harry^, Bertha^ Mary® and Frank^ all prominent peo- 
ple in Jeflfersonville and vicinity. Gkorge^ born 1829. Mar- 
ried Amanda Anson. Randall^, born 1831. Married (1) 

Helen Root; (2) Julia . Was a surgeon in the Civil War. 

Died 1890. John^, born 1833. Married Margaret . Was 



TA YLORS STEAM PRINTING MACHINE 157 

also a surg'eon in the Civil War. Margaret*, bom 1836. 
Married (1) Absalom Sellers, November 13, 1854; (2) John 
Eisman. Died 1892. 

Elizabeth^ daug'hter of Gabriel Poindexter, married John 
Adams, December 21, 1827, in Clark county, but soon after 
moved to New Albany, where she died. Children of John and 
Elizabeth Adams were: John Quincey*, born March 31, 1829; died 
April 19, 1903. Albert*, born December 11, 1830; died De- 
cember 15, . Thomas*, born September 7, 1832; married 

Marg-aret Hansborough. Died August, 1895. Had two daugh- 
ters: Molly*, married George Slaughter, of Kentucky; and 
Bessie*. Marjr*, born May 7, 1834; married Jacob Miller. 
William Newton*, born 1836; died 1837. Elizabeth*, born 
November 23, 1838; married John O. Greene; has one child, 
Alice*. George Wesley*, born July. 16, 1842. 



TAYLOR'S STEAM PRINTING MACHINE. 

THIS number of the Journal is printed on an elegant Steam 
Printing Machine just put up for us by Mr. A; B. Taylor, 
of New York — the patentee. The machine and the engine by 
which it is propelled (which, in fact, is a part of the machine 
itself), is the most complete of the kind now in use. The boiler 
which supplies the engine with steam is about the size of a pork 
barrel, and only requires an eighth of a cord of wood to run it 
ten hours! The machine itself is capable of throwing oflf three 
thousand sheets per hour, though the usual rate of working it 
at our oflSce will be at the rate of two thousand an hour, requir- 
ing but one hand to feed it! It has attracted great attention, 
and we invite all who may wish to see it to call at our Press 
room and gratify their curiosity. 

This extraordinary facility will enable us to keep our columns 
open much longer than heretofore, so that our subscribers will 
get all the news received by us up to the hour of publication. 

This enterprise has been accomplished at a great expense, and 
we confidently look to the Whigs of the State to increase our cir- 
culation in such manner as will afford us ample remuneration. — 
From Indiana State Journal {weekly ed,)^ June 22, 184,7. 



INDIANA QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Pnblished at Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Gborgb S. Cottman, Editor and Publisher, 

EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIBS AND NBWSPAPBRS. 

That librarianship as a science is now but in its infancy is 
a fact that is recognized, doubtless, by most modem librarians. 
When library work shall have developed more fully along- the 
many lines that are destined to come within its scope, not its 
least important function will be the indexing and organizing- of 
the great mass of valuable material that is continually passing 
through the newspaper press. There is great need to empha- 
size the importance of this task, which, up to the present, seems 
to have received little attention. It is, we presume, a quite safe 
proposition that the library aims to be a school for the people — 
a promoter of information, and one kind of information of con- 
siderable importance is a knowledge of the character of a society 
by the people who form it. The great source of such informa- 
tion is the newspapers, which reflect the community life and 
spirit as nothing else does. A newspaper index, intelligently 
compiled, would be a record or synopsis of the forces that have 
made a community what it is, whether for good or bad. It 
would be a chronological list of social movements, of the nota- 
ble performances of men, and of a great variety of facts, valua- 
ble, interesting and curious, which, without such guide, are 
speedily swallowed up in oblivion and their lessons lost. To be 
specific, Terre Haute has, during the last half-year, been sub- 
jected to an experience that is of State-wide interest. In the 
fight against that threatening depravity which is continually 
showing its head everywhere, she affords an object-lesson that is 
worthy of elaborate study. In another year's time the whole 
chapter will be buried away so completely as to be practically 
forgotten, significant though it is. He who wishes to investi- 
gate that crusade against unrighteousness should be able to go 
to the Terre Haute library and by its index be guided readily to 
all the salient points of the case as chronicled by the contempo- 
rary papers. As with Terre Haute, so, in varying degree, with 



EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 159 

every town in the State. The laws of growth and retrogfres- 
sion are going on always and everywhere, and wherever the 
newspaper exists it is holding the mirror up to nature — ^if we 
but know how to interpret the newspaper. As its contents lie 
scattered through the columns, they are little more than waste 
matter, but selected and organized, the inconsequential elimi- 
nated, they present the very texture of our civilization. The 
first step toward a history of our State that shall be worthy the 
name must be this cooperative organizing of a mass of material 
too extensive for the individual to compass. The work done by 
the local libraries should be a stimulus and aid to the minor stu- 
dents, and these students will prepare the way for the historian 
proper. At the present stage it is all-essential that the vigorous 
and phenomenal library movement, now asserting itself through- 
out our State, recognize in a broad way its relation to current 
history and its opportunities as a conserver of the same. 

If we are rightly informed, there are but three of the larger 
libraries of the country that are doing newspaper indexing. Of 
these, one is the Indiana State Library, which has listed the 
more important contents of the leading Indianapolis papers from 
1898 to the present time. This guide to the files, as people 
learn of it, is coming more and more into popular use, the news- 
papers themselves being among the most frequent patrons. 
The State Library scheme is, of course, much more extensive 
than a local library would adopt, and yet an hour or two a day 
suffices for the work. In the average local library ten or fifteen 
minutes a day would doubtless be ample time for indexing a 
mass of reference material that would have an abiding interest 
and value. 

MORB RBVOLUTIONART GRAVES. 

Brazil, Ind., July 12, 1906. 
Editor Indiana Magazine of History, 

Sir: — ^You have given information regarding Revolutionary 
soldiers' graves in several counties, which proves interesting to 
many people. I desire to report for Clay county the following 
Revolutionary soldiers and the location of their graves: 

Lawrence Thompson and Amos Kelley are buried in the Ze- 
nor cemetery, on Birch creek, six miles south of Brazil. Thomp- 



160 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

son served in a North Carolina regiment. Some time after the 
close of the Revolutionary War, he settled in Harrison county, 
Indiana; thence to Clay county, where he died some time in the 
forties, ag-ed about 108. Numerous descendants still live in this 
county. Kelley has no known descendants in the county, and 
little is known of his history other than the fact that he was a 
soldier of the Revolution. The Board of Commissioners of Clay 
county, with the unanimous consent of the County Council, at 
the sugg'estion of a few citizens, made an appropriation of two 
hundred dollars for a monument to each of their graves. The 
monuments were lettered and set up several months ago, and 
on July 4, 1906, a meeting was held at the cemetery, and the 
monuments duly dedicated. 

John Yocom, a Revolutionary soldier, is buried in a private 
family graveyard, two miles south of Brazil, which has long 
been in disuse. 

John Hopper and Benjamin Wheeler, are buried in another 
Zenor cemetery a short distance south of Bowling Green, the 
old county seat. 

This makes five buried in Clay county. There may be one or 
two mor^, but the above list includes all that are positively 
known. Yours truly, 

F. W. ROBBRTSON. 

In addition to the above Miss Mary E. Cardwill, of New Al- 
bany, reports David Benton, and Arthur Parr, buried respect- 
ively in Jackson and Washington counties. There are some 
Revolutionary graves in Bartholomew county, but we have not 
been able to ascertain the names. We also find mention of 
Samuel Boyd, who died in Wajne county in 1835. Boyd was 
the maternal grandfather of Judge E. B. Martindale, of Indian- 
apolis. We would be glad to receive information of this char- 
acter from other readers. 

i/x:al history contributions. 

Reminiscences of an Indianian. — Capt. J. A. Lemcke, now of In- 
dianapolis, a man of wide experience and varied fortunes, has 
published under this title a private edition volume which nar- 
rates the ups and downs of a somewhat checkered life. It is, in 
part, the story of a young man leaking his way fifty or sixty 



EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 161 

years ag'O. Of those times we have many intimate glimpses 
of life and conditions that are a real contribution to our his- 
tory. His experiences as a river man on the Mississippi, Ohio« 
Tennessee, Wabash and White rivers are especially interesting. 
In more recent years Captain Lemcke was a man of some promi- 
nence in Indiana (Republican) politics. In 1886 he was elected 
State Treasurer, and during President Harrison's administration 
the oflSce of United States Treasurer was tendered him. His de- 
clining of this tempting ofFer was so unusual that, as Mr. Lemcke 
says, '*Frank Leslie, among others, published my picture with 
the humorously satirical remark: *This is the portrait of a 
man who refused office, and he from Indiana.'' * A wide acquaint- 
ance with men of note adds not a little to the interest of Mr. 
Lemcke's recollections, and the whole narrated with a pervasive 
strain of genuine humor makes the book exceedingly readable, 
and one deserving of a fuller review than we have space for. 

Reminiscences of Early Indianapolis, — The Indianapolis News^ 
in its Saturday editions, has for some months been running a 
series of papers, '*Reminiscences of an Old Reporter," which 
deal with the Indianapolis of an earlier day. They are written 
by Charles Dennis, for many years one of the best-known 
newspaper men in the city. His personal recollections go back 
to a period antedating the war, and his long experience in the 
reportorial field has brought him in wide contact with persons 
and given him an intimate knowledge of events, which he sets 
forth graphically with the pen of a trained writer. So far as 
his sketches present actual recollections they are of distinct in- 
terest and value, and the more so because they deal with things 
about whjch little or no information can be had from our writ- 
ten histories. 

Early Newspapers of Richmond. — In the Richmond Sun-Telegram 
of February 26, 1906, is published a list of the Richmond news- 
papers from 1820 to the present time, compiled by B. F. Wissler. 
Twenty-eight papers are specified as existing in that time. 
The list, Mr. Wissler tells us, is not absolutely complete, as 
even within that comparatively narrow field some have passed 
wholly into oblivion. We are further told that more than 
seventy-five papers have been published in Wayne county. In 



162 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Mr. Wissler's list we note such odd names as The Family School'^ 
master^ The Lily^ The Broad Axe of Freedom and Grubbing Hoe 
of Truth and The Humming Bird, 

Tippecanoe Battle Document. — In the Lafayette Morning Journal 
of June 23, 1906, is published a newly found document relating- 
to the battle of Tippecanoe. This is an account of the fight by 
Judge Isaac Naylor, who was a participant in it. The paper 
was found among the effects of Judge Naylor, now in posses- 
sion of his daughter, Mrs. Mary Naylor Whitef ord, who was re- 
cently visiting- in Lafayette. The account has in it a number 
of points not, we believe, to be found elsewhere. We will, if 
possible, publish it in full in our next issue. 

Old Fort near Richmond, — In the Richmond Sun-Telegram of July 
4, 1906, 0. S. Harrison publishes an interview with Isaac Lamb, 
an old citizen of Richmond, who remembered and described to 
the interviewer the blockhouse built in 1812, near the present 
site of Richmond. According to Mr. Lamb, the fort was at>out 
thirty feet square and built of hewn logs fitted very closely to- 
gether. The lower part of the building was used for living- pur- 
poses, and the second story, which overhung the first, was sup- 
plied with port-holes, cut about waist high, that commanded the 
surroundings. In its latter years the structure was used as a 
tool-house and granary by Thomas Lamb, father of Isaac, who 
burned it down in 1830. Mr. Harrison states that "Fort Smith," 
as he calls it, was on the old Jacob Smith farm, but omits to lo- 
cate it more definitely.* There were many of these old block- 
houses located throughout southern Indiana, and a record oj 
them would be an interesting addition to our frontier history. 

^Sinoe the aboTo was put in type we find in another article by Mr. Harrison on the same 
subject (5un-7>Itf(7ram, Jnne 2) that the blockhouse ''was on the river about one mile and 
a half west and north of where the court-house now stands, on the place now occupied by 
Nathan P. Wilson, and near where his house stands." It was built in 1812 by George Smith, 
Jesse Bond, Valentine Pegg, Cornelius Batliff and others of the neighboriiood. 



THE INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Vol. n DECEMBER, 1906 No. 4 



THE BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE. 

AS INSCRIBED BY JUDGE ISAAC NAYLOR, A PARTICIPANT— A 

RECENTLY DISCOVERED ACCOUNT. 

From the Lafayette Morning Journal^ June ^j, tgo6, 

JUDGE ISAAC NAYLOR was quite a prominent figrure in the 
early history of Indiana. He was born in Rockingham 
county, in the State of Virginia, July 30, 1790. He emigrat- 
ed with his parents to Kentucky in 1793, and in 1805 moved to 
Clark county, this State, taking up his wilderness home near 
Charlestown, which, at that time, was a pioneer settlement. 
After his fighting career he became a circuit judge, traveling on 
horseback and holding court in the counties of Montgomery, 
Tippecanoe, White, Benton, Fountain and Jasper, serving 
twenty years in that capacity. During these years only three 
cases tried by him suflFered reversal by the Supreme Court. The 
last forty years of his life were spent in Crawfordsville. 

Both Judge Naylor and his brotber took part in the battle of 
Tippecanoe. The former also took part in the finish of the 
fight at Pigeon Roost massacre, when a very young man, and 
after the battle of Tippecanoe was a soldier in the war of 1812. 
In later years he delivered many addresses on the Tippecanoe 
battle, and he ardently urged the erection of a monument on the 
battlefield. He was the first treasurer appointed to receive 
funds for this purpose, but not receiving any contributions, gave 
up the task several years before his death, which took place on 
April 26, 1873. 

Mrs. Mary Naylor Whiteford, a daughter of Isaac Naylor, re- 
cently unearthed, among her father's effects, an article about 
the battle. It gives many interesting points that are new, and 
is here printed for the first time. 

THE ACCOUNT. 

**I became a volunteer member of a company of riflemen, and 
on the 12th of September, 1811, we commenced our march 



164 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

toward Viiicennes> and arrived there in about six dajs> march- 
ing' about 120 miles. We remained there about a week and took 
up the march to a point on the Wabash river sixty miles above, 
on the east bank of the river, where we erected a stockade fort, 
which we named Fort Harrison. This was three miles below 
where the city of Terre Haute now stands. Colonel Joseph H. 
Davies, who commanded the dragoons, named the fort* The 
glorious defense of this fort nine months after by Captain 
Zachary Taylor was the first step in his brilliant career that 
afterwards made him President of the United States. A few 
days later we took up the march again for the seat of Indian 
warfare, where we arrived on the evening of November 6, 1811. 

*'When the army arrived in view of the Prophet's town, an In- 
dian was seen coming* toward General Harrison with a white flag- 
suspended on a pole. . Here the army halted, and a parley was had 
between General Harrison and an Indian delegation, who assured 
the Greneral that they desired peace, and solemnly promised to 
meet him next day in council, to settle the terms of peace and 
friendship between them and the United States. 

^'General Marston G. Clark, who was then brigade major, and 
Waller Taylor, one of the judges of the General Court of the 
Territory of Indiana, and afterwards a Senator of the United 
States from Indiana (one of the General's aides), were ordered to 
select a place for the encampment, which they did. The army 
then marched to the ground selected about sunset. A strong* 
guard was placed around the encampment, commanded by Cap- 
tain James Bigger and three lieutenants. The troops were or* 
dered to sleep on their arms. The night being cold, large fires 
were made along the lines of encampment and each soldier re- 
tired to rest, sleeping on his arms. 

'^Having seen a number of squaws and children at the town, 
I thought the Indians were not disposed to fight. About ten 
o'clock at night Joseph Warnock and myself retired to rest, he 
taking one side of the fire and I the other, the other members 
of our company being all asleep. My friend Warnock had 
dreamed, the night before, a bad dream which foreboded some- 
thing fatal to him or to some of his family, as he told me. 
Having myself no confidence in dreams, I thought but little 



THE BA TTLE OF TIPPECANOE 165 

abont the matter^ although I observed that he never smiled after- 
wards. 

*^I awoke about four oVlock the next morning, after a sound 
and refreshing sleep, having heard in a dream the firing of 
guns and the whistling of bullets just before I awoke from my 
slumber. A drizzling rain was falling and all things were still 
and quiet throughout the camp. I was engaged in making a 
calculation when I should arrive at home. 

**In a few moments I heard the crack of a rifle in the direction 
of the point where now stands the Battle Ground house, which 
is occupied by Captain DuTiel as a tavern. I had just time to 
think that some sentinel was alarmed and had fired his rifle with- 
out a real cause, when I heard the crack of another rifle, fol- 
lowed by an awful Indian yell all around the encampment. In 
less than a minute I saw the Indians charging our line most 
furiously and shooting a great many rifle balls into our camp fires, 
throwing the live coals into the air three or four feet high. 

"At this moment my friend Wamock was shot by a rifle ball 
through his body. He ran a few yards and fell dead on the 
ground. Our lines were broken and a few Indians were found 
on the inside of the encampment. In a few moments they were 
all killed. Our lines closed up and our men in their proper places. 
One Indian was killed in the back part of Captain Geiger's tent, 
while he was attempting to tomahawk the Captain. 

**The sentinels, closely pursued by the Indians, came to the 
lines of the encampment in haste and confusion. My brother, 
William Naylor, was on guard. He was pursued so rapidly and 
furiously that he ran to the nearest point on the left flank, where 
he remained with a company of regular soldiers until the battle 
was near its termination. A young man, whose name was 
Daniel Pettit, was pursued so closely and furiously by an Indian 
as he was running from the guard fire to our lines, that to save 
his life he cocked his rifle as he ran and turning suddenly round, 
placed the muzzle of his gun against the body of the Indian and 
shot an ounce ball through him. The Indian fired his gun at 
the same instant, but it being longer than Pettit*s the muzzle 
passed by him and set fire to a handkerchief which he had tied 
round his head. The Indians made four or five most fierce 
charges on our lines, yelling and screaming as they advanced, 



166 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

shooting' balls and arrows into our ranks. At each charge they 
were driven back in confusion, carrying off their dead and wound- 
ed as they retreated. 

'•Colonel Owen, of Shelby county, Kentucky, one of General 
Harrison's volunteer aides, fell early in action by the side of the 
General. He was a member of the legislature at the time of his 
death. Colonel Davies was mortally wounded early in the bat- 
tle, gallantly charg'hig the Indians on foot with his sword and 
pistols, according" to his own request. He made this request 
three times of General Harrison, before he permitted him to 
make the charge. This charge was made by himself and eight 
dragoons on foot near the angle formed by the left flank and 
front line of the encampment. Colonel Davies lived about thirty- 
six hours after he was wounded, manifesting his ruling passions 
in life — ambition, patriotism and an ardent love of military 
glory. During- the last hours of his life he said to his friends 
around him that he had but one thing to regret — that he had 
military talents; that he was about to be cut down in the merid- 
ian of life without having an opportunity of displaying them 
for his own honor, and the good of his country. He was buried 
alone with the honors of war near the right flank of the army, 
inside of the lines of the encampment, between two trees. On 
one of these trees the letter *D' is now visible. Nothing but 
the stump of the other remains. His grave was made here, to 
conceal it from the Indians. It was filled up to the top with 
earth and then covered with oak leaves. I presume the Indians 
never found it. This precautionary act was performed as a 
mark of peculiar respect for a distinguished hero and patriot of 
Kentucky. 

**Captain Spencer's company of mounted riflemen composed 
the right flank of the army. Captain Spencer and both his 
lieutenants were killed. John Tipton was elected and commis- 
sioned as captain of this company in one hour after the battle, 
as a reward for his cool and deliberate heroism displayed during 
the action. He died at Logansport in 1839, having been twice 
elected Senator of the United States from the State of Indiana. 

**The clear, calm voice of General Harrison was heard in words 
of heroism in every part of the encampment during the action. 
Colonel Boyd behaved very bravely after repeating these words: 



THE BA TTLE OF TIPPECANOE 167 

'Huzza! My sons of gold, a few more fires and victory will be 
ours I' 

"Just after daylight the Indians retreated across the prairie 
toward their town, carrying off their wounded. This retreat 
was from the right flank of the encampment, commanded by 
Captains Spencer and Robb, having retreated from the other 
portions of the encampment a few minutes before. As their re- 
treat became eisible, an almost deafening and universal shout 
was raised by our men. ^Huzzal Huzza! Huzza!* This shout 
was almost equal to that of the savages at the commencement of 
the battle; ours was the shout of victory, theirs was the shout of 
ferocious but disappointed hope. 

**The morning light disclosed the fact that the killed and 
wounded of our army, numbering between eight and nine hun- 
dred men, amounted to one hundred and eight. Thirty-six In- 
dians were found near our lines. Many of their dead were car- 
ried off during the battle. This fact was proved by the discov- 
ery of many Indian graves recently made near their town. Ours 
was a bloody victory, theirs a bloody defeat. 

"Soon after breakfast an Indian chief was discovered on the 
prairie, about eighty yards from our front line, wrapped in a 
piece of white cloth. He was found by a soldier by the name 
of Miller, a resident of Jeffersonville, Indiana. The Indian 
was wounded in one of his legs, the ball having penetrated 
his knee and passed down his leg, breaking the bone as it passed. 
Miller put his foot against him and he raised up his head and 
said: 'Don't kill me, don't kill me.' At the same time five or 
six regular soldiers tried to shoot him, but their muskets snapped 
and missed fire. Major Davis Floyd came riding toward him 
with dragoon sword and pistols and said he 'would show 
them how to kill Indians,' when a messenger came from General 
Harrison commanding that he should be taken prisoner. He 
was taken into camp, where the surgeons dressed his wounds. 
Here he refused to speak a word of English or tell a word of 
truth. Through the medium of an interpreter he said that he 
was a friend to the white people and that the Indians shot him, 
while he was coming to the camp to tell General Harrison that 
they were about to attack the army. He refused to have his 
leg amputated, though he was told that amputation was the 



168 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

only means of saving* his life. One dogma of Indian supersti- 
tion is that all good and brave Indians, when they die, go to a 
delightful region, abounding* with deer and other game, and 
to be a successful hunter, he should have all his limbs, his g'un 
and his dog. He therefore preferred death with all his limbs 
to life without them. In accordance with his request he was 
left to die, in company with an old squaw, who was found in the 
Indian town the next day after he was taken prisoner. They 
were left in one of our tents. 

'*At the time this Indian was taken prisoner, another Indian, 
who was wounded in the body, rose to his feet in the middle of 
the prairie, and began to walk towards the woods on the opposite 
side. A number of regular soldiers shot at him but missed him. 
A man who was a member of the same company with me, Hen- 
ry Huckleberry, ran a few steps into the prairie and shot an ounce 
ball through his body and he fell dead near the margin of the 
woods. Some Kentucky volunteers went across the prairie im- 
mediately and scalped him, dividing* his scalp into four pieces, 
each one cutting a hole in each piece, putting his ramrod 
through the hole, and placing his part of the scalp just behind 
the first thimble of his gun, near its muzzle. Such was the fate 
of nearly all of the Indians found dead on the battle-ground, 
and such was the disposition of their scalps. 

**The death of Owen, and the fact that Davies was mortally 
wounded, with the remembrance also that a large portion of 
Kentucky's best blood had been shed by the Indians, must be 
their apology for this barbarous conduct. Such conduct will be 
excused by all who witnessed the treachery of the Indians, and 
saw the bloody scenes of this battle. 

'*Tecumseh being absent at the time of battle, a chief called 
White Loon was the chief commander of the Indians. He was 
seen in the morning after the battle, riding a large white horse 
in the woods across the prairie, where he was shot at by a volun- 
teer named Montgomery, who is now living in the southwest 
part of this State. At the crack of his rifle the horse jumped as 
if the ball had hit him. The Indian rode off toward the town 
and we saw him no more. During* the battle the prophet was 
safely located on a hill, beyond the reach of our balls, praying 
to the Great Spirit to give the victory to the Indians, having 



THE BA TTLE OF TIPPECANOE 169 

previously assured them that the Great Spirit would chang'e our 
powder into ashes and sand. 

**We had about forty head of beef cattle when we came to the 
battle. They all ran off the night of the battle, or they were 
driven oflE by the Indians, so that they were all lost. We re- 
ceived rations for two days on the morning after the action. 
We received no more rations until the next Tuesday evening, be- 
ing six days afterwards. The Indians having retreated to their 
town, we performed the solemn duty of consigning to their 
graves our dead soldiers, without shrouds or coffins. They were 
placed in graves about two feet deep, from five to ten in each 
grave. 

**General Harrison having learned that Tecumseh was ex- 
pected to return from the south with a number of Indians whom 
he had enlisted in his cause, called a council of his officers, who 
advised him to remain on the battlefield and fortify his camp by 
a breastwork of logs around, at>out four feet high. This work 
was completed during the day and all the troops were placed im- 
mediately behind each line of the work when they were ordered 
to pass the watchword from right to left every five minutes, so 
that no man was permitted to sleep during the night. The 
watchword on the night before the battle was *Wide awake/ 
'Wide awake.* To me it was a long, cold, cheerless night. 

**On the next day the dragoons went to Prophet's town, which 
they found deserted by all the Indians, except an old squaw, 
whom they brought into the camp and left her with the wound- 
ed chief before mentioned. The dragoons set fire to the town 
and it was all consumed, casting up a brilliant light amid the 
darkness of the ensuing night. I arrived at the town when it 
was about half on fire. I found large quantities of corn, beans 
and peas. I filled my knapsack with these articles and carried 
them to the camp and divided them with the members of our 
mess, consisting of six men. Having these articles of food, we 
declined eating horse-flesh, which was eaten by a large portion 
of our men.** 



170 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 



JOHN TIPTOITS TIPPECANOE JOURNAL. 

[John Tipton*s Journal of the Tippecanoe campaign is, we believe, the 
only circumstantial account left us of an event memorable in the military 
history of Indiana. It is practically inaccessible to the student, as it has 
been published in newspaper form only {Indianapolis News of May 5, 1879). 
The orig-inal manuscript of the journal, together with that of Tipton's jour- 
nal as a commissioner to locate the State capital in 1820, and a minor Indian 
campaign in 1813, are in the possession of John H. HoUiday, of Indianap- 
olis. Eventually these journals, carefully annotated by Mr. Holliday, will 
probably be published in the collections of the Indiana Historical Society. 
Pending that more permanent form we here print the Tippecanoe docu- 
ment as a companion article to Judge Naylor*s account, and to the com- 
missioner's journal, which appeared in Vol. I, Nos. 1 and 2 of this maga- 
zine. — Editor. 

An accompt of the march and encampment of the riflemen of harrison 
county I, 71 [Indiana Territory] commanded (y Capt, Spencer, 
consisting" 0^47 men besides officers in Company with Capt, R M 
heathy Tvith 22 men, 

Thursday 12 of September, 1811 — Left Corydon at 3 o'clock, 
march six miles to governor harrison's mill and encampt. had 
our horses in good pasture. 

13th. Marched 24 miles and on the way was join by Capt 
Berry with 20 men and Encampt at a good spring. 

14th. Marched 3 miles and encampt at half moon spring. 
Was joined by Capt baggs with a troop of horse, and in the eve- 
ning by Col bartholomew, with 120 of melitia from Clark 
County. 

Sunday 15 two horses missing the millitia and Capts heath 
and Berry and Capt Baggs left us. One of our horses soon found 
the other being astray was stolen [?] by the oner and one man 
left on foot but shortly got to' ride to White river and we moove 
on 15 miles and overtook the army encampt at a branch which 
was the first time I ever saw gard set out. 

Monday the 16 we set out early. Crosst one fork of White 
River and went through the Barrens to a branch and encamped 
3 miles from the main fork. 

tuesday 17 marchd.to Big Prairie and camped at a Lake one 
mile from the wabash. 



JOHN TIPTON'S TIPPECANOE JOURNAL 171 

Wed. 18 it Rained hard in the morning' and I went to vin- 
cennis [Vincennes] and came back to the Lake in the Evening 
and found the company had moved to Bass Roe Creek seven 
mile up the River. 

thursday 19. I moved on early with orders from the Capt for 
the company to move to vincennis, but the mayjor would not 
consent thereto, we did not go this day. myself and others 
lost money shooting. I was goosed. 

f riday 20 staid all day in camp and cut out* a gun and in the 
evening went to shooting and win some money. 

Saturday 21st I cut out a gun and went to Shakertown and 
got my mare shod, the men was Paraded and marched to the big 
Prairie and mustered till late and in the time mutinized [?] with 
some of Capt heath's men, but marched back at sunset and dis- 
misst in order. 

Sunday 22d. — The Capt with three men from each mess went 
to Shakertown to meeting, and in the evening returned and 
took dinner, when orders came for us to lie in vincennis by ten 
o'clock next day and we were ordered to march fifteen minutes. 
We accordingly mooved seven miles, and lay without fire this 
evening. 

Monday the 23d. — We moovd on early to mercah [?] creek and 
took breckfast, and moovd thence to vincennis where we had a 
general Parade, and in the Evening myself and three others got 
Parted from the Company and lay all night by ourselves only 
with too of Capt heath's men. 

Tuesday the 24th. we moovd Early and soon found our 
company. Campt at a cornfield two miles from vincennis. I 
staid in camp and shot several guns and mended them and at 
dark it Began to rain and rained all night, hard my Capt came 
to camp and informd us that several Indians ware in town talk- 
ing to the governor. 

Wednesday 25th a fine day I went to a shop and came back 
and mended gunlock then went to shooting and win whisky 
and legg's [leggings?] . 

Thursday 26th we mooved after Breckfast into town and our 
Capt treated and also a tavern keeper. We crosst the Wabash 
and fired two Platoons, and then went up to Capt Jubaus [Du 

*To ent lead from rifles in the b«neL 



172 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Bois?] and fired agfain and too [took?] Dinner, much whiskj 
drank which caused quarreling^, moved agfain thro a Prairie six 
miles wide and campd and Drawd corn and potatoes, our Pilot 
left us and went home, we lay ten miles from town. 

Friday the 27th we marched at 12 o'clock through a Small 
Prairie: went four miles and campd. I went to hunt and killed 
two Squirls and a bawk. 

Saturday 28th it Began to Rain at Day Brake; myself and 
two others went to hunt and staid out till two o'clock came to 
camp and found the men had left us we took their trail found 
two men waiting with our horses and took Breckfast as we rode 
and went through good land and a Beaut i full Prairie Seven miles 
wide called Demot and a Creek of the same name overtook the 
company after sixteen miles just as they stopt we also Passt a 
blockhouse in the Prairie. 

Sunday 29th we mooved at ten stopt at a house bought a 
horse for our footman, too seargeants that had been sent to stock 
a g^n that got broke on the 26th came up. we went 6 miles 
Part Prairie and Part Barrens. Croost Birch Creek and came to 
the River and campd near a Prairie and some men went to hunt 
and found three Bee trees in an hour. Spent the evening in 
cutting them got 9 or 10 gallons of honey. I stood guard, the 
Boat we were to guard came up. we Drawd whiskj and salt 
they went on, our men set hooks and caught two fish. 

Monday the 30th we mooved after Breckfast throug good 
land Passt a good spring and the Creek St. mjri [St. Mary?] 
and through a beautifull Prairie four miles long and two Broad 
with a cabin in it. frost this day in the prairie, went to the 
river at an oald Camp. Passt a handsome Barr[en?] then went 
up and crosst a muddy Creek one of our horses miered we 
went throug a rich bottom to the Plaice of meeting the armey 
and they ware gone and the Boat left to wait for us as we found 
a Bee tree as we marcht three Deers Run along the Line and a 
number of guns fired But one killed Stopt in the evening 
went to hunt found two Bee trees Campt on the River near a 
Prairie with the boat after comeing 10 miles. 

tuesday the first of October we were alarmed by the centinell 
firing his g^n he said at an indian. but we soon [found?] to the 
contrary we mooved through a Prairie 3 miles and I went to 



JOHN TIPTON'S TIPPECANOE JOURNAL 173 

hunt rode all Day throug a good bottom land to the Companey 
at twelve and then went on; the men found a bee tree while 
marching and two at noon cut one down and left the rest. I 
hunted till night. Crosst two beautifull Creeks killed two 
Pigeons one of our horses sick and left by the way. we went 
19 miles and campd with the boat; we past a Prairie on the 
other side Drawd whisky and floir but no corn Since 29 of 
last mo. 

Wed the 2d we moved earley through a Rich bottom all day 
I went to hunt kild a Pheasant we found two bee trees as we 
marchd but could not cut them we came up with the Boat fast 
on the Barr, and went to help them oflf here we crosst the River 
and campt after Coming 16 m one of our men had agua 
yesterday. 

Thursday 3d marchd at 9 four of our horses missing three 
men left to hunt them marchd one mile came to tare holt 
[terre haute — high land?] an oald indian village on the East 
side of Wabash on high land near a Large Prairie Peach and 
aple trees growing the huts torn down by the armey that 
campd here on the 2d two miles further came up with the 
armey. horses found. Campd on the river on beautifull high 
ground to build a garison. 

friday 4th a fine day I went to hunt came to camp at three 
found thirty men comanded by Lieut mcmahon was to guard a 
boat going to the vermillian river for coal I went with them 
we went 5 miles Part Prairie and Part timbered crosst a fine 
creek came to another and campd. 

Saturday 5th we moved early through good land. Passt three 
springs. Some Beautiful! prairie some timber. Crost a fine larg 
creek went throug a fine Prairie found a Bee tree and stopt 
to Dine and cut it this morning one of our men took a swoling 
in his face and went Back. All the fore part of this day we had 
a ridg on our right and good land good springs on the left in 
the Evening we marchd hard crossed four creeks Broken land 
high timber came up with our spies and camp with them at a 
large creek this Day I found land that is the Best I have seen 
we crosst the Purchase Line we traveled 30 miles N. N. West. 

Sunday 6th we moovd earley one mile came to the river at 
Coal bank found it was Below the Vermilian [river] half a mile 



174 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

we took coffey moovd after the Boat started down, the coal 
Bank is on the east side of wabash. we went throug^b a small 
Prairie, crosst the river to the west side went in on the head of 
a barr and came out on the lower end of another on the west 
side went throug-h a small Prairie then came to big Prairie 
where the oald yermillion town was. we crosst the wabash half 
a mile above the mouth of vermillian river Before we came to 
the above town crosst vermilian river tOK)k a south course 
throug a Prairie with a good spring and an oald indian hutt 
then through a beautifull timbered ground to a small creek and 
stopt to let our horses graze then went through good land with 
a ridg on our right out of which came four springs and for two 
miles nothing But large sugar and walnut. The hill and the 
river came close together, we found a good coal Bank 14 miles 
below vermilian. we then crosst to the east side went 3 miles 
and campd with the Boat, after coming 20 m and finding* two 
Bee trees left them. 

Monday the 7th we mooved earley three miles and crosst 
Raccoon Creek to the Purchase line thence 15 miles to the grari- 
son [garrison], found Capt heath^s men Dismisst and him sick 
and Capt Berry at home to. our company which lay on the River 
above the garrison. The men on the Last Rout Draw Com 
which caused murmuring. Some men wants to go home. 

tuesday 8th I staid in camp we ware Parrade at twelve 
treated by Lt. mcmahan and mustered and had a sham fight. Dis- 
misst in order Drawd whisky for the time we had been out the 
men all throwd in their hats and wrestled. Some men was sent 
to the Cornfield to Pull Corn. 

Wednesday the 9th I staid in Camp Cut out a gun and went 
to shooting, a Lt. and 20 men was ordered to Scout, we covered 
our camp with grass it Rained hard at two the Scouting 
Party came in took Dinner went out again it Rained again 
hard at sunset. 

thursday 10th we had a wet night. I cut out a gun and went 
over the river and got Powder, a seargeant and ten men was sent 
out to scout along the lines, we were alarmed at 8 by the centi- 
nel being shot and badly wounded we were ordered to arms. 
An officer was sent from our Part of the Camp to know the alarm, 
general orders was for all to git their horses, a g^ard was to 



JOHN TIPTON'S TIPPECANOE JOURNAL 17 5 

bee left at our Camp. I was set out post till the horses was 
found, we then left our camp and joined the line. Stood to 
arms all nigfht till Brake of Day. 

friday 11. mounted and went to the Prairie in Company with 
the light horse to look for indians. we took up the river crosst 
a creek went through a Prairie then crosst the same creek again 
let our horses feed half an hour and after traveling 15 miles 
came to camp at twelve then Drawd flour whisky and Pickled 
Pork got breckfast at four in the evening 5 of the Delaware 
indians came and took protection. Very high wind a tree fell 
close to camp while Riting and a g^n heard at the general Camp 
also the Drum beat, a strong guard set out. 

Satturday 12th we were parded [paraded] at day Brake 
went to the Prairie a seargeant and to men was sent to stay. 
I was one. we could find no sine came to the camp in our 
rout we found too of the Delaware chiefs they had Came to 
Camp the day Before to join us we brought them to Camp one 
spoke good English Plaid Cards with our men and informed 
that thirty of his young men was comeing to join us. I cut a 
gun and went to shooting. 

Sunday the 13 fine day. I stocked a gun at dark we heard 
a gun fire at the general Camp but a thing so often Repeated 
could not alarm us anymore, yesterday we drawd corn Beef 
whisky and flour soap and candles today salt also this day the 
governor sends for more men. 

Monday the 14 a cloudy day I cut a gun and we moovd to 
the general Camp I helped make Boards to cover our Camp. In 
the Evening three companies six men each was to go out and 
ly all night by three roads to kill indians should they Come I 
went we sat all night none came we heard a gun it rained 
two showers in the night. 

tuesday the 15 we returned to Camp at day the Companies 
of horse and our company had gone to the Prairie to muster, the 
Day cloudy all the spies came in nothing seen I went with 
another man down to tare holt to look for indians. we had whis- 
ky. Stopt at tare holt found no indians went down to drink, 
it rained some of the indians got drunk we staid 2 hours. 
Lost our horses found them a mile down the river then went 
to Drink Lost two horses again found them half a mile 



176 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

off went 2 miles through the Prairie to an oald villag thence 
one mile to another village and cornlSeld then Returned to 
Camp was alarmed at the fire of a gun at 11 o^clock was or- 
dered to lie with our g^ns in hand the wind blew hard it Be- 
gan to Rain at 12 we had to git up and cover our Camp one of 
our men Deserted today while I was out. 

Wednesday the 16th Could cloudy and windy was mustered 
as usual. I was sent with 2 men to spy saw no sign came in. 
I staid in Camp was put under guard By mistake took to the 
governor set at Liberty and the Right man got. Dragoons sent 
after three men that Deserted last night. 

thursday 17 — a hard frost but a fine day we musterd as usu- 
al. I then cut out a g^n at 3 in the evening an ensign and 
three men went to hunt Capt heath's horses. I was one. We 
went 8 miles most of the way Prairie land a south course and 
campd on the Bed of a large Dry creek. 

Friday 18th — a cloudy and windy day we left Camp early and 
went to hunt one of our [horses?] we killed a Deer we came 
to the army at 2 found the men that had been sent to let the 
horses graze had Lost 4 men sent to hunt them this morning, 
a number of the Wea indians came to Camp I cut a gun. 

Saturday the 19 — Musterd as usual. Come to Camp Drawd 
Beef, Salt, whisky and flour then was Paraded while the gover- 
nor informed us that our ration was reduced to ^ of a pound of 
flour [?] of the contractor failing. He also told us that we 
should have to fight the indians. it Began to Rain, we ware 
Dismisst it Rained hard till sunset, our men that went out to 
hunt the lost horses came in had not found them. I turned out 
my mare this morning went to hunt her killed a turkey it 
stopt Raining and Began to Snow and Blow hard our Camps 
smoked it was the Disagreeablest night I ever saw the men 
that went to the corn field Lost Capt Spencer's mare. 

Sunday 20th a very cold cloudy day the ground Covered with 
Snow we Did not muster as usuel. Capt Spencer's mare came 
to camp an Ensign and thirteen men went to hunt the horses 
that were lost on the 18th we went through the Prairie. Came 
to an Indian Camp then we parted into three Companies and 
our Company went up to the Creek 4 miles and camped at an 



JOHN TIPTON'S TIPPECANOE JOURNAL 177 

oald indian Camp this morning our Capt and Seargeant quar- 
relled but soon Dropt. this night verry cold. 

monday 21st the morning clier and cold six of us went to 
hunt two of our men and an indian killed a deer I wounded a 
deer we supt last night on a bit of bread about as big as a man's 
two fingers and this morning on vennison without bread we 
then went to hunt the horses. Came to where 50 Indians was 
campd. Lost one of our men. Came to Camp found our hunt- 
ers had killed two Deer and our 2d Lieutenant Resigned and 
gone home. 

tuesday the 22d a fine day I went to work on .the garrison 
till 12 I then went to let my mare graze when an alarm came 
20 men was ordered to march in 5 minutes, we found it a false 
Report we Returned held an Election for 2d Lieut and Ensign. 

Wednesday the 23d a cold windy and cloudy day. I went out 
with 7 men to hunt the horses Lost on the 18th we found three 
horses belonging to the military oficers. I Rode one of them 
we parted into 4 companies the man with me killed a turkey. 
Came to the Camp at dark found the Indians had brought in 
the horses and one of our men killed a deer. 

thursday 24th a verry cold morning and mustered as usual. 
I staid in camp washed my cloths for the first time, went to 
shooting this morning a Seargeant and eight men was sent with 
the spies and men sent to the corn field to Pull corn. 10 Indians 
seen to day and in the evening a man drumed out of camp with 
his head Shaved and Powdered while Looking at that Capt 
Spencer's tent burnt general orders read to march on the 27th 
Instant. 

f riday the 25 a Cold morning we mustered as usuel. I staid 
in camp cut out three guns a Seargeant and six men went out 
with the spies on the west side of the wabash the men that 
went out yesterday came in had killed two Deer and two Rac- 
coons but seen no sine. 6 men run away and 6 men Came to 
Camp to Day. 

Saturday the 26 mustered as usuel marched one mile up th€f 
River then Came to Camp and left our horses went out and had 
a sham fight. I cut a gun the men that went out yesterday 
Came in seed no sine had killed 2 deer, the men killed an 
owl and had much sport tonight. 



178 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Sunday the 27 a fine clier warm day mustered as usual 
marched up the Prairie then into the woods had a sham battle 
thence to Camp. I staid in Camp thf men went to the Prairie 
to Run their horses the g'arrison Christened and Extra whisky 
issued. 

monday the 28 a fine day mustered as usual found the 
Prairie burnt over with fire. Came to Camp. Cut out a gun 
and went to the talk with the Indians then came to mj tent 
was ordered to parade the Company for to see a man whipt. 
We was drawd in a hollo square, three guns got up the man 
brought in ordered to [be] stript then pardoned. We came to 
Camp Re d [received] money for back ration this day came up 
[on] Maj Rob with a Company of mounted Riflemen and three 
boats and two Perodues [pirogues] with Corn flour and arms 
and ammunition, the above talk was with the miami Chiefs, 
orders to march tomorrow, this day I got one gallon of whisky. 

tuesday 29 we mustered as usuel. Came to Camp was order- 
ed to march in 30 minutes 20 men Commanded by Capt. Berry 
went to guard the Boats that Carried our Provision and a Sear- 
geant with 8 men to guard the gov'r. we mooved to the Prairie 
stopt till the Baggage all Came up. I sent Back for whisky we 
then mooved off with the whole army Consisting of about 640 
foot 270 mounted men 19 wagons and one Cart. Passt one Creek 
and Camped after 5 miles on the same Creek where we Camped 
on the 4th Inst, maid us moove Close to the army one horse 
killed and a wagon Broke by falling a tree a g^eard set out of 
our Company. 

Wednesday the 30 it Began to Rain at 4 in the morning. 
Raind till Day Brake then quit it was a Cold Cloudy and windy 
Day. our Company in front of the Road broke in four Lines 
we .marched 8 miles and campd at a Spring which I saw on the 
5 instant which is my choice of the western Country it Being 
liear a small prairie with good timber and First Rate land 2 miles 
Below the line [of the **purchase," and on the Wabash river, 
about 17 miles above where Terre Haute now stands] and 13 
above fort harrison. 

. thursday the 31st we mooved earley too of the oxen missing 
three of our men sent to hunt them we Crosst Raccoon Creek 
saw our men that went to guard the Boats on the 29th they 



JOHN TIPTON'S TIPPECANOE JOURNAL 179 

Left us we Cacne to the River where we Campd on our Return 
from vermilltan on the nig;bt of the 6 thence up to the ford. Saw 
our above mentioned boat ^ard crossing- the River we halted 
till the army came up then Rode the river which was very Deep 
and then Campd our Boat guard and the men that went to hunt 
the oxen Came up when we left the guards we took a north 
Cours up the East side of the Wabash and Crosst to the west 
with orders to kill all the Indians we saw. fine news. The 
governor's wagon Beeing left this morning in consiquens of the 
oxen being lost Came up and all the army crosst in 3 hours We 
Drawd Corn. 

Friday the first of November. I was sent with 18 men to 
Look for a way for the armey to Cross the Littell vermillian 
marched at Day Brake came to Creek found and marked the 
road, waited till the armey came up went on and campd on 
the River 2 miles Below the Big vermillian. Capt. Spencer my- 
self and 3 others went up the Big vermillian. Returned to camp 
genl [general] Wells with 40 men had came up and Capt Berry 
with 9 men had came up. our company marchd in front today 
as usuel which now consisted of 87 men in Consequence of Capt 
Lindley Been attached to it. 

Saturday the 2d a fine day Capt Spencer with ten men went 
out on a Scout, our Company not Parading as usuel the gov- 
ernor threatened to brake [?] the oflScers. I staid in Camp the 
army staid here to build a block house on the Bank of the wa- 
bash 3 miles Below vermillian in a small Prairie the house 25 
feet square and a breast work from each corner next the River 
down to the water. Took horses and Drawd Brush over the 
Prairie to Break Down the weeds, this Evening a man Come 
from the garrison said last night his boat was fired on one 
man that was asleep killed Dead, three boats Came up and un- 
loaded went back took a sick man with them. One of Capt 
Robs men died tonight Capt Spencer Came in Late tonight. 

Sunday the 3d. a Cloudy day we moved Earley our Com- 
pany marched on the Right wing today. Crosst the Big ver- 
millian through a Prairie six miles 3 miles through timber then 
through a wet Prairie with groves of timber in it. after 18 
miles camped in Rich grove of timber in the Prairie. Capt Spen- 
cer verry sick today at 10 oclock tonight the aid Came to 



180 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Camp ordered a subbatoa [subaltern?] and ten men to Parad 
at the governors tent at 4 in the morning. I was ordered out 
mj Company made up. a gun fired while I am riting at Eleven 
oclock. 

mondaj the 4 I went out with my scouts. Joined by Capt 
Prince went 18 miles through a Prairie. Came to Pine Creek 
a fine Large Creek then turned Back the Day Beeing Cold Cloudy 
and windy. Began to rain at 11. westopt to make fire But the 
armey Came and we had to Leave it. we crosst Pine Creek and 
Campt two guns fired at 8. Continued rain ^t intervilles. I 
had one quart of whisky yesterday and one to Day of the Con- 
tractors. 

tuesday the 5 Cloudy day we mooved earley a Lieutenant 
and 5 men sent to Scout. Came to the armey no sine seed we 
went 6 miles through timber then Prairie with groves of timber 
and a number of small lakes in it — an alarm made. I was sent 
out with 17 men to scout seed nothing a deer and a wolf killed 
in the line, camped on a Small Branch after 18 miles, the 
guns fired last night wounded a horse. 

Wednesday the 6 a verry Cold day. we mooved earley a 
scout sent out they Came back had seed Indian sines, we 
marched as usuel till 12 our spies caught four horses and seed 
some Indians, found we were near the Celebrated Prophets 
town. Stopt in a prairie the foot throwd all their napsacks 
in the waggons, we formed in order for Battle — marched 2 
miles then formed the line of Battle we marched in 5 lines on 
the extrem Right, went into a Cornfield then up to the above 
town and surrounded it they met us Pled for Peace they said 
they would give us satisfaction in the morning. All the time we 
ware there they [were] hallowing. This town is on the west side 
of wabash [blank] miles above Vincinnis on the Second Bank 
neat built about 2 hundred yards from the river. This is the 
main town, but it is scattering a mile long all the way a fine 
Cornfield, after the above moovement we mooved one mile fur- 
ther up. Campd in timber between a Creek and Prairie after 
Crossing a fine Creek and marching 11[?] miles. 

Thursday the 7 agreeable to their promise [?] Last night we 
ware awakened by the firing of guns and the Shawnies Braking 
into our tents a blood [y] Combat Took Place at Precisely 15 



JOHN TIPTON'S TIPPECANOE JOURNAL 181 

miautes before 5 in the moraiag' which lasted two hours and 20 
minutes of a continewel firing while many times mixed among 
the Indians so that we Could not tell the indians and our men 
apart, they kept up a firing on three sides of us took our tent 
from the gueard fire, our men fought Brave and By the timely 
help of Capt Cook with a Company of infantry we maid a Charge 
and Drove them out of the timber across the prairie, our Losst 
in killed and wounded was 179 and theires graiter than ours, 
among the dead was our Capt Spier Spencer and first Lieutenant 
mcmahan and Capt Berry that had Been attached to our company 
and 5 more killed Dead and 15 wounded, after the indians gave 
ground we Burried our Dead. Among the Kentuckians was 
killed mayj Davis [Daviess] badly wounded and a number of 
others in all killed and wounded was 179 but no company suffer- 
ed like ours, we then held an Election for officers. I was elected 
Capt. Saml Flanagan first Lieut and Jacob Zenor second Lieut 
and Philip Bell Ensign, we then built Breast-works our men 
in much Confusion, our flower [flour] been too small and our 
beeve last. Last night onley half Rations of whisky and no corn 
for our horses, my horse killed I got mcmahons to Ride 37 
of them had Been killed wounded and lost last night. I had one 
quart of whisky. 

f riday the 8th a cloudy Day and Last night was also wet and 
Cold, we Lay all night at our Breastwork without fire in the 
morning Spies sent out found the indians had left their town, 
the horsemen was all sent to burn their town. We went and 
found grait Deal of Corn and Some Dead- indians in the houses, 
loaded 6 waggons witfi Corn and Burnt what was Estimated at 
2 thousand Bushels and 9 of our men Died last night. 

Saturday the 9 a cold cloudy day we maid all things Ready 
to march got all our wounded in the waggons, mooved at one 
movd 8 m [miles] and Campd. Caught some indian horses, to- 
day one man Died. Some indians said to Bee Seen my men 
and some dragoons was sent out we Caught 4 horses more Be- 
longing to the indians all my men that had Lost their horses 
Except myself was sent to march with the militia, yesterday 
we drawed one half Pound of Beef 4-3 [J^?] of a Pound of flour 
to last us 5 Days. 

Sunday the 10. a Cold Cloudy Day we mooved Earley trav^ 



182 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

ailing bard, one of my men had the ague and two more sick 
besides 14 that is wounded and jet living which gives me much 
trouble, we marchd 15 m. Stopt and maid Breast work marchd 
in front Boath Days. 

Monday the 11 a Cold Cloudy Day we moved Earley 4 miles 
crosst Pine Creek where we had Camped on the 4 inst thence 22 
miles and Camped in a grove of Timber in a Prairie where we 
had a camp on the 3 inst. lived today Chiefly on Parched Com. 

Tuesday the 12 a Clier cold night and this morning very cold 
we moved Early through wet Prairie all the water frozen over 
with ice which maid it very bad for our foot men. we stopt and 
maid a fire to warm thence mooved to the Block house Just as 
we arrived the boat came up with Provisions we Drawd beef» 
flour and whisky found two men here that had run off in time of 
the battle on the 7 instant. Boats cleard and Preparations maid 
for to Embark our sick in the morning. I drawd tents had my 
sick all laid in them went to the Doctor had all my wounds 
Dresst 2 men sick and fourteen wounded. 

Wednesday the 13 a fine warm day. we put as many of our 
sick on board as the boats would hold and then I sent two of my 
men to git the waggons the Drivers would not let them in. I 
went to the governor and he had them Put in and threatened to 
Put the Drivers under guard, we moved on. Crosst Littell 
vermillian. Came to the River at tow [two?] at the same place 
where we campd on the 31st of Last month, my Company 
Crosst first then t,he waggons Crosst we drawd them up the Bank 
the Boats Came Down Brought over our foot they then took 
in some of the worst wounded and mooved off at Dark. 

thursday the 14 a very Cold Day I was sent on with my 
Company to search the ford of Raccoon Creek, we moved on 
Passt where we Campd on the 30th of Last month thence on 
Passt the Creek where we had Campd on the 29th of last month 
thence to the next Creek 3 miles and Camped 3 miles from the 
garrison, a man died yesterday and buried to Day. 

friday the 15 a Cold Day. I had orders to go with my Com- 
pany to the garrison. Could not find our horses till sunrise, 
the mounted men all left us we came to the garrison saluted 
it with a fire, got 8 Ears of Corn a piece for our horses. Drawd 
Provision. I had a gallon of whisky a seargeant and 4 men 
Left to gueard the governor, we moovd 8 miles and Campd at 



JOHN TIPTON'S TIPPECANOE JOURNAL 183 

bonej Creek the gov. and my men Came up. I was Capt of 
the gueard tonight. 

Saturday the 16th a very Cold Day my horse Lost my Com- 
pany Did not march till after the armey. my horse found. I 
went through the train [trail?] ten miles. Crosst a Creek 
thence through timbered Land 10 miles the horse and men 
went to the first house, got corn then went and campd on a fine 
Creek. 

Sunday the 17 a very Cold Day. The governor Came to my 
Camp ordered me to take 10 men and go with him to Shaker- 
town to make out muster Rolls for to Dismiss my Company this 
day we arrived at 11. I got Ready mustered my Company at 
Sunset fired to [two] Rounds we then Campd. my Lieuten- 
ant and myself went to a house found the people kind Beyond 
expectation. Supt on Chicken, Butter and tea the first time I 
Dind in a house since the 18 of Septem. Returned to Camp 
Pa^st a fine night. I had one gallon of whisky. 

Monday the 18th a verry Cold Day. we Drawd six Days Ra- 
tions for all my men that went home from here. Staid till 11. 
the gov Returned thanks for our good conduct. I went 7 miles 
and put up at a house had with me my 2d Lieut and 3 men 
Supt on Pork, Butter and Honey, my horse lame. 

tuesday the 19th: I had a good Breckfast before Day. a 
Cold Cloudy Day 2 of my men brought horses we moovd for 
vincinnis. I settled with the Quartermaster and maid out my 
muster Rolls, it Began to rain at 12. I had got to town 
found that 2 of my men that Came Down in the Boat had Died 
one on the 16th and the other on the 18th the Latter Beeing Geo 
Spencer my Perticuler friend, my other 2 men very Bad three 
men that Came Down to attend the sick informed me they had no 
Provisions. I immediately furnished them, the Evening Being 
Bad I staid in town had good Company. Partook of an indif- 
ferent Supper and Lay By the fire, my horse that I Rode gave 
up one of my wounded men gave me his to Rid[e] and I got a 
publick horse for him to Ride home. 

Wednesday the 20 a very Cloudy Day I was busily Engaged 
setling with the Contractor till Late, he would not Pay me. I 
then went to the gov. I staid till after supper he wrote to the 
Contractor. I found him he told me to Call in the morning. 
I then went to my lodgn. 



184 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

thuradaj 2l8t. a Cloudy day. I went to the Contractor, he 
paid me the money he was Due my Company. I then left town 
at Eleven one of my company sick we went 16 miles. Came 
to White River my sick man statd and one man with him. my- 
self and four more went to the next bouse. Staid there got 
good Supper and our horses fed at a moderate Price. 

friday the 22 a cold morning we staid till our two men Came 
up. Passt our Camp of the 15 at 7. we moved on and at 8 
Passt where we Campd on the 16 of September, went on 18 
miles at 1 Came to Drift river [west fork of White river] fed 
our horses and found one man who bad gone on and walked, 
fed our horses and took Dinner at 2 went on at Sunset Crosst 
Lick Creek and at half Past 10 Came to the french Uck. we had 
our horses fed at our sick mans brothers. 

Saturday the 23d a Cloudy Day we moved early 10 miles 
and at 10 stopt took breckfast then went on. Crosst Patoka 
one of our men left behind yesterday. I found a militia man 
gave out walking and I walked and let htm Ride my horse. 
Passed a bad falling [of timber?] Stopt to let our horses graze 
moved again Crosst Blue River at Sunset went one mile my 
Lt [Lieutenant] and sick man stopt myself and one man went 
one mile further and stopt our man that we had left Came up 
late at night. 

Sunday the 24th a Cloudy and Rainy morning we mooved 
Barley Came to Corrydon at half past ten. I staid two hours 
and half took Breckfast mooved up to Coonrods found my 
Lt and sick man. Staid 2 hours had my horses fed got some 
whisky, met one of my neighbors, mooved again and at 2 
oclock got safe Home after a Campaign of 74 days. 

John Tipton. 

NoTB — Appended to the journal is the following, written ia 
Tipton's hand: 

This Day Book Kept During the Campane io the year ISll 
wherein his Excellency Governor Harrison was Commander in 
Chief and Col. J. B. Boyd of the 4th unitec 
was Second in Command Everything herei 
scriber holds himself Ready to make appear i 
best information could be Had as it was dul 



A MILITARY CIRCULAR OF 1812 185 



A MIUTARY CIRCULAR OF fSIZ 

[A copy of the followinsf circular, issued by Governor Harrison a few 
months after the battle of Tippecanoe, was found a few years since among: 
some papers of John B. Dillon. Mr. Dillon, in his history of Indiana, makes 
use of extracts from it, but does not publish it in full. — Editor,] 

GENERAL ORDERS FOR THE MILITIA, 

Hbadquarters, Vincennes, 

16th April, 1812. 

As the late murders upon the frontiers of this and the neig'h- 
boring- Territories leave us little to hope of our being- able to 
avoid a war with the neighboring^ tribes of Indians, the com- 
mander-in-chief directs that the colonels and other commandants 
of corps should take immediate measures to put their commands 
in the best possible state for active service. The field officers 
who command battalions will visit and critically inspect the sev- 
eral companies which compose them and make a report in de- 
tail of their situation, particularly noting the deficiencies in 
arms, ammunition and accoutrements, and such measures as the 
laws authorize must be immediately taken to remedy those defi- 
ciencies. The commander-in-chief informs the officers that the 
most prompt obedience and the most unremitting attention to 
their duty will be required of them — the situation of the country 
calls for exertion on the part of the militia, and the officers must 
set the example to their men. If there are amongst them any who 
have accepted appointments for the mere motive of gratifying 
their vanity by the possession of a commission to which a title is 
annexed, without having the ability or the inclination to encoun- 
ter arduous service, in justice to their country and to their own 
fame they should now retire and not stand in the way of those 
who are more able or more willing to encounter the fatigue and 
dangers incident to actual service in the Indian war. From the 
specimen which the commander-in-chief has had of their conduct 
in the field he has every reason to be proud of them, nor does he 
believe that there are better militia officers to be found anywhere 
those of Indiana, but in a crisis like the present they should be 
all good. 

The field officers are to see that proper places are appointed 



186 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

for the rendezvous of the companies upon an alarm or the ap- 
pearance of danger, and will give orders relatively to the mode 
of their proceeding* in such exigencies as the situation of the 
companies respectively call for. When mischief is done by the 
Indians in any of the settlements, they must be pursued, and the 
officer nearest to the spot, if the number of men under his com- 
mand is not inferior to the supposed number of the enemy, is to 
commence it as soon as he can collect his men. If his force 
should be too small he is to send for aid to ihe next officer to him, 
and in the meantime take a position capable of being defended, 
or watch the motions of the enemy, as circumstances require. 
The pursuit must be conducted with vigor, and the officer com- 
manding will be held responsible for making every exertion in 
his power to overtake the enemy. Upon his return, whether 
successful or not, a particular account of his proceedings must 
be transmitted to the commander-in-chief and a copy of it to the 
colonel of the regiment. 

The commander-in-chief recommends it to the citizens on the 
frontiers of Knox county, from the Wabash eastward ly across 
the two branches of the White river, those on the northwest of 
the Wabash and those in the Driftwood settlement in Harrison, 
to erect blocked houses or picketed forts. It will depend upon 
the disposition of th^ Delawares whether measures of this kind 
will be necessary or not upon the frontiers of Clark, Jefferson, 
Dearborn, Franklin or Wayne. Means will be taken to ascertain 
this as soon as possible and the result communicated. The In- 
dians who profess to be friendly have been warned to keep clear 
of the settlements, and the commander-in-chief is far from wish- 
ing that the citizens should run any risk by admitting any In- 
dians to come amongst them whose designs are in the least equiv- 
ocal. He recommends, however, to those settlements which the 
Delawares have frequented as much forbearance as possible to- 
wards that tribe, because they have ever performed with punctu- 
ality and good faith their engagements with the United States, 
and as yet there is not the least reason to doubt their fidelity. 
It is also certain that if they should be forced to join the other 
tribes in war, from their intimate knowledge of the settlements 
upon the frontiers they would be enabled to do more mischief 
than any other tribe. 

By the commander-in-chief. A. Hurst, Aid-cU-camp, 



EARLY INDIANAPOLIS 187 



EARLY INDIANAPOLIS. 

THB FLETCHER PAPERS— THIRD INSTALBSENT. 

TTie First Lawyer in Indianapolis — Brief Sketches of Same Forgotten 
Men; Ohed Foote^ fudge IV. W. Wick^ and Harvey Gregg — 
An Anecdode of Hiram Brown. 

From the Indianapolis News of May //, /^/p. 

Mr. Nowland, Mr. Ignatius Brown and Mr. Hollo way credit 
Calvin Fletcher with being the first lawyer in town. I had 
thought that this was the fact until recently when I examined 
my father^s journal and letters. In a letter written to a lady 
friend in Virginia he says: ''You may wish to have me make some 
remarks respecting my professional prospects. We have two 
attorneys here besides myself — one was here when I came and 
one has come since.^' Who this first one was I have no means 
of knowing to a certainty. The first three who were admitted 
in the first circuit court, held on September 26, 1822, appear on 
the record as ''Calvin Fletcher, Hiram M. Curry and Obed Foote." 
If any one preceded my father I am inclined to think it must 
have been Curry. 

Obed Foote was one of the most remarkable characters th^t 
early settled in Indianapolis. Although a man of kindly heart, 
he let the gruff side of his nature appear uppermost. That he 
was a kindly man I know, because he was kindly to children; 
but for conceited men or men of shams he had no consideration 
whatever. He blurted out just what he thought of ignoramuses 
or asses, and he was not merely a man of words— he was ready 
to give satisfaction physically. Yet he proved himself a just 
man, with clear ideas of law, occupying as he did until the d^y 
of his death (in 1833) the place of the principal justice in Indian- 
apolis. 

News of May 24, 

Judge W. W. Wick came to Indianapolis from Whitewater. He 
had a singular combination in his character. When a young man 
he had a fine presence. He was at times dignified, and then 



188 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

again he seemed to care nothing- for personal dignity and was, if 
anything, too familiar. He was eloquent as a lawyer, and yet 
he sometimes mingled the sublime and the ridiculous in the most 
preposterous manner. It was said of him that he had in an ex- 
traordinary degree the gifts of wisdom and unwisdom, but so 
curiously mixed them that one often neutralized the other. He 
was acceptable as a presiding officer, but finally returned to the 
bar. He entered politics and was representative in Congress 
from the fifth district, but it can not be said that he was suc- 
cessful as a politician. 

Harvey Gregg came to Indianapolis in December, 1821. He 
would have been a marked character in any community. A 
Kentuckian by birth, he had the greatest admiration for English 
people — for their thoroughness, system and education. He had 
traveled extensively in Mexico and Central America, and I recall 
with the greatest pleasure a day spent at my father's house in 
which he narrated to us his adventures among the mountains 
and volcanoes of the tropics. He was full of fun and practical 
jokes, and many are the anecdotes which a few of our older citi- 
zens preserve of him. He was a studious man, and I remember 
how my child-eyes were filled with astonishment at his library 
of beautifully-bound books. He had, perhaps, more dry humor 
and prankishness than any other man of his time in Indianapolis. 
As he would satmter from his office down Washington street he 
generally wore a large white, old-fashioned castor hat, and his 
coat was a long frock reaching below his knees — a fashion intro- 
duced by Charles X of France, who was bow-legged. He al- 
ways went humming or singing. If he saw movers passing v^est- 
ward he was sure to hail them, and if, as he judged from the 
skeleton horses and the ramshackle vehicle, with wheels tied up 
with hickory withes, they were from North Carolina, he would 
begin dra wlingly : • *Carliner ?** ' * Ya-as, *' the person questioned 
would reply, astonished that anybody should know him. The 
astonishment would give way to a friendly smile as Gregg con- 
tinued in the •*Carliner" tone: •*Come from Beard's Hatter 
Shop, or the three fish traps, or by Dobson's cross roads?" By 
this time Carliner reckoned that Gregg was from *Hhem parts,'' 



EARL Y INDIANAPOLIS 189 

and felt sure of it when Gregg asked if they had come ^'through 
the crab orchard.^ Gregg had never been in North Carolina. 

I remember in 1831, when I was eight years of age, I printed 
with pen and ink Mr. Gregg's name and asked my father to 
give it to him to paste in his big white hat. About ten days 
after, to my great surprise, I received from Charles I. Hand, our 
chief hatter, a castor for me exactly in style as that worn by 
Mr. Gregg, and accompanying this hat were several foolscap 
sheets on which were written all the chapters and verses con- 
taining the paragraphs [?] of the Bible. These foolscap lessons 
were to train my memory. He could tell by heart where each 
paragraph was. With all his waggishness he had a very serious 
side to his nature. My father said that often when sleeping in 
the same room with him when on the circuit he would be aroused 
in the small hours of the night by Gregg speaking to him: 
**Wakeup, Fletcher; wakeupl How you sleepi I can not; I 
have been thinking of the awfulness of eternity." On one oc- 
casion, at Danville, he awoke my father at midnight, saying: 
"Fletcher, I can not sleep, my daughter is dying at Indianap- 
olis." He aroused the landlord, motmted his horse and rode to 
Indianapolis to find his daughter, a most sweet and attractive 
child, just dead. On March 23, 1833, he was taken seriously ill 
at Franklin, but insisted upon going to Indianapolis. The dis- 
ease affected the head, and after a few days of intense suffering 
he passed away, on the 3d of April, in a state of unconscious- 
ness, and was two days afterwards buried by the side of his be- 
loved daughter, in out-lot No. 4, on Walnut street, known to old 
citizens as the Frazer property . [Gregg was one of the founders 
of the **Westem Censor and Emigrant's Guide," the second paper 
in Indianapolis.] 

News of August 2$* 

I often heard my father narrate a circumstance which occurred 
in the early days of circuit riding. Judge Wick, William Quarles, 
Hiram Brown and my father, when riding to court to be held at 
Danville, had reached the last cabin on the road at a late hour 
in the afternoon. Heavy clouds threatened rain; the air was 
cold and raw; the road a mere path through the dense beech 
woods. Wick and Quarles proposed to stay at the house* but Mr. 



190 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Brown and mj father, by way of trying Quarles, who had <1» 
gtisted them with his boastings, dashed on, and the others fol- 
lowed, Quarles with muttered curses. Night rapidly overtook 
them, a cold rain saturated everything, and in the Egyptian 
blackness of the forest they became hopelessly lost. Quarles, 
after exhausting his supply of oaths, became silent through sheer 
inability to do anything like justice to the subject* All secured 
their horses and prepared to bivouack for the night. Brown, 
who had no blanket, found Quarles' upon the ground and seized 
upon it. Missing his blanket, Quarles charged first my father 
and then Wick with the abstraction, and then attacked Brown, 
who, aroused with some difficulty from a deep and sudden slum- 
ber, calmly admitted the possession of a blanket found by him 
in the wilderness without an owner, and until a claimant ap- 
peared with a better title than himself — which, in the absence 
of all light on the subject could not possibly happen before 
morning — he certainly should keep and enjoy the good the gods 
had provided. Judge Wick and my father gravely assented to 
Brown's right in the matter, to the intense wrath of Quarles, 
who bitterly denounced the whole company as a pack of blank 
thieves, and threatened the most grievous consequences to Brown 
if the blanket was not at once turned over. One of the party 
now professed to be convinced of Quarles' rights and urged him 
to immediate and vigorous measures. Throughout the oaths and 
threats of Qtuirles could be heard the bland sentences of Brown: 
^ ^Colonel Quarles, self-preservation is the first law of nature. A 
wife and small children depend upon me for support while you 
are a bachelor and no one cares whether you live or die. My 
death would be a loss to the community while yours wouldbe un- 
noticed or, perhaps, regarded as a benefit," etc. This was kept 
up until consciousness left all the party except Quarles, who sat 
all night, wet and wretched, at the foot of a tree. 

[Here ends our reprint of this series. For the fuller text the 
reader is referred to the Indianapolis News. Dates complete ate 
given in this msigazine. Vol. n,'J(o^ 1, p. 29^] 



THB EARLY SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 191 



THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF INDIANA. 

FROM PAPERS OF D. D. BANTA-FOURTH INSTALMENT. 

• 'Barring Ouf; The Tables Turned an the Autocrat of the Rod—In* 
stances of a Rude Custom Once General, 

Among' the school cttstoms of early days ^hich harre entirely 
disappeared was that described as ^'turning out'* or ''barring 
out'' the teacher—^ sport that was xurta indulged in in Indiana 
at any other than Christmas time. 

The ostensible object in barring out a teacher was to compel 
him to treat his school. It was a sort of legalized rebellion of 
the scholars against the master's authority, accompanied by a 
forced levy with which to purchase the particular article that 
was to compose the treat, or else to furnish the treat outright 
himself. Usually the deposed monarch furnished the money 
and the rebels bought the treat." 

The ''treat" here in Indiana, as far as I ha^ro seen, always 
consisted of something to eat or drink. In western Pennsyl* 
vania, according to Breckinridge's "Recollections of the West,** 
the object was to compel a vacation. In all cases the barring 
out was made the occasion of more or less revelry and disorder. 
According to a statement made in the "Life of Thomas Jef* 
ferson Fisher," a Kentucky preacher, barring out was observed 
"on the first holiday that came, or at the^nd of the session." 
I find no evidence of its observance in this State at the end of 
the session, although some teachers were in the habit of making 
presents to their scholars at that time. Such presents were 
always voluntarily made, however, and as far as my observations 
went, always consisted of something else th«i articles of food 
or drink. 

I findbttt two instances >fecorded of the use'of whisky in 'this 
State with which to .treat the school. One of these was in a 
school in JefferBonconnty, and the other«in Morgan. The episode 
in the kst^amed comity isfeportjsd to have occuffred at Christ- 



192 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

mas of the cold winter of 182S-'26. When the teacher reached 
the schoolhouse on that extraordinarily cold morning- he found 
the door barred and all the big boys inside. Of course the ped- 
sigrogtie wanted in, but the boys declared that it would take a 
"treat" to open the door that morning. Accordingly, Mr. Con- 
duitt, the teacher, went to the nearest "grocery*' and purchased 
about a gallon of whisky, with which he returned and again 
applied for admittance. The door was at once unbarred and the 
man with the jug admitted, whereupon a season of "high jinks" 
followed. The master dealt out the liquor liberally, it would 
seem, for some of the boys, becoming "too full for utterance," 
had to be "sent home in disgrace." One of these boys, it is re- 
corded, "went home swaggering, happy as a lark, loaded to the 
muzzle with a ceaseless fire of talk, but his father quietly took 
down the big gad and gave the boy a dressing that he remembers 
to the present." 

The following account of a "turning out" will prove of interest 
in this connection. It occurred in Nashville, in this State. "The 
custom," says the historian," "was sotmiversal that the scholars 
demanded their right to it, and were upheld by their parents. 
Christmas came, and Mr. Gould was informed that he must treat. 
The scholars refused to come to order when called and the teacher 
refused to treat. After a short time the larger boys forcibly 
captured the teacher, bound him hand and foot, and carried him 
down to Greasy creek to be severely ducked in cold water unless 
he surrendered and treated. Several men of the town accom- 
panied this novel expedition. The stubborn teacher was carried 
out into the stream by the larger boys, who took off their shoes 
and rolled up their pants and waded out. A parley was held, 
but the teacher was obstinate and was on the point of being tm- 
ceremoniously baptised, when W. S. Roberts interceded, and after 
some sharp words, pro and con, secured from the teacher the 
promise to treat on candy and apples. He was then released, 
and the cavalcade marched up to the store, where all were given 
a taste of the above-named delicacies. 

Stubborn teachers did not always come out as well as did this 
Brown county man. The school boys of a certain district in 
Posey cotmty, having determined to compel their teacher to treat, 
"upon his refusal he was promptly sat upon by the boys, who 



THE EARL Y SCHOOLS OF INDIANA 193 

soon overcame him and carried him down to the creek and 
broke the ice. The alternative was once more given him, but he 
was stubborn and held out. Without ceremony he was plunged 
beneath the icy water, and, yet holding out, his tormenters 
placed chunks of ice on his bare bosom, and but for the arrival 
of outsiders who rescued him, serious consequences would doubt- 
less have been the result." It is more than probable in this case 
that the victim had been a hard master, and his pupils took ad- 
vantage of their opportunity to get reveng"e. Jacob Powers, a 
Hancock county teacher, fared worse. He had recently had a 
tooth extracted, and, despite his warning- as to the risk, was 
plunged in the cold waters of a creek. The result was lock-jaw, 
from which he died. 

While the teachers, as a general rule, resisted the demand to 
their uttermost, there were others, however, who fell in with the 
humor of the occasion and fotmd as much fun in it as the boys 
themselves. Indeed, if the teacher resisted in good earnest, even 
to the point of being ducked in the ice-cold water, he was, never- 
theless, * 'expected to forgive his enemies," and I do not remember 
to have come across an instance of a teacher ever being accused 
of subsequently holding malice against any one who had 
wronged him in a Christmas frolic. 

It must be said that those teachers who looked on the bright 
side of the custom, and gave in after a brief show of resistance, 
usually came out the best. On one occasion the big boys of one 
William Surface's school barred the school door against him. 
On reaching the schoolhouse he was, of course, refused entrance 
except on the usual condition. But the teacher declined answer- 
ing their oral demands, because he said, ^^some dispute might 
arise as to what was said." If they had terms to propose they 
must present them in writing. This seemed reasonable, and so 
the boys put their demand on paper, which, together with pen 
and ink, was handed to the diplomat on the outside. Beneath 
the boys' scrawl he wrote, *'I except to the above propositions- 
William Surface," and passed the writing back. The boys were 
satisfied, and at once opened the door. ^*You had better read 
with care what I have written," said the master to the scholars, 
when safe within. ^It is one thing to accept a proposition and 
quite another to except to it." The boys, now crestfallen, ac- 



194 INDIANA AfAGAZINB OF IflSTOJ^Y 

kaowledgred tiidr mistaket but the teacher, after ^^isiprcmng' tbe 
occasion by wamtog^ tfaem against tbe evil of carelessness in tfie 
business transactions of life,** gpeneroasly treated, and wad ther^ 
after loved t>etter than ever before. 

A teacher bj tbe name of Groves, who taugfht in a district 
close up to the Marion county line, found himself barred out one 
Christmas morning*. Living' in '*the schoolmaster's cabin" hard 
by, he called in his wife to assist him. The weather was ex- 
tremely cold, and it occurred to him that if he could drown odt 
the fire he could freeze out the rebellion, and so, ascending the 
roof to the top of the chimney, his wife handed up buckets of 
water, which he poured down on the school fire. But it was 
all in vain. The boys, raking- the coals out upon the broad 
hearth, defied him. His next thoug-ht was to smoke them out, 
and to that end he laid boards over the chimney top. But the 
boys had thoug-ht of that and provided themselves with a long 
pole with which to remove the boards. Not to be outdone. 
Groves replaced the boards over the chimney and calling upon 
his wife, who seems to have entered with spirit into all his plans, 
she gallantly mounted to the comb of the roof and took her seat 
on the boards to hold them down while her husband stationed 
himself at the door below. But the boys tried the pole again, 
and with such vigor that they overthrew the master*s dame, who, 
at the risk of her life and limb, came tumbling to the ground. 
Picking herself up, she retired to her own domicile, leaving her 
lord to fight the battle out as best he could. As the girls and 
smaller children arrived he sent them to his own cabin, where 
his wife agreed to keep watch and ward over them. One by one 
the garrison became captive to the vigilant master, who stood 
guard at the door, and was sent to the other house. By the 
time for dismissing in the afternoon eveiy rebellious boy had 
been taken in and the school was in full blast in the master*^ 
cabin. 

[End of series. For guide to full text see VoL II, No. 1, p. 41.] 



GENERAL LAFA YETTE IN INDIANA 195 



GENERAL LAFAYETTE IN INDIANA. 

[From Paper by Capt. Lr. C. Baird, ]>repared for the Clark County Histori- 
cal Society.] 

[Lafayette's risit to America in 1824-'25 was a series of ovations in which 
the cities of the nation along* the route of his tour vied with each other in 
doing* honor to the patriot. His trip westward by the Ohio river broug'ht 
the southern border of Indiana within his circuit. Some months before 
this western trip the Indiana legislature, in anticipation, passed elaborate 
resolutions expressive of cordiality and hospitality, and on his arrival at 
Louisville, in May, 1825, a committee waited upon him with ofScial con- 
gratulations and an invitation to Indiana soil. The distinguished visitor 
accepted the proffered hospitality and the next day. May 11, he was a guest 
at Jeffersonville. Captain Baird's paper in its entirety is too long for our 
limited space, but so much of it as deals directly with the reception we 
here print. — Editor\ 

AT 11 o'clock A. M. on Thursday the committee (Messrs. 
Farnham, Gwathmey, Merriwether, Beach and Burnett) 
waited upon Greneral Lafayette on board the steamboat Greneral 
Pike, to which he was escorted by the Committee of Arrange- 
ments and Marshals of Louisville and Jefferson county. The 
General was greeted on the Indiana shore by a salute of thrice 
twenty-four guns, discharged from three pieces of artillery, 
stationed on the river bank beside three flagstaffs, each seventy 
feet in height, bearing flags with appropriate mottos. He was 
received by Greneral Marston G. Clark, of Jeffersonville, and 
General John Carr, of C^arlestown, Marshal of the Day, and es- 
corted by a detachment of three artillery companies, com- 
manded by Captains Lemon, Melford and Booth, to the pleasant 
mansion house of the late Governor Posey on the west corner of 
Front and Fort streets overlooking the river and the city of 
Louisville beyond. His progress down Front street from the 
place of debarkation near the present Ferry landing was a spec- 
tacle the like of which the city had never seen before. Officials, 
both State and local, together with many other men of State 
and national renown from our sister commonwealths, vied with 
the vast concourse of the "common people" to add to the gener- 
ous expression of gratitude and esteem for the guest of honor. 



1% INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Besides the many visitors from throughout the State, the people 
from the surrounding country had made this a holiday that all 
might be given an opportunity to participate in the reception. 
In addition to the three artillery companies and Captain Parker's 
infantry company from Charlestown, there were other military 
organizations present, but the absence of any records concern- 
ing the Indiana militia at this period of our history, and in fact 
for many years afterward, makes it impossible to discover who 
they were or whence they came. 

The guest was met at the Posey mansion by his excellency. 
Governor James B. Ray, who delivered an address of welcome, 
and to this he made a brief and fitting response. These 
speeches were exchanged out of doors, and while the General 
was still speaking the long-threatened rain began to fall, and 
his remarks had to be finished while standing under the shelter 
of an umbrella proudly held by Mr. Charles Applegate, one of 
the older citizens present. 

The General was then conducted to chambers, provided with 
refreshments, and presented to a numerous company of ladies 
assembled to welcome him and to several hundreds of citizens, 
including a few venerable relics of the ^ 'times that tried men's 
souls." 

Among the old residents of the city who were presented at the 
reception was Solomon Burritt. He lived and died in the small 
brick house on lower Market street about opposite the end of 
Clark street During the war of the Revolution he served under 
Lafayette, and when it came Burritt's time to be presented to 
his old commanding officer, they fell into each other's arms and 
kissed and shed tears of joy and comradeship. 

One incident occurred during the reception that served to re- 
lieve the proceedings of any stiffness which might have appeared. 
Captain John C. Parker, of Charlestown, had brought his militia 
company down to Jeffersonville to form part of the large military 
escort. During the presentation he took several of his men up 
to be introduced. One strapping young miltiaman stepped for- 
ward to shake the General's hand and politely raised his hat, 
when out fell several large crackers which he had thoughtfully 
provided for a lunch. The General adroitly relieved him of his 



GENERAL LAFA YETTE IN INDIANA 197 

embarrassment aod mortification by congratulating him as a 
^ood soldier who carried his rations with him. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon Lafayette was conducted to 
dinner under a military escort accompanied by a band of music. 
The table was handsomely prepared under an arbor, about 220 
feet in length, well covered and ornamented throughout with 
the verdure and foliage of the forests, among which roses and 
other flowers were tastefully interwoven by the ladies of Jeflfer- 
sonville. This table was set in the woods just above the 
Governor's house, about 100 feet above Fort street, and in con- 
structing the arbor or covering, as was usual at that day on 
such occasions, the branches of the surrounding beech trees were 
used. Mr. Burdette C. Pile, later Mayor of Jeflfersonville, then 
a young man and the owner of a fine yoke of oxen, used his ox 
rig in transporting the brush from the near woodlands to the 
scene of festivity, an incident which he was proud of relating 
to the day of his death. 

At the head of the table was hung a transparent painting on 
which was inscribed, ^'Indiana welcomes Lafayette, thechampi- 
on of liberty in both hemispheres," over which was a flag bear- 
ing the arms of the United States. At the foot of the table 
was a similar painting with the following inscription: '^Indiana 
— in 1776 a wilderness; in 1825 a civilized community. Thanks 
to Lafayette and the soldiers of the Revolution." The company 
was honored by the presence of many distinguished gentlemen 
from Kentucky, Tennessee, and other States, among whom were, 
Governor Carroll and suite, Hon. C. A. Wickliflfe, Judges Barry 
and Bledsoe, Attorney General Sharp, Colonel Anderson, the 
Honorable John Rowan, with the Committee of Arrangements of 
Louisville and Jefferson county. Major Wash, Mr. Neilson, etc. 

The dinner was followed by a long list of toasts which con- 
tinued until six o'clock, at which hour Lafayette left the table 
and was re^scorted to the General Pike. Here the committee 
of arrangements from Kentuky resumed the honor of their spe- 
cial attendance, in which they were joined by the Governor of In- 
diana and suite, the Marshals, and the Indiana committee of 
arrangements, who accompanied the guest to Louisville. 



198 



INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 



A FAMOUS CAMPAIGN SON& 

[For the now-forgotten music of this most famous of the old campaign 
songs of 1840 we are indebted to Messrs. Alva O. Reser and J. S. Bergen, 
of Lafajette. The former found a venerable inmate of the Soldiers' 
Home, near Laf ajette, who remembered the air, and from his rendition of 
it the notes were secured and the song reproduced on a phonograph record. 
From this record the music was kindlj re-written for this magazine bj Pro- 
fessor Bergen. It is, perhaps, superfluous to explain that the **Tippe- 
canoe" of the song was W. H. Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe battle, 
who in 1840 was the presidential candidate, and that **little Van" was the 
opposing candidate, Martin Van Buren. The **hard cider" campaign, 
unique in its character, was one of frolic and songs, and this song, with 
others, was roared by untold thousands of Whigs from one end of the 
country to the other. — Editor, \ 

TIPPECANOB AND TYLER TOO. 




^ 



^Nhat ho6 couced tht^ great com - mo- Lion 




^^ 



\ N 




mo'tiorif mo-tion. Our country through ft 




^^ 



iS the ball Q-roll-tng on, For TJp - pe - ca 




^^ 



^ 



^ 



noe and 7y- ler too . T^ip -pe- oa noe and 




^^ 



n=J^ 



7y-/er CoO: Anc( with them vue'll beat 




' n J. J 



I it 'tie l/an, !/an, i/an /s a U6ed up man; 




And \A/tth then we'll beat lit-t/e l/an. 



A FAMOUS CAMPAIGN SONG 199 

Like the rushing of mighty waters, waters, waters, 

On it will go, 
And in its course will clear the way 

For Tippecanoe and Tyler too. 
And with them we'll beat little Van, Van! 
Van is a used-up man; 
And with them we"ll beat little Van I 

Don't you hear from every quarter, quarter, quarter, 

Good news and true — 
That swift the ball is rolling on for 

Tippecanoe, etc. 

Now you hear the Vanjacks whispering, whispering, whis- 
pering. 

Things look quite blue. 
For all the world seems turning rotmd for 

Tippecanoe, etc. 

Let them talk about hard cider, cider, cider. 

Log cabins too; 
'Twill only help to speed the ball for 

Tippecanoe, etc. 

Little Matty's days are numbered, numbered, numbered, 

Out he must go. 
And in the chair we'll put the good old 

Tippecanoe, etc. 

Who, then, shall we send to Congress, Congress, Congress? 

Who, tell me who? 
Why, honest freemen, sound, true friends of 

Tippecanoe, etc. 

And when they get there, I can tell you, tell you, tell you. 

What they will do — 
They'll make good laws and have them sealed with 

Tippecanoe, etc 



INDIANA QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Gborgb S. Cottman , Editor and Publisher, 

EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

BRRORS CORRBCTBD. 

An article on John D. Defrees in our last issue was there ac- 
credited to Mr. Berry Sulgrove as the author. This we inferred, 
and the inference was reasonable from the material in our pos- 
session, but it was an error. The article from which we drew, 
anonymously published at the time of Mr. Defrees' death, was 
written by Mr. Morris Ross, of the Indianapolis News, The date 
of Mr. Defrees' death, given as 1892, should have read 1882. 
This simply was a typographical error that escaped in the proof 
reading. Our attenion is called, also, to a sentence in the 
article on **Early Newspapers" which seems to question the date 
of founding of the Richmond Palladium, We did not mean to 
discredit the claim that it was founded in 1831, but the claim 
that it was the oldest now existing in the State, barring the 
Vincennes Sun, Others claim dates earlier than 1831. 

LAPORTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. R. B. Oglesbee, of Laporte, Ind., writes: 

"By the formation in January, 1906, of the Laporte County 
Historical Society there is one more to add to your list of local 
historical associations in this State. We are holding interest- 
ing monthly meetings and a good collection of local historical 
matter is being accumulated.' 



»» 



REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS. 

The above correspondent also supplies us with the names of 
several Revolutionary soldiers buried in Laporte county. These 
are: Hezekiah Smith, Door Village; Clark Burlingame, Door 
Village; Henry Van Dalsem, Kankakee township; Abijah Bige- 
low, Michigan City; Simon Wheeler, Law's cemetery. Cool 
Spring township. 



EDITORIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 201 

We are in receipt of two anonymous communications, one, and 
probably both of which, come from the Lafayette Post of the 
D. A. R. These, covering- the same ground, state that Nathaniel 
Richmond, father of Dr. John L. Richmond, one of the pioneer 
physicians of Indianapolis, is buried in a private family grave- 
yard on his own farm at Pendleton, Ind. He was bom in Taun- 
ton, Mass., in 1760; enlisted at the age of fifteen or sixteen, and 
served in the 2d Massachusetts Volunteers. He married Susan- 
nah Lambert. After the war he moved to Chesterfield, Mass., 
and later to Herkimer, N. Y., finally coming- to the new State 
of Indiana, where he took up land at Pendleton. He died Sept.* 
1, 1829. His discharge from the army was signed by Greorge 
Washington, 1783. Another son was Rev. Nathaniel Richmond, 
and a grandson was Dr. Corydon Richmond, surgeon from Indi- 
ana in the Civil war, who recently died at Kokomo, Ind., at the 
age of ninety-eight years. 

LOCAL HISTORY CONTRIBUTIONS. 

William Wells^ Indian Captive. — In the Fort Wayne Journal' 
Gazette for August 12, 1906, Prank Dildine tells the romantic 
story of William Wells who, taken captive by the Indians when 
a small boy, was reared among the Miamis. He and the famous 
Little Turtle grew up together as close friends; he married the 
sister of Little Turtle, and when the latter became chief he made 
his friend his trusted lieutenant in the warfare with the whites 
* preceding Wayne's campaign. Before Wayne's incursion Wells 
went back to his people in Kentucky, parting amicably with his 
foster brethren, and he joined the expedition against them that 
resulted in their subjugation. After the treaty of Greenville he 
remained at Fdrt Wayne, resuming relations with his Indian 
family and their people. He was massacred by hostile Indians 
near Fort Dearborn, in 1812. A letter describing the affair, 
written by one of Wells' companions and but recently made pub- 
lic, is published in Mr. Dildine's article. 

The Betrayal of Ensign Holmes. — The above writer in the same 
publication, date July 22, 1906, narrates another romance of 
Indian life — that of ensign Holmes, the young English officer in 
command of Fort Miami (where Fort Wayne stands) in 1763, 



202 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

and who was decoyed to his death and his garrison captured 
through the agency of his Indian mistress. The story in its sub- 
stance is not new, but Mr. Dildine dwells upon it more circum- 
stantially than preceding historians, one of his sources of infor- 
mation being an aged resident of Fort Wayne, Mrs. Laura Sut- 
tenfield, who saw and talked to the Indian woman in the case« 
when the latter was very old. She disclaimed being a guilty 
party to the plot and implied that she had been avenged on the 
slayers of her lover. 

HISTORICAL INTEREST IN WHITLEY COUNTY. 

An intended notice of the historical interest manifested in 
Whitley county was crowded out of our last issue. This interest 
expresses itself in an annual **01d Settlers' Day" in which the 
county at large seems to participate. The occasion in 1905 drew 
together something like 6000 people, and while the meeting last 
summer (Aug. 16) was not so large, the county seat, Columbia 
City, was given over to it. One feature was the presence, as 
griests of honor, of ^the granddaughter and great-grandson of 
the famous Miami Indian, Little Turtle. The former, Mrs. 
Anthony Revarre, is now ninety-six years old, and she and her 
son Anthony Revarre, respectively named, in their own lan- 
guage, '*Kil-so-quah" and "White Loon," belong to the few lin- 
gering representatives of an almost vanished race, and their 
neighbors of the succeeding race have done well to honor them. 
Kilsoquah, it is affirmed, is the last full-blood Miami Indian in 
the State, all others having a strain of Caucasian blood. 

The interest in this direction among the Whitley county people 
was still more strikingly exemplified the past summer by a com- 
pany of more than one hundred devoting a day and going in a 
body on an exploring expedition to establish, if possible, certain 
land marks, and verify certain traditions of Indian times in a re- 
gion rich with Indian history. This, we understand, was in the 
interest of a history of Whitley county now in course of prepar- 
ation. Space permitting, we would be glad to reprint the local 
account of this expedition, but we can only note and call atten- 
tion to the very commendable spirit in Whitley county, which 
we trust will ''grow by what it feeds upon." 



NEWSPAPER INDEX 203 



NEWSPAPER INDEX. 

INDIANA JOURNA]>-SEOOND INSTALBSENT^ 



Bad roads and mails. — Jan. 3. 

Art: First portrait painter (R. Terrell). — March 27. 

Paper mill at Madison. — May 8. 

White river, navigability of. — May IS. 

Indians, treaty with "Thornton band." — ^June 5. 

Library movement. — ^June 12. (Also July 3). 

Roads and highways (series, begfinning-) — ^June 12. 

Abel C. Pepper, sketch of. — July 17. 

Canals (series, beginning) — Aug. 28. 

Emigration to Wabash county. — Oct. 2. 

Fire company, first. — Oct. 23. 

Bible society; annual report. — Nov. 20. 

Governor James B. Ray, inaugural speech. — Dec. 13. 

Temperance Society (ad.) — Dec. 17. 

Agent of State for Indianapolis, report of. — Dec. 20. 



State House, proposed location of (communication). — Jan. 21. 

Sunday mails. — Feb. 12. 

Nomenclature: Lafayette and Indian names of several 
streams. — March 5. 

Grape culture. — April 16. 

Indian lands, disposition of, etc. — April 16. 

Sabbath schools in Marion county. — May 14. 

**Message" to the '^Indianapolis legislature." — May 21. 

Tract Society, report of. — May 21. 

Fourth of July, Sabbath school celebration and address by 
Jas. Morrison. — July 9. 

Sale of pews (ad.) — July 9. 

Astronomy: "Anti-Newtonian" system; lecture by John Rich- 
ardson, endorsed by James B. Ray and W. W. Wick. — July 30. 

Female school; terms per quarter. — July 30. 






204 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 

Cumberland (National) Road; advertisement for proposals, 
with names of those who had not relinquished land. — Sept. 3. 
(Much discussion of this road about this time.) 

Log-ansport, description of, and first newspaper. — Sept. 10. 

Immigration to New Purchase (ed.) — Sept. 17. 

Temperance Society. — Dec. 3. (Also Dec. 8.) 

Tippecanoe Battleground, contemplated sale of. — Dec. 3. 

1830— 

Indian affairs; address by Milton Stapp. — Feb. 17. 

Indian affairs; address by Graham (Subject: Extending' 

the laws of the State over the Indian tribes.) — Feb. 24. 

* ^Indianapolis Legislature," oration by Samuel Merrill. — 
March 3. 

''Indianapolis Legislature." — Feb. 17. 

Bible Society, address before by Dr. Coe. — ^May 12. 

Indians, removal of and cost to States. — ^July 7. 

First menagerie, advertising the **kinkajou," etc. — July 21. 

* 'Grand menagerie," with a "rompo." — ^Aug. 18. 

Colonization Society. — Sept. 1. (Also Sept. 8). 

Immigration. — Sept. 8. 

James B. Ray, communication from, with punctuation, etc., 
as it left the writer's hand; literary curiosity. — Sept. 22. 

Tippecanoe Battleground, re-interring of dead. — Sept. 29, 
(Also Nov. 3.) 

Indiana Historical Society. — Dec. IS. (Also Dec. 25.) 

Sales of lots for a number of new towns advertised this year. 

1631— 

Sale of Indianapolis lots by lottery (ad.) — ^Jan. 1. 

Colonization Society. — ^Jan. 26. 

Medical Society. — Jan. 26. 

Portrait painter at Indianapolis (ad.) — Feb. 2. 

Wild Man: good story. — Feb. 5. 

''Indianapolis Legislature." — March 12. 

James Noble, death of. — March 12. (Also March 19). 

White River, navigation of. — ^March 26. (Arrival of steam- 
boat, "Greneral Hanna.") 

Donation land, sale of. — ^April 30. 

Noah Noble, circular announcing candidacy for Governor's of- 
fice. — May 7. 



NEWSPAPER INDEX 205 

State House, plans advertised for. — May 21. 

Literary Society. — June 4. 

National Road bridge, bids advertised for. — ^June 11. 

Ray, James B., letter from. — ^June 18. 

Cumberland Road, proposals for (ad.) — June 18. 

Cumberland Road, sale of lots advertised. — ^June 18. 

Ryland T. Brown, oration by. — July 23. 

Michigan Road lands, sale of (ad.) — July 23. 

Soda fountain, first. — July 23. 

National Road bridge, letting of contract. — Aug. 6. 

Court House square, enclosing of. — Sept. 17. 

Market House, ad. for meeting to consider. — Sept. 24. 

Temperance Society. — Oct. IS. 

Historical Society. — Dec. 14. 

Michigan Road lands, sale of. — Aug. 13. 

State House, plans submitted for (ed.) — Dec. 31. 

1632— 

Canal Bill. — Jan. 11. 

Canal Bill, debate on. — Jan. 18. 

State House.— Feb. 25. 

Railroad meeting. — March 10. 

Lyceum of Indianapolis. — March 17. 

Market House meeting. — March 24. 

Lyceum. — April 7. 

Market House. — April 7. 

Lyceum. — May 26. 

Indian War, rumor of (Black Hawk.) — ^June 3. 

Indian scare, call for Indiana company. — June 9. 

Indian War. — June 16, June 23. 

Colonization Society. — June 23. 

Indian War. — ^June 30. 

Michigan Road. — June 30. 

Indian War, return of soldiers. — ^July 7. 

Market House, finished. — Aug. 11. 

Canal lands, sale of. — Sept. 1. 

Wabash, improvement of. — Sept. 8, Sept. IS, Sept. 22. 

Cumberland Road. — Oct. 6. 



r 
# 
r 

I 



/ 



206 INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 



Indianapolis Legislature. — ^Jan. 2. 
Colonization Society, address.-^Jan. 5, Jan« 12* 
'Indianapolis Legislature."— Feb* 16, 
Wabash Canal.— April 6. 

Drowning of McPherson by Van Blaricnm (first homicide.)- 
May 11. 
Remarkable girl (medium. )-^May 25. 
Colonization Society. — ^June 22. 
Wabash Canal. — ^July 13* 

Thompson, R. W., 4th of July Oration. — ^July 20. 
Michigan Road (ad.) — Aug. 10. 
Books, list of sold (ad.) — Aug. 10. 
Star shower. — ^Nov. 16. 
"New Novels" (ad.)— Nov. 23. 
Far West, village of (ad.)— Dec. 14. 
Wabash Canal. — Dec. 21. 



INDEX 

INDIANA QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF HI^ORY^ 

VOLUME IL 



Animals, Wild, of Indiana « i . « • . i • 13 

Banta, D. D* (See Schools.) 

Bolton, Nathaniel, and George Smith ..«...•....*«»..<•• 181 

Brown, Austin H.: **The First Printers in Indianapolis • • . < ISl 

Defrees, John D., Sketch of .«.< •«.»•• . Ili7 

Documents, Some Old Indianapolis 4.««. i . .<.....«•.• . 37 

Fletcher Journals. (Series, See Early Indianapolis.) 

Friends' Memorial Against Bearing Arms < ..«<««•... i « « 87 

Frigate Constitution, Preservation of «•••«..••*«...• « • . 108 

Furs, Prices of 14 

Fur Traders, Early, of Indiana 1 

Genealogy: The Poindexter Family. . . 4 « • • « . 106 

Hanway, Amos, Reminiscences of . ............«...•.«<.«. «...« 88 

Historical Societies, Local »•« ««•.«<«...•«•.•••«•. 68« 101« 801 

Hoover, David, Memoir of ...<»•....««...<•••. i •. < 17 

Index of Indiana Journal •«.«.•*..«• »«..«•. i ..«*«.. . 151, 808 

Indianapolis, Old Documents of , 87 

Indianapolis, Early (Series from Fletcher Journals) 89, 73, 187, 187 

Indianapolis, Population Chart of. Frontispiece for March number. 

Iowa, What They Are Doing in 50 

Indian Mounds in DeKalb County 56 

Julian, George W., Sketch of by his Daughter 67 

Julian, GJeorge W., Autobiography of 70 

Local History Contributions — pp. 53-56: Post Vincennee, The True Site 
of Fort Knox, The George Lay Raid, Anti-Slavery Heroes of Old New- 
port, New Harmony Documents, Genesis of Methodism in Richmond, 
The Story of Edward Swanson; pp. 103-106: Moravian Mission on 
White River, Union Literary Society, Baber's History of Green 
County; pp. 160-168: Reminiscences of an Indianian, Reminiscences 
of Early Indianapolis, Early Newspapers of Richmond, Old Fort near 
Richmond; p. 801: William Wells, Indian Captive; The Betrayal of 
Ensign Holmes. 

Lafayette, General, in Indiana 196 

Lasselle, C. B.: **01d Fur Traders of Indiana" 1 

Military Circular of 1818 186 

National Road Bridge at Indianapolis, Building of 39 



7 

\ 



' / 



y 



208 INDEX 

National Road, Early Work On ^ iO 

Navigable Streams, List of 04 

Newspapers, Early Indiana 107 

Newspapers and Public Libraries 158 

Newspaper Index 151^ 909 

Printers, First in Indianapolis 121 

Printing Press, First Steam in Indianapolis (With Frontispiece for Sep- 
tember number) 157 

Reminiscences of Amos Hanway 39 

Revolutionary Soldiers, Oraves of, in Indiana 97, 159, 900 

Richmond Laid Off and Named by David Hoover 24 

River Navigation in Indiana 89 

Schools, Early, of Indiana (Series by D. D . Banta) 41, 81, 131, 191 

Settlers' Meetiiog, First 28 

Snow FaU in 1869 ^ 106 

Squirrel Burgoo *..... 16 

Sulgpove, Berry, Sketch of 139 

Tippecanoe, Battle of (Accountof Isaac Naylor) 163 • 

Tippecanoe Battleground, Map of (Frontispiece for December number). 

Tippecanoe Campaign (Journal of John Tipton). . 170 

Tippecanoe, line of March to. Map. (Frontispiece for December uum^ 
ber.) 

Tippecanoe and l^ler Too (Song, with music) 196 

Tipton, John, Tippecanoe Journal of 170 

Twelve-Mile Purchase, First Settlers in 26 

Wabash River, Navigation on 93 

Wayne County, First Old Settlers' Meeting in 21 




Editorial and MiecellaDPoua: Errore Corrected, SOO: La- 
porte County Hietoriual Society, 200; Revolutionary 
Sokiiers, 200; Local History Contributions, 201; Hia- 
toriuBl Intprest in Whitley County, 202. 

Index to Indiana Journal. . 

Index to MagHzine— Vol. II. 



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B^oks of Dalu^ Bought, ^otd anti, Exchanged 

A ^embroKci Aroadle^ Indianapolis 



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Cottman's Historx PampKlets 



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dPheaip Pamphlets, containing in separate fbrm papers 
t;hat have appeared in the Indiana Magazine of History, 
inay be had for 10 cents per number. 

^6w Hj^ady 

Mo. I. The Richmond and Brook^Ue C»D4l» vad ReoollectionB 
of Early BrookyiUe. 

Ho. in. The Old Indian Traders of Indiana. 

Ito. IV. The Memoir of David Hoover. 

tfo. VII. Qeorge W. Julian: A sketch by his daughter. 

Ho. Vm. River Navigation in Indiana. 



3ent poetnaid on receipt of price by Qbo. S. Oottmak, 336 North Ritter Ave., 

TiMliMn Alalia . Inn. 



/ 



To Subscribers 

The subscriptions for 1906 expire with 
this number. 

Subscriptions are not renewed unless 
continuance is ordered. 

We solicit your support for 1907, and 
hope soon to receive your renewal. 

Attention is particularly called to the 
importance of prompt rbmittancb. The 
publishing' expenses have to be met when 
the work is done, and money that is cam" 
ing does not satisfy the printer. More- 
over, the mag'azine is conducted with ab- 
solutely no margin for extra expenses, 
and the sending of bills is that much 
dead loss. Therefore it is respectfully 
asked that subscribers be considerate in 
this respect. 

Address all communications to 

Geo. S. Cottman, 

336 N. Ritter Ave., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 






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INDIANA IN 1611. 




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GENBRAL HARRISON'S I^INE OF MARCH 

prom Vlttcennea to the Prophet's Town, in 1811. Chart prepared by Prof. W. D. 

Pence, of Pordne UniTersitjr. 



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